ABC-CLIO, LLC is a publishing company for academic reference works and periodicals primarily on topics such as history and social sciences for educational and public library settings. ABC-CLIO provides service to fifteen different online databases which contain over one million online textbooks.[2] The company consults academic leaders in the fields they cover in order to provide authority for their reference titles.[3] The headquarters are located in Santa Barbara, California.

FounderEric Boehm
Headquarters locationSanta Barbara, California
Distributionself-distributed (US)
Edu Reference Publishers Direct (Canada)
Ontario Library Association (Libraries Unlimited, Canada)
Co Info (Australia)
Inbooks (Libraries Unlimited, Australia)
Marston Book Services (UK)[1]
Key peopleRon Boehm (CEO); Becky Snyder (President)
Publication typesBooks, databases, magazines, journals
Nonfiction topicsHistory, social sciences
ImprintsABC-CLIO, Greenwood Press, Praeger, Libraries Unlimited/Linworth


ABC-CLIO was founded in 1953 as a privately held corporation by Eric Boehm with its first publication, Historical Abstracts.[4] The name represents the company's two original divisions when it incorporated in 1969: ABC stands for American Bibliographical Center and CLIO Press is named after Clio, the muse of history from ancient Greek mythology. According to Boehm, he had always been interested in history so when he noticed that there were not many good historical abstracting services available, he started publishing the Historical Abstracts.[5]

During the 1960s, a sister bibliographic and abstract publication on American history was added, America: History and Life, which was considered an award-winning title. The company entered into digital publishing with electronic data in the 1960s and in 1975, it published its first online database[4] called DIALOG. During the 1980s, ABC-CLIO expanded into providing primary reference books such as encyclopedias and dictionaries and stopped publishing bibliographic books.[5] In the 1990s, ABC-CLIO began to provide access to its humanities database on CD-ROM. The Exegy Current Events CD-ROM was named "Best Disc of the Year" by Library Journal.[6] In 1998, ABC-CLIO provided electronic access to America: History and Life. By the 2000s, one of the company's most popular products had become online databases for researching many topics in the field of the humanities. In 2001, ABC-CLIO began to publish eBooks, initially providing 150 different titles to schools and libraries.[4] The company's reference books had won numerous awards, and the company started a series of subject-related online databases for secondary school use. In 2004, the company acquired the quarterly historical journal, Journal of the West, which has been published since 1962.[6]

In 1996, ABC-CLIO merged with an electronic publishing company, Intellimation, which also produced educational software. The merger brought Becky Snyder, ABC-CLIO's current president, from Intellimation.[7] It sold Historical Abstracts and America: History and Life to EBSCO Publishing in 2007.[8]


Imprints and series


In 2008, ABC-CLIO acquired the Greenwood Publishing Group from Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. The deal gave ABC-CLIO a "perpetual license" to use the imprints of Greenwood Press and publish all of its titles. Acquiring the publishing group gave ABC-CLIO access to Greenwood Press, Praeger Publishers, Praeger Security International and Libraries Unlimited.[10] Greenwood focuses on publishing full-text reference works which are authoritative on various topics.[11]

Libraries Unlimited

Libraries Unlimited came to ABC-CLIO as part of a deal with Greenwood Press. In 2012, Kathyrn Suárez was named Publisher for this division which focuses on publishing for librarians and information professionals.[11]

ABC-CLIO Solutions

ABC-CLIO databases are provided under the umbrella of ABC-CLIO Solutions. There are fifteen different databases providing access to different subject areas.[2] ABC-CLIO Solutions provides digital curriculum with multimedia content, text-to-speech features, translation tools which covers various topics relating to history and the humanities.[12] After ABC-CLIO acquired Greenwood Press's databases, they revamped the look and feel of their interface in order to provide common access through the ABC-CLIO interface.[13] ABC-CLIO also provided the ability to search across multiple databases through one search, also providing options for narrowing the search after revamping their interface.[14] The new interface is considered user-friendly and provides access to personalized features.[15]


Praeger is known for publishing "scholarly and professional books" in the subject areas of social science and the humanities.[11]


