AEG turbine factory

The AEG turbine factory was built around 1909, at Huttenstraße 12-16 in the Berlin district of Moabit. It is the best-known work of architect Peter Behrens.[1] It is an influential and well-known example of industrial architecture. Its revolutionary design features 100m long and 15m tall glass and steel walls on either side. It was a bold move and world first that would have a durable impact on architecture as a whole.

Berlin AEG Turbinenfabrik
Shape and height of the building axis are given by the three joint ties.
Stamps of Germany (Berlin) 1987, MiNr 774
750 Jahre Berlin, Poststamp;1987

Origin

The site was since 1892, occupied by the electrical company founded by August Thyssen and the Thomson Houston Electric Company, the Union-Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft (UEG). The company's goal was to get into the booming electrical industry, and this site was dedicated to the production of electric trams. But the company quickly encountered financial difficulties, and the Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft (AEG) took over in 1904 and planned the construction of a new turbine factory, as the existing factory had become too small.

The architect Peter Behrens was commissioned with the construction of the new building. More than an architect, Behrens was employed from 1907 by AEG as an artistic consultant[1] and designed the company logo, and other company graphics for the building. He was also in charge of the overall image of the company. Initially influenced by the developing Art Nouveau, the architect turned soon to the Werkbund, which in turn was influenced by the British Arts and Crafts.

Construction

AEG-Turbinenfabrik Schild
Plaque on the AEG-Turbinenfabrik

The turbine hall was built in 1909 under Peter Behrens as lead architect and engineer Karl Bernhard[1] at the corner of Huttenstraße and Berlichingenstraße streets in Berlin-Moabit. The building mainly consists of steel components, glass, and stone. The original building measures 25.6 m + 12.5 m in width, a height of 25 m and a length of 123 m. Behrens' design provided a neo-classical look to the industrial building, with weighty (but non-functional) gable ends and trabeated 'columns' to either side.[1] David Watkin describes it as a "temple of power".[1] Similarly, Tom Wilkinson likens it to an "up-to-date edition of the Parthenon".[2]

In 1939, Jacob Schallberger and Paul Schmidt designed an extension of the hall to the north. The whole building was developed to function as a production site for turbines. It is now part of Siemens, which still operates a gas turbine plant there. This factory was actually designed with such foresight that it still serves the same purpose of producing turbines, a hundred years later.

The other factories that AEG had at that time, mostly known as "crenellated castle-cities", were places where technology occurred in a dowdy coat of historicist design. Among the requirements and expectations of the AEG was the intent to design an impressive and sophisticated, large scale construction. Peter Behrens created an architecture for the industry that came out of the clamp of hiding behind historic facades and transformed itself into a new self-confidence.

Since 1956 the building has been classified as a protected historical monument, and it underwent a restoration in 1978. On the south side there is a plaque with information about the construction, architects, and heritage status.

Literature

  • Landesdenkmalamt Berlin (Hrsg.), Jürgen Tomisch (Bearb.): Deutsche Denkmaltopographie, Denkmale in Berlin, Bezirk Mitte, Ortsteile Moabit, Hansaviertel und Tiergarten. Michael Imhof Verlag, Petersberg 2005, ISBN 3-86568-035-6, pages 292–298.
  • William J. R. Curtis: Moderne Architektur seit 1900, englische Erstausgabe von 1982, 2002
  • Peter Behrens: Umbautes Licht, Munchen, 1990
  • F. Neumeyer, T. Buddensieg, H. Rogge, u. a., Industriekultur – Peter Behrens und die AEG 1907–1914, 1993
  • Herbert Kurth, Aribert Kutschmar: Baustilfibel, Berlin, 1964
  • Epochen der Kunst. Unterrichtswerk in vier Banden, Band 4, München, 1989, page 176
  • Jan Gympel: Geschichte der Architektur, Koln, 1996
  • Jürgen Tomisch: Bezirk Mitte. Ortsteile Moabit, Hansaviertel und Tiergarten, Petersberg, 2005
  • Louis Sullivan: The tall office building artistically considered, Lippincott's Magazine, Marz 1896

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Watkin, David (1996). The History of Western Architecture (Second ed.). Laurence King Publishing. pp. 508–509. ISBN 1-85669-082-2.
  2. ^ Wilkinson, Tom (2014). Bricks and Mortals. New York: Bloomsbury Press. p. 126. ISBN 978-1-62040-629-8.

External links

Coordinates: 52°31′42″N 13°19′28″E / 52.52833°N 13.32444°E

AEG

Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft AG (AEG) (German: "General electricity company") was a German producer of electrical equipment founded as the Deutsche Edison-Gesellschaft für angewandte Elektricität in 1883 in Berlin by Emil Rathenau. After World War II its headquarters moved to Frankfurt am Main.

In 1967 AEG joined with its subsidiary Telefunken AG creating Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft AEG-Telefunken. In 1985 Daimler-Benz purchased the AEG-Telefunken Aktiengesellschaft, which was renamed to AEG Aktiengesellschaft and wholly integrated the company in 1996 into Daimler-Benz AG (1998:DaimlerChrysler). The remains of AEG became part of Adtranz (today Bombardier Transportation) and Deutsche Aerospace (1998: DASA, today Airbus).

