AD 69

AD 69 (LXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Augustus and Rufinus (or, less frequently, year 822 Ab urbe condita). The denomination AD 69 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Millennium: 1st millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
AD 69 in various calendars
Gregorian calendarAD 69
LXIX
Ab urbe condita822
Assyrian calendar4819
Balinese saka calendarN/A
Bengali calendar−524
Berber calendar1019
Buddhist calendar613
Burmese calendar−569
Byzantine calendar5577–5578
Chinese calendar戊辰(Earth Dragon)
2765 or 2705
    — to —
己巳年 (Earth Snake)
2766 or 2706
Coptic calendar−215 – −214
Discordian calendar1235
Ethiopian calendar61–62
Hebrew calendar3829–3830
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat125–126
 - Shaka SamvatN/A
 - Kali Yuga3169–3170
Holocene calendar10069
Iranian calendar553 BP – 552 BP
Islamic calendar570 BH – 569 BH
Javanese calendarN/A
Julian calendarAD 69
LXIX
Korean calendar2402
Minguo calendar1843 before ROC
民前1843年
Nanakshahi calendar−1399
Seleucid era380/381 AG
Thai solar calendar611–612
Tibetan calendar阳土龙年
(male Earth-Dragon)
195 or −186 or −958
    — to —
阴土蛇年
(female Earth-Snake)
196 or −185 or −957

Events

By place

Roman Empire

Deaths

60s

== Events ==

=== AD 60 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

The Roxolani are defeated on the Danube by the Romans.

Emperor Nero sends an expedition to explore the historical city Meroë (Sudan).

Vitellius is (possibly) proconsul of Africa.

Agrippa II of the Herodians rules the northeast of Judea.

The following events in Roman Britain (Britannia) take place in 60 or 61:

Gaius Suetonius Paulinus, Roman governor of Britain, captures the island of Mona (Anglesey), the last stronghold of the druids.

Prasutagus, king of the Iceni (in modern East Anglia), dies leaving a will which passes his kingdom to his two daughters and emperor Nero. The Roman army, however, annexes the kingdom as if conquered, depriving the nobles of their hereditary lands and plundering the land. The king's widow, Boudica, is flogged and forced to watch their daughters publicly raped. Roman financiers, including Seneca the Younger, call in their loans.

Boudica leads a rebellion of the Iceni against Roman rule in alliance with the Trinovantes, Cornovii, Durotriges and Celtic Britons. The Iceni and Trinovantes first destroy the Roman capital Camulodunum (Colchester), wipe out the infantry of the Legio IX Hispana (commanded by Quintus Petillius Cerialis) and go on to burn Londinium (London) (probably destroying London Bridge) and Verulamium (St Albans), in all cases massacring the inhabitants in the thousands.

Paulinus defeats the rebels at the Battle of Watling Street using a flying wedge formation, imposes wide-ranging punishments on native Britons, and the Romanization of Britain continues. Boudica either poisons herself or falls sick and dies.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

The First Epistle of Peter, if by Saint Peter, is probably written between this year and c. AD 64.

Paul of Tarsus journeys to Rome, but is shipwrecked at Malta. He stays for three months and converts Publius, the first Bishop of Malta.

====== Art and science ======

Hero of Alexandria writes Metrica, Mechanics, and Pneumatics.

AD 60–79 – House of the Vettii, Pompeii, is rebuilt.

=== AD 61 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Publius Petronius Turpilianus and Lucius Caesennius Paetus become Roman consuls.

Galba becomes governor of Hispania Tarraconensis.

The following events in Roman Britain (Britannia) take place in 60 or 61:

Gaius Suetonius Paulinus, Roman governor of Britain, captures the island of Mona (Anglesey), the last stronghold of the druids.

Prasutagus, king of the Iceni (in modern East Anglia), dies leaving a will which passes his kingdom to his two daughters and emperor Nero. The Roman army however annexes the kingdom as if conquered, depriving the nobles of their hereditary lands and plundering the land. The king's widow, Boudica, is flogged and forced to watch their daughters publicly raped. Roman financiers, including Seneca the Younger, call in their loans.

