The A66 is a major road in Northern England, which in part follows the course of the Roman road from Scotch Corner to Penrith. It runs from east of Middlesbrough in the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire to Workington in Cumbria. It is anomalously numbered since west of Penrith it trespasses into numbering zone 5; this is because it originally terminated at the A6 in Penrith but was extended further west in order to create one continuous east–west route. Most of what is now the A66 west of Penrith was originally A594 – only a small stub of this road numbering remains, from Maryport to Cockermouth.
From its eastern terminus between Redcar and Middlesbrough it runs past Stockton-on-Tees and Darlington mainly as two-lane dual-carriageway and single carriageway past Darlington, becoming motorway standard as the A66(M) shortly before meeting junction 57 of the A1(M). It follows the A1(M) south to Scotch Corner, from where it continues west across the Pennines, past Brough, Appleby, Kirkby Thore, Temple Sowerby and Penrith until it reaches Junction 40 of the M6 motorway at Skirsgill Interchange, where traffic going towards Western Scotland turns onto the northbound M6. The A66 continues past Blencathra to Keswick and Cockermouth and on through the northern reaches of the Lake District before arriving at the coastal town of Workington. There is a short stretch of dual carriageway along the northern part of Bassenthwaite Lake between Keswick and Cockermouth. Whilst the eastbound section follows the straight line of the disused Cockermouth, Keswick and Penrith Railway, the westbound section has numerous bends with climbs and dips. The westbound section was closed due to flood damage in December 2015 and when it re-opened in May 2016 had been permanently reduced to a single lane. This section has a 50 miles per hour (80 km/h) limit monitored by average speed cameras.
|Length||115 mi (185 km)|
|Keswick, Penrith, Brough, Scotch Corner, Darlington, Stockton-on-Tees, Middlesbrough|
When road numbers were first designated in the 1920s, the A66 was assigned to the route between Penrith and Hull via Scotch Corner and York, mainly along former Roman roads. Today's route largely follows the original route between Penrith and Scotch Corner. The historic route between Scotch Corner and Hull follows what is now today's A1, A168, B6265, A59 and A1079.
The middle 49.5 miles (79.7 km) section of the A66 between Scotch Corner on the A1(M) and Penrith on the M6 forms one of the key trans-Pennines trunk routes and has one of the worst road-safety records in the UK. Various bypasses and upgrades have been constructed since the early 1970s, giving the current mix of single and dual-carriageway sections. In 2002, after many years of local campaigning, the Transport Minister, John Spellar, gave support for the upgrading of the remaining single-carriageway sections by the Highways Agency. The first three projects began construction in early 2006 and opened in 2007 and 2008. The whole route between the A1(M) and M6 was due to be dualled by 2011, by which time the upgrade of the A1 to motorway status at Scotch Corner was planned to be complete.
After the construction of several sections commenced, it was announced that those schemes currently in the planning phase would not go ahead until 2016 at the earliest. The Highways Agency website states "Other than those already committed, the Regions did not identify any other major schemes for the A66 as high priorities to receive funding. This means that there is currently no likelihood of any additional major schemes on this route being funded within the next ten-year period. However the Regional Funding Allocation process will be reviewed in due course and this will give an opportunity for the Regions to revise their priorities."
In September 2015, the government said that £500,000 would be invested into the study of the two Trans-Pennine routes of the A66 and the A69. The proposal would be for one or even both roads to be dualled wholly between the A1/A1(M) and the M6. The following year the government announced that the A66 would be dualled, but not the A69. Highways England plans a public consultation from May 2019, in which it will present its plans for a £500 million spend to complete dualling the Trans-Pennine section, together with improvements at the M6 and A1(M) interchanges.