After acquiring the AEG household subsidiary AEG Hausgeräte GmbH in 1994, in 2005 Electrolux obtained the rights to the brand name AEG, which it now uses on some of its products. The AEG name is also licensed to various brand partners under the Electrolux Global Brand Licensing program.

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The kind of human activity for which lighting is to be provided

The amount of light required

The color of the light as it may affect the views of particular objects and the environment as a whole

The distribution of light within the space to be lighted, whether indoor or outdoor

The effect of the lightened system itself on the userThe objective of lighting design is the human response, to see clearly and without discomfort. The objective of architectural lighting design is to further the design of architecture or the experience of buildings and other physical structures.

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Barclay Curle

Seawind Barclay Curle is a British shipbuilding company.

Bauhaus

The Staatliches Bauhaus (German: [ˈʃtaːtlɪçəs ˈbaʊˌhaʊs] (listen)), commonly known as the Bauhaus, was a German art school operational from 1919 to 1933 that combined crafts and the fine arts, and was famous for the approach to design that it publicized and taught.The Bauhaus was founded by Walter Gropius in Weimar. The German term Bauhaus—literally "building house"—was understood as meaning "School of Building", but in spite of its name and the fact that its founder was an architect, the Bauhaus did not have an architecture department during its first years of existence. Nonetheless, it was founded with the idea of creating a "total" work of art (Gesamtkunstwerk) in which all arts, including architecture, would eventually be brought together. The Bauhaus style later became one of the most influential currents in modern design, Modernist architecture and art, design and architectural education. The Bauhaus had a profound influence upon subsequent developments in art, architecture, graphic design, interior design, industrial design, and typography.The school existed in three German cities: Weimar from 1919 to 1925, Dessau from 1925 to 1932, and Berlin from 1932 to 1933, under three different architect-directors: Walter Gropius from 1919 to 1928, Hannes Meyer from 1928 to 1930, and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe from 1930 until 1933, when the school was closed by its own leadership under pressure from the Nazi regime, having been painted as a centre of communist intellectualism. Although the school was closed, the staff continued to spread its idealistic precepts as they left Germany and emigrated all over the world.The changes of venue and leadership resulted in a constant shifting of focus, technique, instructors, and politics. For example, the pottery shop was discontinued when the school moved from Weimar to Dessau, even though it had been an important revenue source; when Mies van der Rohe took over the school in 1930, he transformed it into a private school, and would not allow any supporters of Hannes Meyer to attend it.

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German Empire

The German Empire (German: Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich), also known as Imperial Germany, was the German nation state that existed from the unification of Germany in 1871 until the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1918.

It was founded in 1871 when the south German states, except for Austria, joined the North German Confederation. On 1 January 1871, the new constitution came into force that changed the name of the federal state and introduced the title of emperor for Wilhelm I, King of Prussia from the House of Hohenzollern. Berlin remained its capital, and Otto von Bismarck remained Chancellor, the head of government. As these events occurred, the Prussian-led North German Confederation and its southern German allies were still engaged in the Franco-Prussian War.

The German Empire consisted of 26 states, most of them ruled by royal families. They included four kingdoms, six grand duchies, five duchies (six before 1876), seven principalities, three free Hanseatic cities, and one imperial territory. Although Prussia was one of several kingdoms in the realm, it contained about two thirds of Germany's population and territory. Prussian dominance was also established constitutionally.

After 1850, the states of Germany had rapidly become industrialized, with particular strengths in coal, iron (and later steel), chemicals, and railways. In 1871, Germany had a population of 41 million people; by 1913, this had increased to 68 million. A heavily rural collection of states in 1815, the now united Germany became predominantly urban. During its 47 years of existence, the German Empire was an industrial, technological, and scientific giant, gaining more Nobel Prizes in science than any other country. By 1900, Germany was the largest economy in Europe, surpassing the United Kingdom, as well as the second-largest in the world, behind only the United States.From 1867 to 1878/9, Otto von Bismarck's tenure as the first and to this day longest reigning Chancellor was marked by relative liberalism, but it became more conservative afterwards. Broad reforms and the Kulturkampf marked his period in the office. Late in Bismarck's chancellorship and in spite of his personal opposition, Germany became involved in colonialism. Claiming much of the leftover territory that was yet unclaimed in the Scramble for Africa, it managed to build the third-largest colonial empire after the British and the French ones. As a colonial state, it sometimes clashed with other European powers, especially the British Empire.