Boudica leads a rebellion of the Iceni against Roman rule in alliance with the Trinovantes, Cornovii, Durotriges and Celtic Britons. The Iceni and Trinovantes first destroy the Roman capital Camulodunum (Colchester), wipe out the infantry of the Legio IX Hispana (commanded by Quintus Petillius Cerialis) and go on to burn Londinium (London) (probably destroying London Bridge) and Verulamium (St Albans), in all cases massacring the inhabitants in thousands.

Paulinus defeats the rebels at the Battle of Watling Street using a flying wedge formation, and imposes wide-ranging punishments on native Britons, but is removed from office after an enquiry instituted by Gaius Julius Alpinus Classicianus (appointed procurator 61) and the Romanization of Britain continues. Boudica either poisons herself or falls sick and dies.

=== AD 62 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Emperor Nero marries for the second time, to Poppaea Sabina, ex-wife of Marcus Salvius Otho.

After the death of Burrus and the disgrace of Seneca, Nero is free from their influence and becomes a megalomaniacal artist fascinated by Hellenism and the Orient. Tigellinus becomes Nero's counselor. His rule is highly abusive.

Nero completes the Baths of Nero in Rome.

A great earthquake damages cities in Campania, including Pompeii (February 5).

The Parthians invade Armenia and lay siege to Tigranocerta. The city is well-fortified and garrisoned by the Romans. The assault fails and king Vologases I retreats. Instead, he makes preparations to invade Syria.

Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo strengthens the fortifications on the Euphrates frontier. He builds a strong flotilla of ships equipped with catapults and a wooden bridge across the river, which allows him to establish a foothold on the Parthian shore.

Lucius Caesennius Paetus advances towards Tigranocerta, but by lack of supplies he makes camp for the winter in the fortress at Rhandeia in northwestern Armenia.

Vologases I leads the Parthian army in a full-scale assault on the Euphrates, Legio X Fretensis and men of the other two legions (Legio III Gallica and Legio VI Ferrata) defending the eastern bank of the river, fighting off a desperate attack.

Battle of Rhandeia: The Roman army (two legions) is defeated by the Parthians under king Tiridates I. Paetus surrenders and withdraws his disheveled army to Syria.

A violent storm destroys 200 ships in the port of Portus.

==== By topic ====

====== Arts and sciences ======

Lucan writes a history of the conflict between Julius Caesar and Pompey.

The making of Still Life, a detail of a wall painting from Herculaneum, begins (finished in AD 79). It is now kept at Museo Nazionale in Naples.

====== Religion ======

Paul of Tarsus is imprisoned in Rome (approximate date).

=== AD 63 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Vespasian becomes governor of Africa.

Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo is restored to command after the Roman debacle at the Battle of Rhandeia; he invades Armenia and defeats Tiridates I, who accepts Roman sovereignty; Parthia withdraws from the war.

Pompeii, the city at the foot of Mount Vesuvius, is heavily damaged by a strong earthquake. Fearing an eruption of the volcano, many of the 20,000 inhabitants leave their homes in a panicked flight.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

According to legend, Joseph of Arimathea goes to Glastonbury on the first Christian mission to Britain.

====== Arts and sciences ======

Aulus Cornelius Celsus writes a dictionary (encyclopedia) on the arts and sciences.

=== AD 64 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

July 19 – Great Fire of Rome: A fire begins in the merchant area of Rome and soon burns completely out of control, while emperor Nero allegedly plays his lyre and sings as he watches the blaze from a safe distance. There is no hard evidence to support this claim: fires were very common in Rome at the time. The fire destroys close to one-half of the city and it is officially blamed on the Christians, a small but growing religious movement. Nero is accused of being the arsonist by popular rumour.

Persecution of Christians in Rome begins under Emperor Nero. Peter the Apostle is possibly among those executed.