  1. ^ "ABC-CLIO Solutions - Contact Us". Retrieved 2017-12-04.
  2. ^ a b "Database Offers 1 Million Free Resources and Images in April". eSchool News. 2 April 2015. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
  3. ^ Vnuk, Rebecca (15 September 2012). "Encyclopedia Update: Reboot, 2012". Booklist. 109 (2): 52–56. ISSN 0006-7385. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
  4. ^ a b c Costello, Megan (2 April 2001). "E-books a natural for ABC-CLIO". Publishers Weekly. 248 (14): 28–29. ISSN 0000-0019. Retrieved 26 November 2016.
  5. ^ a b Hane, Paula J. (January 2001). "ABC-CLIO Stresses Customer-Based Products". Information Today. 18 (1): 12. ISSN 8755-6286. Retrieved 8 May 2015. (Subscription required (help)). Cite uses deprecated parameter |subscription= (help)
  6. ^ a b "History and Mission". ABC-CLIO. Retrieved 26 November 2016.
  7. ^ Rogers, Michael (May 1996). "ABC-CLIO merges with Intellimation". Library Journal. 121 (8). ISSN 0363-0277. Retrieved 8 May 2015. (Subscription required (help)). Cite uses deprecated parameter |subscription= (help)
  8. ^ "EBSCO Acquires Two Renowned Databases from ABC-CLIO: Historical Abstracts and America: History and Life Archived April 15, 2008, at the Wayback Machine". June 15, 2007.
  9. ^ Two Top Professional Development Publishers Partner to Create Next-Generation Resources for Librarians and Educators
  10. ^ Albanese, Andrew (November 2008). "ABC-CLIO "Buys" Greenwood Imprints". Library Journal. 133 (18). ISSN 0363-0277. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
  11. ^ a b c "Kathryn Suárez Appointed Publisher of Libraries Unlimited". Santa Barbara Independent. 9 May 2012. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
  12. ^ "ABC-CLIO Upgrades History Instruction with Multimedia Content". eSchool News. 18 February 2015. Retrieved 26 November 2016.
  13. ^ Quinn, Mary Ellen (1 November 2010). "Another Look At: ABC-CLIO Databases". Booklist. 107 (5): 90. ISSN 0006-7385. Retrieved 26 November 2016.
  14. ^ Kuzyk, Raya (16 November 2007). "Reference Into the Future". Library Journal. 132: 8–11. ISSN 0363-0277. Retrieved 8 May 2015. (Subscription required (help)). Cite uses deprecated parameter |subscription= (help)
  15. ^ O'Gorman, Jack, ed. (2014). Reference Sources for Small and Medium-Sized Libraries (8th ed.). Chicago, Illinois: ALA Editions. pp. 7–8. ISBN 9780838912126.

External links


Chanhudaro (also Chanhu Daro or Chanhu Dado) is an archaeological site belonging to the post-urban Jhukar phase of Indus Valley Civilization. The site is located 130 kilometers (81 mi) south of Mohenjo-daro, in Sindh, Pakistan. The settlement was inhabited between 4000 and 1700 BCE, and is considered to have been a centre for manufacturing carnelian beads. This site is a group of three low mounds that excavations has shown were parts of a single settlement, approximately 5 hectares in size.

Chanhudaro was first excavated by N. G. Majumdar in March, 1930, and again during winter field session of 1935-36 by the American School of Indic and Iranian Studies and the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston team led by Ernest John Henry Mackay. Prof. W. Norman Brown of the University of Pennsylvania was instrumental in enabling the funds for this project. After the independence of Pakistan, Mohammed Rafique Mughal also did exploratory work in the area.

Greenwood Publishing Group

ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO. Established in 1967 as Greenwood Press, Inc. and based in Westport, Connecticut, Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc. (GPG) publishes reference works under its Greenwood Press imprint, and scholarly, professional, and general interest books under its related imprint, Praeger Publishers (). Also part of GPG is Libraries Unlimited, which publishes professional works for librarians and teachers.

John T. Koch

John T. Koch is an American academic, historian and linguist who specializes in Celtic studies, especially prehistory and the early Middle Ages. He is the editor of the five-volume Celtic Culture. A Historical Encyclopedia (2006, ABC Clio)

List of street foods

This is a list of street foods. Street food is ready-to-eat food or drink typically sold by a vendor on a street and in other public places, such as at a market or fair. It is often sold from a portable food booth, food cart, or food truck and meant for immediate consumption. Some street foods are regional, but many have spread beyond their region of origin. Street food vending is found all around the world, but varies greatly between regions and cultures.Most street foods are classed as both finger food and fast food, and are cheaper on average than restaurant meals. According to a 2007 study from the Food and Agriculture Organization, 2.5 billion people eat street food every day.