|Section||Start||End||Section Length (Miles)||Dual-carriageway||Notes|
|M6-A6||M6 J40||A6||0.7||Opened 1971|
|Penrith Bypass||A6||Brougham||1.5||Opened 1971|
|Penrith-Temple Sowerby||Brougham||Winderwath||2.8||–||On hold|
|Temple Sowerby Bypass||Winderwath||Temple Sowerby East||2.6||Opened 2007|
|Temple Sowerby-Appleby||Temple Sowerby East||Crackenthorpe||4.4||–||On hold|
|Appleby Bypass||Crackenthorpe||Coupland||3.7||Opened by 1982|
|Warcop Bypass||Coupland||Brough West||4.4||–||On hold|
|Brough Bypass||Brough West||Brough East||2.0||Opened 1977|
|Brough-Stainmore||Brough East||Stainmore||1.0||Opened 1994|
|Stainmore Bypass||Stainmore||Banks Gate||2.4||Opened 1992|
|Bowes Moor||Banks Gate||Bowes West||8.7||Opened 1993|
|Bowes Bypass||Bowes West||Bowes East||1.1||–||On hold|
|Boldron Bypass||Bowes East||Cross Lanes||2.5||Opened by 1983|
|Cross Lanes-Greta Bridge||Cross Lanes||Greta Bridge West||1.6||–||On hold|
|Greta Bridge Bypass||Greta Bridge West||Greta Bridge East||1.5||Opened 1980|
|Greta Bridge-Stephen Bank||Greta Bridge East||Stephen Bank||2.3||Opened 2008|
|Stephen Bank-Carkin Moor||Stephen Bank||Carkin Moor||2.5||–||On hold|
|Carkin Moor-Scotch Corner (A1)||Carkin Moor||Scotch Corner (A1)||3.8||Opened 2007|
The section of road between Scotch Corner and Penrith accounted for 70 deaths over ten years up until 2002, which was above the national average for single lane carriageways. Whilst the number of accidents was in line with the national average, the number of serious injuries and deaths was twice the national average; this high attrition rate was the reason for the go-ahead for the new dualled sections on the grounds of safety.
Snow gates were installed on the road between Bowes and Brough. This section is the moorland route over Stainmore summit which reaches a height of 1450 feet (441 metres) is prone to heavy snow in the winter. Both sets of gates have turnaround facilities to allow all traffic to change direction.
|Length||2.0 mi (3.2 km)|
The A66(M) is a spur from the A1(M) at Junction 57. It was opened in 1965 along with the A1(M) as part of the Darlington by-pass motorway. It can be accessed only by northbound traffic on the A1(M) and has an exit to this route southbound only.
|A66(M) motorway junctions|
|Westbound exits (B carriageway)||Junction||Eastbound exits (A carriageway)|
|The South, Scotch Corner A1(M)
|A1(M), J57||Start of motorway|
|Start of motorway||Terminus||Darlington A66|
The A592 road is a major route running north-south through the English Lake District.
The road connects Penrith (54.6639°N 2.7524°W / 54.6639; -2.7524 (A592 road (northern end))), and junction 40 of the M6 motorway), with Staveley at the southern tip of the lake, Windermere, (54.2672°N 2.9669°W / 54.2672; -2.9669 (A592 road (northern end))), which is skirted by the A592 on its eastern bank; the road also follows the northern/western bank of Ullswater. It passes through Glenridding, Patterdale, the town of Windermere (where it crosses the A591 road), Bowness-on-Windermere and Storrs.
The total length is just under 34 miles (55 km), including a short concurrency with the A66 road to the west of the motorway junction.
The A592 crosses Kirkstone Pass with a summit at 454 metres (1,490 ft) and is frequently closed in winter.Bowes Moor
Bowes Moor is a Site of Special Scientific Interest in the Teesdale district in south-west County Durham, England. It is an extensive area of moorland, most of it covered by blanket bog, which supports significant breeding populations of a number of wading birds.The Pennine Way National Trail passes through the area, as does the A66 road which crosses Bowes Moor using the Stainmore Gap between Bowes and Stainmore.Broughton Cross
Broughton Cross is a hamlet in the Allerdale District, in the county of Cumbria. Nearby settlements include the villages of Brigham and Great Broughton. It was on the A66 road until it was by-passed. It had a railway station called Broughton Cross railway station which opened on 28 April 1847 and closed on 2 March 1942.Crackenthorpe
Crackenthorpe is a village and civil parish in the Eden District of Cumbria, England. It is about 12 miles (19 km) south east of Penrith. The village was on the A66 road until it was by-passed. The population of the civil parish was less than 100 at the 2011 Census. Details are therefore included in the parish of Long Marton.
Crackenthorpe Hall is a large grade II listed house which was rebuilt in the early 17th century and restructured in circa 1685 by Hugh & Thomas Machell. It has since been subdivided into several dwellings. It was reputedly haunted by the ghost of Peg Sneddle, the grey lady of Crackenthorpe. Her body was exhumed and buried in the bed of the River Eden under a boulder of Shap granite known as Peg's stone.Embleton, Cumbria
Embleton is a small village and civil parish in the Allerdale district in Cumbria, England. It is located east of Cockermouth on the A66 road, and within the boundaries of the Lake District National Park. As of the 2001 census the parish had a population of 297, reducing slightly to 294 at the 2011 Census.Embleton railway station opened in 1865, on the Cockermouth, Keswick and Penrith Railway, and was closed by British Rail in 1958 although the railway through the village survived until 1966. The trackbed has now been used for the route of the A66 road.