Nero proposes a new urban planning program based the creation of buildings decorated with ornate porticos, the widening of the streets and the use of open spaces. This plan will not be applied until after his death in 68.

Lyon sends a large sum of money to Rome to aid in the reconstruction. However, during the winter of 64–65, Lyon suffers a catastrophic fire itself, and Nero reciprocates by sending money to Lyon.

Phoenicia becomes part of Syria.

====== Asia ======

The Kushan sack the town of ancient Taxila (in present-day Pakistan).

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

The year the First Epistle of Peter is traditionally believed to be written.

====== Arts and sciences ======

Seneca proclaims the equality of all men, including slaves.

=== AD 65 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

April 19 – The freedman Milichus betrays the Pisonian conspiracy led by Gaius Calpurnius Piso to kill the Roman emperor Nero and all the conspirators are arrested.

Cestius Gallus becomes legate of Syria.

After a stage performance in which he appears and shocks the senatorial class considerably, Nero engages in a series of reprisals against Seneca, Tigellinus, pro-republican senators, and anyone else he distrusts.

Nero kills his pregnant wife, Poppea Sabina, by kicking her stomach.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

The Gospel of Matthew is probably written between 60 and this year.

Paul of Tarsus ordains Timothy as bishop of Ephesus (traditional date).

In China, the first official reference to Buddhism is made.

The first Christian community in Africa is founded by Mark, a disciple of Peter. Mark begins to write his gospel.

Probable martyrdom date of the apostle Thaddeus, also called Saint Jude in Armenia.

Probable martyrdom date of the apostle Simon the Canaanite in Armenia.

=== AD 66 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

September 22 – Emperor Nero creates the Legio Legio I Italica. He appoints Titus Flavius Vespasian legate of the army of Judea and in command of three legions — V Macedonica, X Fretensis and XV Apollinaris.

October – The Jewish Revolt (66–70 AD) commences against the Roman Empire. The Zealots lay siege on Jerusalem and annihilate the Roman garrison (a cohort of Legio III Cyrenaica). The Sicarii capture the fortress of Masada overlooking the Dead Sea.

Mid–late October – Cestius Gallus, legate of Syria, marches into Judea and leads a Roman army of 30,000 men to put down the Jewish rebellion. At its core is Legio XII Fulminata, plus 2,000 picked men from the other three Syrian legions, six more cohorts of infantry and four alae of cavalry, and over 14,000 auxiliaries furnished by Rome's eastern allies, including Herod Agrippa II and two other client kings, Antiochus IV of Commagene and Sohaemus of Emesa, who lead their forces (largely archers and cavalry) in person.

Gallus leads his main force down the coast from Caesarea via Antipatris to Lydda, detaching other units, by land and sea, to neutralize the rebel strongholds at Joppa, Narbata and the Tower of Aphek. With Galilee and the entire Judean coast in his hands, Gallus assumes his campaign before the winter rains render the roads impassable. He turns inland and marches on Jerusalem, taking the road via the plain at Emmaus. Gallus succeeds in conquering Beit She'arim (the "New City") on the Bezetha Hill.

November – Battle of Beth-Horon: Gallus abandons the siege of Jerusalem and chooses, for uncertain reasons, to withdraw west to winter quarters, where he is ambushed and defeated by Judean rebels. Some 5,300 Roman troops are killed, as well as all their pack animals, their artillery (which is to serve the Jews of Jerusalem during Titus's siege operations four years later), and the greatest disgrace of all, the eagle standard of Legio XII Fulminata. Gallus abandons his troops in disarray, fleeing to Syria.

====== Britannia ======

Suetonius Paullinus, governor of Britannia, becomes a Roman Consul.

The Roman Legio II Augusta is stationed at Gloucester.

====== Asia ======

Baekje invades Silla in the Korean Peninsula, and captures Castle Ugok.

==== By topic ====

====== Arts and sciences ======

Dioscorides writes his De Materia Medica, a treatise on the methodical treatment of disease by use of medicine (approximate date).

====== Astronomy ======

Halley's Comet is visible.

