A5 road (Great Britain)

The A5 London Holyhead Trunk Road is a major road in England and Wales. It runs for about 275 miles (443 km) (including sections concurrent with other designations) from London to the Irish Sea at the ferry port of Holyhead which handles more than 2 million passengers each year. In many parts the route follows that of the Roman Iter II route which later took the Anglo-Saxon name Watling Street.

UK road A5

A5 road map
A5 Dual Carriageway
Route information
Maintained by Highways England and North & Mid Wales Trunk Road Agency
Length180.63 mi (290.70 km)
Major junctions
Southeast endMarble Arch, City of Westminster
51°30′48″N 0°09′37″W / 51.5133°N 0.1603°W
Northwest endPort of Holyhead
53°18′23″N 4°37′47″W / 53.3063°N 4.6298°W
St Albans
Milton Keynes
Road network


Roman Road

Watling Street route
Roman Britain, with the route of Watling Street in red

The section of the A5 between London and Shrewsbury is roughly contiguous with one of the principal Roman roads in Britain: that between Londinium and Deva, which diverges from the present-day A5 corridor at Wroxeter (Viroconium Cornoviorum) near Shrewsbury.

Telford's Holyhead Road

The Act of Union 1800, which unified Great Britain and Ireland, gave rise to a need to improve communication links between London and Dublin. A Parliamentary committee led to an Act of Parliament of 1815 that authorised the purchase of existing turnpike road interests and, where necessary, the construction of new road, to complete the route between the two capitals. This made it the first major civilian state-funded road building project in Britain since Roman times. Responsibility for establishing the new route was awarded to the famous engineer, Thomas Telford.

Through England, the road largely took over existing turnpike roads and mainly following the route of the Anglo-Saxon Wæcelinga Stræt (Watling Street), much of which had been historically the Roman road Iter II. However between Weedon, Northamptonshire and Oakengates, Telford's Holyhead Road eschews the Watling Street corridor, picking up instead the major cities of Coventry, Birmingham, and Wolverhampton;[1] this routing being far more useful for communications.

From Shrewsbury and through Wales, Telford's work was more extensive. In places he followed existing roads, but he also built new links, including the Menai Suspension Bridge to connect the mainland with Anglesey and the Stanley Embankment to Holy Island.

Telford's road was complete with the opening of the Menai Suspension Bridge in 1826.

Notable features of Telford's road

The road was designed to allow stagecoaches and the Mail coach to carry post between London and Holyhead, and thence by mailboat to Ireland. Therefore, throughout its length the gradient never exceeds 1:17 (5.9%).

The route through Wales retains many of the original features of Telford's road and has, since 1995, been recognised as a historic route worthy of preservation. An 18-month survey by CADW in 1998-2000 revealed that about 40% of the original road and its ancillary features survives under the modern A5, much more than previously thought.[2] These features include the following:

  • many surviving and distinctive toll houses
  • 'depots' along the route, being roadside alcoves to store grit and materials
  • distinctive milestones at each mile - many originals having survived and been restored, others now replaced by replicas
  • distinctive gates in a 'sunburst' design, a few of which have survived
  • a weighbridge at Lon Isaf, between Bangor and Bethesda

Tŷ Nant cutting

In 1997, a section of bends on Telford's road between Tŷ Nant and Dinmael was by-passed by a modern cutting. However, investigation in 2006 revealed that the rock face in the cutting had become unstable, and the A5 was closed from the end of May 2006.[3] Traffic was diverted onto the old A5 route, on a 0.5-mile (0.80 km) stretch known as the Glyn Bends, while the rock face was made safe. This involved the removal of 230,000 tonnes of rock and alluvial deposits. In July 2007, the A5 through the reconstructed cutting was reopened.[4]


London - Milton Keynes

Starting at Marble Arch in London, the A5 runs northwest on the Edgware Road through Kilburn and Cricklewood. The A5 number disappears at the A41 near Edgware but the original road continues as the A5183 through Elstree, Radlett, St Albans, Redbourn and Dunstable. A few miles north of Dunstable, the A5 regains its identity at the M1 motorway junction 11A, rejoining the old Roman Road and passing through Hockliffe before becoming a dual carriageway as it approaches Milton Keynes.