Sometime around 1854 a schoolmaster digging in commonland at Embleton came across a hoard of weapons dating to the 1st century AD, the transition between the Late Iron Age and Early Roman period. It comprised three iron spearheads and two swords, one of which was in a decorated copper-alloy scabbard. The latter object can now be seen in the British Museum Embleton has its own parish council, jointly with the parishes of Dubwath, Setmurthy and Wythop, known as Embleton and District Parish Council.Fox Tower, Brough
Fox Tower is a tower built by John Metcalf Carleton, an industrial entrepreneur, as a folly in 1775 on his large estate next to Brough under Stainmore, a village in Cumbria, England. The folly can be seen from Brough Castle and the road A66 road looking towards the fells. The tower is now closed to the public.Hartburn, County Durham
Hartburn is a suburb of Stockton-on-Tees in County Durham, England, situated to the south west of the town centre. It is made up of a number of estates situated around Hartburn Village. The area was originally called East Hartburn, with West Hartburn being located close to Middleton St George.The village was founded centuries ago and the surrounding area has been developed extensively, mostly with semi-detached housing, from the 1930s onwards. It is situated just off the A66 road to Darlington. The village has five public houses "The Masham", "The Stockton Arms", “The Penny Black”, "The Eaglescliffe Hotel" and the "Parkwood". In the early 2010s Hartburn expanded through new housing built on the site of the former Bowesfield Works known as Queensgate, Low Hartburn.
In 1183, William de Hertburne (later changed to William de Hertbourne) exchanged his land in what is now Hartburn for some land in Washington, County Durham (then known as the County Palatine of Durham), thereby adopting a new title: William de Wessyngton. This occasion is commemorated by a plaque outside the church of All Saints in the village, which was erected at the 800th anniversary (2 April 1983). A later descendant of William de Wessyngton was George Washington, the first President of the United States of America.
In June 1897, a large stone was erected outside All Saints' church to commemorate the 60th year of the reign of Queen Victoria.
All Saints' church had originally been the village school, and was eventually altered to include pews and chancel steps etc., although these no longer exist.
Three bus services run through Hartburn: the 588/589 run by Compass Royston and the 87 by Tees Valley Stagecarriage. Services through the village ceased with the removal of the 98/99 service, and subsequent re-routing of the 588 past Harper Parade. However, they have restarted with the start of Tees Valley's 87, which loops the estate.
There is a large green belt section stretching from Birkdale Road, parallel with Marrick Road and Grinton Road, towards Ropner Park.Johnby, Cumbria
Johnby is a hamlet in the Eden District, in the English county of Cumbria. It is about 6 miles (9.7 km) from the large town of Penrith and about 1 mile (1.6 km) from the village of Greystoke. The B5305 road, the B5288 road, the A66 road and the M6 motorway are all nearby. Circa 1870, it had a population of 92 as recorded in the Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales.To the south of the hamlet is Johnby Hall, a fortified house or peel tower dating probably from the 14th Century, with alterations and extensions in every century since.Kilmond Scar
Kilmond Scar is a Site of Special Scientific Interest in the Teesdale district of south-west County Durham, England. It lies just south of the A66 road, about 3 km east of the village of Bowes.
Kilmond Scar is a prominent south-facing scarp of Upper Carboniferous Limestone. Its rock ledges and scree slopes support a variety of drought-tolerant flora. Elsewhere, deeper limestone soils support a diversity of calcareous grassland species.Kirkby Thore railway station
Kirkby Thore railway station was a railway station situated on the Eden Valley Railway between Penrith and Kirkby Stephen East. It served the village of Kirkby Thore. The station opened to passenger traffic on 9 June 1862, and closed on 7 December 1953. The track has been dismantled and the A66 road now uses the route of the railway at this point. The former A66 route past the station is now a haulage yard.