====== Religion ======

The First Epistle to Timothy is written (speculative date, if actually written by St. Paul).

=== AD 67 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Vindex revolts, first in a series of revolts that lead to Nero's downfall.

Gaius Licinius Mucianus replaces Cestius Gallus as governor of Syria.

Judea (Roman province): Vespasian arrives in Ptolemais, along with Legio X Fretensis and Legio V Macedonica to put down the Jewish Revolt.

Vespasian is joined by his son Titus, who brings Legio XV Apollinaris from Alexandria. By late spring the Roman army numbers more than 60,000 soldiers, including auxiliaries and troops of king Agrippa II.

Jewish leaders at Jerusalem are divided through a power struggle, a brutal civil war erupts, the Zealots and the Sicarii execute anyone who tries to leave the city.

Siege of Jotapata and massacre of its 40,000 Jewish inhabitants. The historian Josephus, leader of the rebels in Galilee, is captured by the Romans. Vespasian is wounded in the foot by an arrow fired from the city wall.

Fall of the Jewish fortress of Gamla in the Golan to the Romans and massacre of its inhabitants.

Nero travels to Greece, where he participates in the Olympic Games and other festivals.

Sardinia becomes a Roman province.

Nero, jealous of the success of Corbulo in Armenia, orders that he be put to death. Corbulo literally "falls on his sword".

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Martyrdom of apostles Peter and Paul in Rome.

Linus succeeds Peter as the second Bishop of Rome.

=== AD 68 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

Final year that Tacitus records Annals, a written history of the Roman Empire.

June 9 – Roman Emperor Nero commits suicide four miles outside Rome. He is deserted by the Praetorian Guard and then stabs himself in the throat.

June 9 – The Roman Senate accepts emperor Galba.

Legio I Macriana liberatrix and Legio I Adiutrix are created.

Lucius Clodius Macer revolts against emperor Nero.

Marcus Ulpius Trajanus, father of Trajan, becomes consul.

Trajan moves to Scythopolis and crosses the Jordan River with Legio X Fretensis. He lays siege to Jericho and destroys the monastery of Qumran, where the Dead Sea Scrolls are originated.

The Roman Senate declares Nero as a persona non grata. In the line of succession, Galba follows Nero.

Winter – Titus sets up camp at Jericho and the Romans cut off escape routes toward Jerusalem.

Venutius successfully deposes his wife Cartimandua and becomes the ruler of the Brigantes.

====== Asia ======

An iron chain suspension bridge is constructed in China

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

Buddhism officially arrives in China with the building of the White Horse Temple.

Ignatius of Antioch becomes the third bishop of Antioch.

The Gospel of Mark is written (approximate date).

The Essenes place the Dead Sea Scrolls in the caves at Qumran.

=== AD 69 ===

==== By place ====

====== Roman Empire ======

The Year of the Four Emperors: After Nero's death, Galba, Otho, Vitellius and Vespasian succeed each other as emperor during the year.

January 1 – The Roman legions in Germania Superior refuse to swear loyalty to Galba. They rebel and proclaim Vitellius as emperor.

January 10 – Lucius Calpurnius Piso Licinianus is adopted by Galba and appointed to deputy Roman Emperor.

January 15 – Galba and his adopted son Piso are murdered by the Praetorian Guard on the Roman Forum.

Otho seizes power in Rome, proclaims himself emperor, and reigns for three months before committing suicide.

Marcus Trebellius Maximus, governor of Britannia, is forced the flee to Gaul after a mutiny of Legio XX Valeria Victrix at Deva Victrix (Chester).

April 14 – First Battle of Bedriacum: Vitellius defeats Otho's legions; Otho commits suicide.

April 17 – After the Battle of Bedriacum, Vitellius becomes emperor.

Marcus Vettius Bolanus becomes the new governor of Britain and faces a second insurrection of Venutius, king of the Brigantes.

July 1 – Tiberius Julius Alexander orders his legions in Alexandria to swear allegiance to Vespasian as emperor.