Germany became a great power, boasting a rapidly developing rail network, the world's strongest army, and a fast-growing industrial base. In less than a decade, its navy became second only to Britain's Royal Navy. After the removal of Otto von Bismarck by Wilhelm II in 1890, the Empire embarked on Weltpolitik – a bellicose new course that ultimately contributed to the outbreak of World War I. In addition, Bismarck's successors were incapable of maintaining their predecessor's complex, shifting, and overlapping alliances which had kept Germany from being diplomatically isolated. This period was marked by various factors influencing the Emperor's decisions, which were often perceived as contradictory or unpredictable by the public. In 1879, the German Empire consolidated the Dual Alliance with Austria-Hungary, followed by the Triple Alliance with Italy in 1882. It also retained strong diplomatic ties to the Ottoman Empire. When the great crisis of 1914 arrived, Italy left the alliance and the Ottoman Empire formally allied with Germany.

In the First World War, German plans to capture Paris quickly in the autumn of 1914 failed. The war on the Western Front became a stalemate. The Allied naval blockade caused severe shortages of food. However, Imperial Germany had success on the Eastern Front; it occupied a large amount of territory to its east following the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. The German declaration of unrestricted submarine warfare in early 1917, contributed to bringing the United States into the war.

The high command under Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff increasingly controlled the country, but in October after the failed offensive in spring 1918, the German armies were in retreat, allies Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire had collapsed, and Bulgaria had surrendered. The Empire collapsed in the November 1918 Revolution with the abdications of its monarchs. This left a postwar federal republic and a devastated and unsatisfied populace, which later led to the rise of Adolf Hitler and Nazism.

Moabit

Moabit (German pronunciation: [moaˈbiːt]) is an inner city locality in the borough of Mitte, Berlin, Germany. As of 2016, around 77,000 people lived in Moabit. First inhabited in 1685 and incorporated into Berlin in 1861, the former industrial and working class neighbourhood is fully surrounded by three watercourses which define its present-day border. Between 1945 and 1990, Moabit was part of the British sector of West Berlin directly bordering East Berlin.

Colloquially, the name Moabit also refers to the Central Criminal Court (Strafgericht) and detention centre, which deals with all criminal cases in Berlin and is based in Moabit.

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Modern architecture, or modernist architecture was based upon new and innovative technologies of construction, particularly the use of glass, steel and reinforced concrete; the idea that form should follow function; an embrace of minimalism; and a rejection of ornament.

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This list includes the participants, associates and helpers of the resistance groups, which were designated by the Gestapo with the collective term Red Orchestra (German: Die Rote Kapelle) or the Red Chapel as it was known in Germany, and included the persons who were arrested by the Gestapo. As the SS-Sonderkommando also took action against information networks within Switzerland, people who worked there are included here.

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Peter Behrens (14 April 1868 – 27 February 1940) was a German architect and designer. He was important to the modernist movement, and several of the movement's leading names (including Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier and Walter Gropius) worked for him in earlier stages of their careers.

Timeline of Berlin

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The Tri-Ergon sound-on-film system was developed from around 1919 by three German inventors, Josef Engl (1893–1942), Joseph Massolle (1889–1957), and Hans Vogt (1890–1979).

The system used a photoelectric recording method and a non-standard film size (42mm) which incorporated the sound track with stock 35mm film. With a Swiss backer, the inventors formed Tri-Ergon AG in Zurich, and tried to interest the market with their invention.

There were a number of companies which used the Tri-Ergon name:

Tri-Ergon AG (Zurich, Switzerland), acquired the rights to the original 1919 patents from the inventors in 1923

Tri-Ergon-Musik AG (St. Gallen, Switzerland), founded c1926, held the patents for the rest of the world outside Germany

Tri-Ergon-Musik AG (Berlin), which made phonograph records and owned the patents for Germany, formed in 1927: a subsidiary or branch of the St. Gallen company

Tri-Ergon-Photo-Electro-Records (Berlin), a record label subsidiary of Tri-Ergon-Musik AG (Berlin)Ufa acquired the German sound film rights for the Tri-Ergon process in 1925, but dropped the system when the public showing of their first sound film suffered technical failures.

The Tri-Ergon system appeared at a time when a number of other sound film processes were arriving on the market, and the company soon merged with a number of competitors to form the Tobis syndicate in 1928, joined by the Klangfilm AG syndicate in 1929 and renamed as Tobis-Klangfilm by 1930. While Tri-Ergon became the dominant sound film process in Germany and much of Europe through its use by Tobis-Klangfilm, American film companies were still squabbling over their respective patents. For a time Tri-Ergon successfully blocked all American attempts to show their sound films in Germany and other European countries, until a loose cartel was formed under an agreement in Paris in 1930.

However, William Fox of the Fox Film Corporation acquired the US rights for the Tri-Ergon system and, backed by Tri-Ergon AG, began a patent infringement battle in the courts in 1929 against much of the American film industry. The dispute wasn't settled until 1935, when Fox lost his final appeal in the US Supreme Court. A new Paris accord was signed in March 1936, which held until the start of the Second World War. The Tri-Ergon system continued in use in Germany and the continent during the war.

Wales Empire Pool

The Wales Empire Pool, known locally as the Empire Pool, was an international standard swimming pool building, located in Cardiff, Wales from 1958 until it was demolished in 1998. It was a centrepiece for the 1958 British Empire and Commonwealth Games.

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