Milton Keynes - Hinckley

On entering the Milton Keynes urban area, the road becomes a fully grade-separated dual carriageway and passes through Milton Keynes. This stretch was opened in 1980, replacing the original route along Watling Street. From just north of Milton Keynes, the road resumes as a single carriageway that continues through Towcester where it crosses the A43 dual carriageway just north of the town. The road accompanies the Grand Union Canal and the M1 motorway through the Watford Gap. It then bridges the M45 motorway and continues to Kilsby. As it passes close to Rugby, the road is diverted slightly around the Daventry International Rail Freight Terminal and then passes the remains of the Rugby Radio Station.

The next phase north-west-bound takes it under the M6 motorway and passing close to Lutterworth. Along this stretch, the road frequently alternates between being a single and a dual carriageway. After meeting the M69 motorway at a roundabout, with the motorway passing above, the A5 runs through Hinckley.

Hinckley - Shrewsbury

After Hinckley, the road runs through the northern fringes of Nuneaton and then Tamworth. At Tamworth, the road follows a more recent dual carriageway bypass, permitting the original alignment to become a local road in the town. From this point the road is a grade separated dual carriageway up until its junction with the A38 and M6 toll. After this junction it passes just to the south of Cannock and then enters Telford, where it loses its identity and route-shares with the M54 motorway from junction 5. At junction 7 the motorway ends and the A5 continues to Shrewsbury as dual carriageway, on its new alignment. (The original route through Telford, and then via Atcham to Shrewsbury, is unclassified through Oakengates and as the B5061 through Wellington and the B4380 through Atcham). Continuing from the end of the M54, the route runs around Shrewsbury as the town's southern bypass (still as dual carriageway), combining for a stretch with the A49. (The route once ran through the town, but was first bypassed in the 1930s, then by-passed again in the early 1990s).

Shrewsbury - Bangor

After Shrewsbury the A5 continues as single-carriageway except for the Nesscliffe bypass. It then multiplexes with the major South Wales  – North Wales road A483 and forms part of the Oswestry bypass, running to the east of that town. Shortly after, it crosses the River Ceiriog and enters Wales to continue from Chirk. The A5 continues through Snowdonia via Llangollen, Corwen, Capel Curig and through the centre of Bangor.

Bangor - Holyhead

From Bangor the road crosses the Menai Suspension Bridge to Anglesey and then runs roughly parallel to the A55 expressway to the outskirts of the village of Valley where the A5 continues onto the Stanley Embankment. The A5 from Valley to Holyhead is named London Road running through to the Port of Holyhead. The A5 terminates at Admiralty Arch (1822–24), which was designed by Thomas Harrison to commemorate a visit by King George IV in 1821 en route to Ireland and marks the zenith of Irish Mail coach operations.

Alternative routes

Parts of the A5 have been replaced by sections of the M1 north of London, the M54 through Telford, the M6, and the M6 Toll. The A55 route in North Wales is now the usual way to get from Chirk to Holyhead, avoiding the mountainous A5 route through Snowdonia and instead going via the much gentler Cheshire Plain and along the coast.

Road safety

In June 2008, a 9.9-mile (16 km) stretch of the A5 between Daventry and Rugby was named as the most dangerous road in the East Midlands.[5] This single carriageway stretch had fifteen fatal and serious injury collisions between 2004 and 2006, and was rated as 'red'—the second highest risk band—in the EuroRAP report publish by the Road Safety Foundation.