August 1 – Batavian rebellion: The Batavians in Germania Inferior (Netherlands) revolt under the leadership of Gaius Julius Civilis.

German warbands cross over to join the revolt and attack the fortress at Mainz.

The Batavians attack Roman forts on the Rhine frontier; Fectio and Traiectum (modern Utrecht) are destroyed.

In Gallia Belgica, cohors II Tungrorum, raised from the inhabitants of Atuatuca Tungrorum in the north-west of the Ardennes Forest, revolt against the Romans.

The Danubian legions of Raetia and Moesia proclaims Vespasian as emperor.

October 24 – Second Battle of Bedriacum: Flavians under Antonius Primus defeat the Vitellians.

December 22 – Vitellius is captured and murdered by the Gemonian stairs. Vespasian becomes emperor.

Judea: The Jewish Revolt – Vespasian lays siege to Jerusalem; the city is captured the following year by his son Titus.

Josephus, Jewish rebel leader, is dragged before Vespasian and becomes his historian (he "prophesied" him his elevation to the purple).

Legio I Macriana liberatrix is disbanded.

The Flavian dynasty starts.

69

69 may refer to:

69 (number)

A year, primarily 69 BC, AD 69, 1969, or 2069

69 (sex position)

Caelia (gens)

The gens Caelia was a plebeian family at Rome. The nomen Caelius is frequently confounded with Coelius and Caecilius, with some individuals referred to as Caelius in manuscripts, while appearing as Coelius or Coilius on coins. Although the Caelii asserted their great antiquity, the first of this gens who obtained the consulship was Gnaeus Arulenus Caelius Sabinus in AD 69. The emperor Balbinus was a descendant of the Caelii.

Conchobar Abradruad

Conchobar Abradruad ("red eyelashes"), son of Find File, son of Ros Ruad, son of Ferhus Fairgge, son of Nuadu Necht, of the Laigin, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland. He succeeded to the throne after the death of Lugaid Riab nDerg, and ruled for a year, at the end of which he was killed by Lugaid's son Crimthann Nia Náir. The Lebor Gabála Érenn synchronises his reign with that of the Roman emperor Vespasian (AD 69–79). The chronology of Geoffrey Keating's Foras Feasa ar Éirinn dates his reign to 13–12 BC, that of the Annals of the Four Masters to 9–8 BC.

Crimthann Nia Náir

Crimthann Nia Náir (nephew of Nár), son of Lugaid Riab nDerg, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland. Lugaid is said to have fathered him on his own mother, Clothru, daughter of Eochu Feidlech. Clothru was thus both his mother and his grandmother.

The Lebor Gabála Érenn says he overthrew the High King Conchobar Abradruad, but does not say he became High King himself - Conchobar was succeeded by Cairbre Cinnchait. Geoffrey Keating and the Annals of the Four Masters agree that Crimthann succeeded Conchobar as High King and ruled for sixteen years. He is said to have gone on a voyage with his aunt Nár, a fairy woman, for a month and a fortnight, and returned with treasures including a gilded chariot, a golden fidchell board, a gold-embroidered cloak, a sword inlaid with gold serpents, a silver-embossed shield, a spear and a sling which never missed their mark, and two greyhounds with a silver chain between them. Soon after he returned he fell from his horse and died at Howth. Keating says he was succeeded by his son Feradach Finnfechtnach, the Annals of the Four Masters by Cairbre Cinnchait.

The Lebor Gabála places him in the reign of the Roman emperor Vespasian (AD 69–79). The chronology of Keating's Foras Feasa ar Éirinn dates his reign to 12 BC – AD 5, that of the Annals of the Four Masters to 8 BC – AD 9.

Duras (Dacian king)

Duras (ruled c.69-87), also known as Duras-Diurpaneus, was king of the Dacians between the years AD 69 and 87, during the time that Domitian ruled the Roman Empire. He was one of a series of rulers following the Great King Burebista. Duras' immediate successor was Decebalus.