Nanto Rokushū

The Six Schools of Nara Buddhism, also known as the Rokushū 六宗 (also Rokushuu/Rokushu), were academic Buddhist sects. These schools came to Japan from Korea and China during the late 6th and early 7th centuries. All of these schools were controlled by the newly formed Japanese government of Nara. These schools were installed to mimic and expand upon already existing mainland Asian Buddhist thought.The schools were installed during the reign of Prince Shōtoku, most likely to increase the power of the expanding government through Buddhist and Confucian doctrine. Because of the government involvement in religious expansion, government funds were used to construct grand temples, statues, and paintings, most notably the Seven Great Southern Temples of Nara. Most of these sects wanted to be the main Buddhist school of the Imperial House of Japan and high officials. Because of this, many of them tried to be appealing to nobility. Many of the themes of these schools delved on advanced level, complicated, almost cryptic, Indian philosophies on the mind and existence. Some of the schools, though, were ideas on the formation and operations of a vihara. Due to the location of the temples constructed for these schools they were also called, The Six Southern Schools of Nara Buddhism. Eventually the increasing power of these schools of Buddhism and their influence in politics started to overwhelm the city of Nara. This forced Emperor Kanmu to relocate the capital, moving it to Heian-kyō (Kyoto). It also directly encouraged the creation of the Tendai school, founded by Saichō, and Shingon Buddhism, founded by Kūkai.All six schools shared Gautama Buddha's original teachings of human suffering and his ideas on cause, remedy, and extinction. The six schools differed on expanding on the sub ideas of inter-dependency of phenomena, ultimate enlightenment (nirvana), the non-self (anātman), and the Middle Way. These schools laid the groundwork for the development of Pure Land Buddhism and the emergence of the worship of a distinctly Japanese form of Amitābha, Amida.

Reference and User Services Association awards

The Reference and User Services Association (RUSA) annual Outstanding Reference Sources awards are considered the highest awards honoring academic reference books or media,. Besides these awards, the American Library Association (ALA) also grants other medals and honors including the Andrew Carnegie Medals for Excellence in Fiction and Nonfiction and the Dartmouth Medal for the "creation of a reference work of outstanding quality and significance." In addition, the ALA List of Notable Books for Adults, selected by the RUSA Notable Books Council, has been chosen yearly since 1944. Nomination and awards decisions are made by the ALA's Reference and User Services Association (RUSA), the "authority in top reference works in print or on World Wide Web." Awards are selected by RUSA's Collection Development and Evaluation Section (CODES) Reference Sources Committee.An annotated list of their selection of outstanding reference works is published annually in the May issue of American Libraries.

Slovenian nationalism

Slovenian nationalism is the nationalism that asserts that Slovenes are a nation and promotes the cultural unity of Slovenes. Slovenian nationalism first arose in response to the influx of ideas of nationalism from the French Revolution that arrived in Slovenia when the French forces of Napoleon Bonaparte made Slovenia part of the Illyrian Provinces from 1809 to 1813. Slovenian nationalists such as Anton Korošec endorsed Yugoslav unification during World War I as a means to free Slovenia from Austro-Hungarian rule.On 8 May 1989, after the legalization of other political parties by Slovenia's reformist Communist Party-led government, new political parties published the May Declaration, demanding the formation of a sovereign, democratic, and pluralist Slovenian state. A referendum on independence from Yugoslavia was held on 26 December 1990 with a majority of Slovenians supporting independence. Slovenia declared independence on 25 June 1991.

The Skeptic Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience

The Skeptic Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience is a collection of articles that discuss the Skeptics Society's scientific findings of investigations into popular pseudoscientific and supernatural claims. It has been called "a 2-volume set with an attitude." The editor, Michael Shermer, director of the Skeptics Society, pulled together articles originally published in Skeptic magazine with some conceptual overviews and historical documents to create this two-volume encyclopedia. Pat Linse is listed as a contributing editor. It was published by ABC-CLIO in 2002.

The encyclopedia has five sections. The first volume is composed of alphabetical write-ups on the scientific view of pseudoscientific concepts such as the "Bermuda Triangle and dowsing, Shroud of Turin and Feng Shui, spiritualism and biorhythms, placebo effect and graphology, Alien abductions and UFOs, crop circles and astrology", followed by a section of investigations and discussions. The second volume explores such subjects in more depth with sections containing case studies, "for and against" essays, and historical documents. This final section has been criticized for containing only five documents.

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