Although the village is also close to the Settle-Carlisle Railway, and there is an active private siding and goods yard, there has never been a passenger station on that line at this point.Mosedale Beck (Glenderamackin)
Mosedale Beck is a river in Cumbria, England, which rises on the northern slopes of Great Dodd and flows north east, to the south of Clough Head before joining the River Glenderamackin to the east of Threlkeld village. This then flows west, alongside the A66 road south of Blencathra, to form the River Greta which flows into the River Derwent.
Shortly before joining the Glendaramackin, Mosedale Beck is crossed by the Mosedale Viaduct of the former Cockermouth, Keswick and Penrith Railway, now a footpath.Newlands Valley
The Newlands Valley is in the Lake District National Park in Cumbria, England. It is regarded as one of the most picturesque and quiet valleys in the national park, even though it is situated very close to the popular tourist town of Keswick and the busy A66 road.
The valley forms part of the civil parish of Above Derwent, within the Borough of Allerdale.Redmarshall
Redmarshall is a village and civil parish in the borough of Stockton-on-Tees and ceremonial county of County Durham, England. The population as of the 2011 census was 287.
Redmarshall is situated to the west of Stockton-on-Tees, just north of the A66 road which is one of the main trunk routes through Teesside. It is home to the Church of Saint Cuthbert, a pub called The Ship. It has a green in the centre and roads such as Church Lane, Coniston Crescent and Windermere Avenue, named after waters in the Lake District. Ferguson Way is the newest addition to the village. A nature reserve is a short way out of the village and down a bank past Ferguson Way.
There is an annual fete in the village.Sandford, Cumbria
Sandford is a small village in the Eden District, in the English county of Cumbria, England. It is near the A66 road. It has one pub.Tees Bridge
The Tees Bridge is a rail bridge on the Tees Valley Line over the river Tees in the Borough of Stockton-on-Tees.
The bridge is south of Stockton-on-Tees town centre and just north of the adjacent Surtees Bridge which carries the A66 road.
The bridge is built on the site of a series of Tees Bridges alternating between two adjacent crossing sites.Temple Sowerby
Temple Sowerby is a village and civil parish in Cumbria, northern England. It is close to the main east–west A66 road about 8 miles (13 km) east of Penrith in the Eden Valley.
At the centre of the village is the village green surrounded by cottages and houses, the village hall, Church of England primary school and a public house and hotel. Just outside the village stands the cricket pitch, a bowling green, the new doctors surgery and the Temple Sowerby garage. The National Trust property Acorn Bank is nearby, which dates back to the days of the crusades when a member of the Knights Templar lived there. The village's association with the Knights Templar gave it the name 'Temple'. Sowerby is Viking for "a homestead with poor soil".Thornthwaite
Thornthwaite is a village in Cumbria, England. Historically in Cumberland, it is just off the A66 road, south of Bassenthwaite Lake and within the Lake District National Park. It is 3.5 miles (5.6 km) by road from Keswick.For administrative purposes, Thornthwaite lies within the civil parish of Above Derwent, the district of Allerdale, and the county of Cumbria. It is within the Copeland constituency of the United Kingdom Parliament, and the North West England constituency of the European Parliament.Warcop
Warcop is a village and civil parish in the Eden district of Cumbria, England. It is near the A66 road and is 5 miles (8.0 km) north of Kirkby Stephen and about 5 miles south of Appleby in Westmorland. The local Church of England parish is St Columba's Church, Warcop, which is a Norman church and is built on the site of a Roman marching camp. It holds an annual "Rushbearing Festival" each year in late June. Warcop can boast the oldest usable bridge over the river Eden, which dates from the 14th century or earlier.
The village has houses that date from at least the 15th century - Warcop Tower c. 1400 or before and Warcop Hall c. 1500, other houses date from the 17th or 18th century to the present day.
Warcop had its own railway station, Warcop railway station from 1862, which closed in 1962. The station yard (the station house is a private residence) has now reopened as part of the Eden Valley Railway.
The Ministry of Defence operates the Warcop Training Area in the country and fell to the North West of Warcop, providing tank and infantry training.Whinfell Forest
Whinfell Forest is now a small area of woodland in the parish of Brougham, Cumbria, south east of Penrith in Cumbria and just off the A66 road leading to Appleby-in-Westmorland. The forest is a short distance from the Lake District national park and is surrounded by a large number of woodlands west of the Pennines. It is notable today for the presence of Center Parcs and a red squirrel reserve. It was notable historically for its associations with Lady Anne Clifford, Brougham Castle and Inglewood Forest.
A roads in Zone 6 of the Great Britain road numbering scheme