Histories (Tacitus)

Histories (Latin: Historiae) is a Roman historical chronicle by Tacitus. Written c. 100–110, it covers the Year of Four Emperors following the downfall of Nero, as well as the period between the rise of the Flavian Dynasty (69–96) under Vespasian and the death of Domitian.Together, the Histories and the Annals amounted to 30 books. Saint Jerome refers to these books explicitly, and about half of them have survived. Although scholars disagree on how to assign the books to each work, traditionally, fourteen are assigned to Histories and sixteen to the Annals. Tacitus' friend Pliny the Younger referred to "your histories" when writing to Tacitus about the earlier work.By the time Tacitus had completed the Histories, it covered Roman history from AD 69, following Nero's death, to AD 96, the end of Domitian's reign. The Annals deals with the five decades before Nero, from AD 14, the reign of Tiberius, to AD 68, when Nero died.

List of Roman governors of Gallia Belgica

This is a list of Roman governors of Gallia Belgica. Capital and largest city of Gallia Belgica was Durocortum, modern-day Reims.

List of Roman governors of Germania Inferior

This is a list of Roman governors of Germania Inferior (and Germania Secunda from 395 until the deposition of Romulus Augustulus in 476). Capital and largest city of Germania Inferior was Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium (CCAA), modern-day Cologne.

Lugdunum

Colonia Copia Claudia Augusta Lugdunum (modern Lyon, France) was an important Roman city in Gaul. The city was founded in 43 BC by Lucius Munatius Plancus. It served as the capital of the Roman province of Gallia Lugdunensis and was an important city in the western half of the Roman Empire for centuries. Two emperors, Claudius and Caracalla, were born in Lugdunum. In the period AD 69–192 the city's population may have numbered 50,000 to 100,000, and possibly up to 200,000 inhabitants.The original Roman city was situated west of the confluence of the Rhône and Saône, on the Fourvière heights. By the late centuries of the empire much of the population was located in the Saône River valley at the foot of Fourvière.

Pecunia non olet

Pecunia non olet ("money does not stink") is a Latin saying. The phrase is ascribed to the Roman emperor Vespasian (ruled AD 69–79).

Polycarp

Polycarp (; Greek: Πολύκαρπος, Polýkarpos; Latin: Polycarpus; AD 69 – 155) was a 2nd-century Christian bishop of Smyrna. According to the Martyrdom of Polycarp he died a martyr, bound and burned at the stake, then stabbed when the fire failed to touch him. Polycarp is regarded as a saint and Church Father in the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Catholic, Anglican, and Lutheran churches. His name 'Polycarp' means 'much fruit' in Greek.

Both Irenaeus, who as a young man heard Polycarp speak, and Tertullian recorded that Polycarp had been a disciple of John the Apostle. Jerome wrote that Polycarp was a disciple of John and that John had ordained him bishop of Smyrna.

The late tradition surrounding Polycarp that expanded upon the Martyrdom is embodied in the Coptic language fragmentary papyri (the "Harris fragments") dating to the 3rd to 6th centuries. These fragments compare and contrast Polycarp with John the Apostle, who, though many people had tried to kill him, was not martyred but died of old age after being exiled to the island of Patmos. Frederick Weidmann, editor of the Harris fragments, interprets them as Smyrnan hagiography addressing Smyrna–Ephesus church rivalries, which "develops the association of Polycarp and John to a degree unwitnessed, so far as we know, either before or since". The fragments echo the Martyrology, and diverge from it.

With Clement of Rome and Ignatius of Antioch, Polycarp is regarded as one of three chief Apostolic Fathers. Polycarp is the patron saint of Smyrna.