Marble Arch, London
– start of the A5

A5 Milton Keynes

A5 at Milton Keynes looking north at its junction with the A509


The A5 as it traverses rural Shropshire near Wellington on a new alignment to that of the original Thomas Telford route


Sign of Thomas Telford's historic route

Bont Borth

The A5 crosses the Menai Straits using the Menai Suspension Bridge

Admirality arch Holyhead

Admiralty Arch, Holyhead – end of the A5

See also


  • Quartermaine et al. (2003) Thomas Telford's Holyhead Road: The A5 in North Wales, Council for British Archaeology ISBN 1-902771-34-6
  1. ^ Holyhead Road Sabre-roads.org
  2. ^ Telford highway to Holyhead found intact under the A5  – The Independent, 5 August 2000
  3. ^ Closure Of A5 Trunk Road Between Ty Nant And Dinmael Archived 24 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ A5 at Ty Nant reopens ahead of schedule
  5. ^ Highest risk road sections in each UK Government Office Region (2004-2006) Archived 10 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine

External links

Route map:

Media related to A5 road (Great Britain) at Wikimedia Commons

List of A5 roads

A5 Road may refer to:

AfricaA5 highway (Nigeria), a road connecting Lagos and Ibadan

A5 road (Zimbabwe), a road connecting Harare and FrancistownAmericasQuebec Autoroute 5, a road in Quebec, Canada

County Route A5 (California) or Bowman Road, California, USA

A005 road (Argentina), a road connecting National Route 8 and National Route 36 in the city of Río Cuarto, Córdoba ProvinceAsiaA5 road (Malaysia), a road in Sabah connecting the Route A4 (Sandakan) and Tawau

A 5 road (Sri Lanka), a road connecting Peradeniya and Chenkaladi via Badulla

A5 road, a expressway in China connecting A4 Shanyang Interchange and Jiangsu Province BoundaryAustralasiaA5 highway (Queensland), a road connecting Goondiwindi and Westwood

A5 highway (South Australia), a road connecting the city centre of Adelaide to the beachside suburb of Glenelg

A5 highway (Tasmania), a road connecting Melton Mowbray and DeloraineBritish IslesA5 road (Great Britain), a road connecting London in England and Holyhead in Wales

A5 road (Isle of Man), a road connecting Douglas with Port Erin

A5 road (Northern Ireland), a road connecting Derry and the border in the Republic of IrelandContinental EuropeA5 motorway (Austria), a planned road

A5 motorway (Bulgaria), a road connecting Varna and Burgas

A5 motorway (Croatia), a road connecting Sredanci (A3 motorway) and Osijek

A5 motorway (Cyprus), a road connecting the A1 motorway (at the level of Kofinou village) with the A3 near Larnaca

A5 motorway (France), a road connecting the Parisian region with the Langres area

A5 motorway (Germany), a road connecting Hattenbach and the Swiss border near Basel

A5 motorway (Italy), a road connecting Turin and the Mont-Blanc Tunnel

A5 road (Latvia), a road connecting Riga and Salaspils - Babīte

A5 highway (Lithuania), a road connecting Kaunas to the Poland border

A5 motorway (Netherlands), a road connecting Amsterdam and Hoofddorp

A5 motorway (Portugal), a road connecting Lisbon and Cascais

A5 motorway (Romania), a planned road intended to connect Ploieşti and Albiţa and the Moldovan border

A5 motorway (Slovenia), a road connecting Dragučova A1 interchange north of Maribor and Pince at the Hungarian border

A-5 motorway (Spain), a road connecting Madrid and Badajoz, at the Portuguese border

A5 motorway (Switzerland), a road connecting Luterbach (Solothurn) and Yverdon

Ogwen Cottage

Ogwen Cottage Outdoor Pursuits Centre is situated beside Llyn Ogwen, in Gwynedd, Wales. It is owned by the National Trust, who bought the property at auction in October 2014 for £450,000. It was formerly for many years part of Birmingham City Council's Outdoor Learning Service, providing outdoor education, and with links to the climbing community.

A roads in Zone 5 of the Great Britain road numbering scheme
Wales Trunk Roads in Wales
Managed by the
North and Mid Wales
Trunk Road Agent
Managed by the
South Wales
Trunk Road Agent
Related topics and
further information
Cycle paths
Related articles

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.