Praetorian prefect

The praetorian prefect (Latin: praefectus praetorio, Greek: ἔπαρχος/ὕπαρχος τῶν πραιτωρίων) was a high office in the Roman Empire. Originating as the commander of the Praetorian Guard, the office gradually acquired extensive legal and administrative functions, with its holders becoming the Emperor's chief aides. Under Constantine I, the office was much reduced in power and transformed into a purely civilian administrative post, while under his successors, territorially-defined praetorian prefectures emerged as the highest-level administrative division of the Empire. The prefects again functioned as the chief ministers of the state, with many laws addressed to them by name. In this role, praetorian prefects continued to be appointed by the Eastern Roman Empire (and the Ostrogothic Kingdom) until the reign of Heraclius in the 7th century AD, when wide-ranging reforms reduced its power and converted it to a mere overseer of provincial administration. The last traces of the prefecture disappeared in the Byzantine Empire by the 840s.

The term praefectus praetorio was often abbreviated in inscriptions as 'PR PR' or 'PPO'.

Quirinius

Publius Sulpicius Quirinius (c. 51 BC – AD 21) was a Roman aristocrat. After the banishment of the ethnarch Herod Archelaus from the tetrarchy of Judea in AD 6, Quirinius was appointed legate governor of Syria, to which the province of Judaea had been added for the purpose of a census.

Revolt of the Batavi

The Revolt of the Batavi took place in the Roman province of Germania Inferior between AD 69 and 70. It was an uprising against the Roman Empire started by the Batavi, a small but militarily powerful Germanic tribe that inhabited Batavia, on the delta of the river Rhine. They were soon joined by the Celtic tribes from Gallia Belgica and some Germanic tribes.

Under the leadership of their hereditary prince Gaius Julius Civilis, an auxiliary officer in the Imperial Roman army, the Batavi and their allies managed to inflict a series of humiliating defeats on the Roman army, including the destruction of two legions. After these initial successes, a massive Roman army led by the Roman general Quintus Petillius Cerialis eventually defeated the rebels. Following peace talks, the Batavi submitted again to Roman rule, but were forced to accept humiliating terms and a legion stationed permanently on their territory, at Noviomagus (modern day Nijmegen, The Netherlands).

Titus Flavius Sabinus (consul AD 47)

Titus Flavius T. f. T. n. Sabinus (d. December 20, AD 69) was a Roman politician and soldier. A native of Reate, he was the elder son of Titus Flavius Sabinus and Vespasia Polla, and brother of the Emperor Vespasian.

Titus Flavius Sabinus (consul AD 69)

See also Titus Flavius Sabinus (disambiguation) for other men of this name.

Titus Flavius Sabinus was a Roman senator who was active in the first century AD. He was twice consul suffectus, first in the nundinium of April through June of 69 with his brother Gnaeus Arulenus Caelius Sabinus, and again in May and June of 72 as the colleague of Gaius Licinius Mucianus.Gavin Townend has identified Sabinus as a nephew of the emperor Vespasian, and the son of Titus Flavius Sabinus, consul in 47, a thesis that has come to be accepted by other scholars. Townend further argued that Sabinus was the father of Titus Flavius Sabinus consul in 82, and Titus Flavius Clemens consul in 95.

Titus Flavius Sabinus (father of Vespasian)

See also Titus Flavius Sabinus (disambiguation) for other men of this name.

Titus Flavius T. f. Sabinus was the father of the emperor Vespasian.

Sabinus was the son of Titus Flavius Petro and his wife, Tertulla, and was an eques from Reate in the Sabine region of Italy. He served as a customs official and then as a banker in the province of Asia, where he was honoured with statues dedicated "To an Honest Tax-gatherer", and later as a banker at Aventicum among the Helvetii in Gaul, where he died.With his wife, Vespasia Polla, he had at least two sons, the consul Titus Flavius Sabinus, and Titus Flavius Vespasianus, the future emperor Vespasian; and also a daughter who died in infancy, Flavia Vespasia. He may have had an elder son, who was the father of Titus Flavius Sabinus, consul in AD 69.

Veleda

Veleda was a priestess and prophet of the Germanic tribe of the Bructeri who achieved some prominence during the Batavian rebellion of AD 69–70, headed by the Romanized Batavian chieftain Gaius Julius Civilis, when she correctly predicted the initial successes of the rebels against Roman legions.

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