A41 road

The A41 is a major trunk road in England that links London and Birkenhead, although it has now in parts been superseded by motorways. It passes through or near various towns and cities including Watford, Kings Langley, Hemel Hempstead, Aylesbury, Solihull, Birmingham, West Bromwich, Wolverhampton, Newport, Whitchurch, Chester and Ellesmere Port.

It follows part of the line of the old Roman road, Akeman Street and the eighteenth century Sparrows Herne turnpike.

With the opening of the M40 extension in 1990 from junction 8 – linking with the M42 near Birmingham – much of the route was downgraded in importance. The sections between Bicester, Oxfordshire and the M42 near Solihull, West Midlands have been re-classified B4100, A4177 and A4141.

UK road A41

A41 road map
Rock Ferry by-pass - DSC02992
Looking towards the northern end of the Rock Ferry bypass near Birkenhead
Route information
Maintained by
Major junctions
Southeast endLondon
M1 motorway

M25 motorway
/UK road A34.svg
M40 motorway/A34 road

M42 motorway
M5 motorway

M54 motorway
UK road A55.svg
A55 road
UK road A550

A550 road

M53 motorway
Northwest endBirkenhead
CountiesGreater London, Hertfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Oxfordshire, West Midlands, Staffordshire, Shropshire, Cheshire, Merseyside
West End
Brent Cross
Hemel Hempstead
West Bromwich
Ellesmere Port
Road network


London to Kings Langley

Oxford Street December 2006.jpeg
The view west along Oxford Street in December 2006, showing Selfridges department store in the background
Edgware, A41 Edgware Way - geograph.org.uk - 92105
The A41 in Edgware
Leavesden Green, A41 North Western Avenue - geograph.org.uk - 66236
The A41 north of Watford, to the east of Junction 19 of the M25

The route begins near the Marble Arch end of Oxford Street (A40) in London's West End, at the junction with Portman Street/Gloucester Place (northbound) – Baker Street/Orchard Street (south-bound). It becomes a dual-carriageway on Finchley Road, through Swiss Cottage, and along Hendon Way, and intersects with the North Circular Road near Brent Cross shopping centre. The road passes through Hendon and after the junction with the A5150, (close to the Metropolitan Police's police college and the RAF Museum). The A41 overlaps the A1 at Five Ways Corner with the section known as Watford Way. It passes through Mill Hill, separating with the A1 at Apex Corner roundabout After crossing the M1, near Elstree, it links the M1 at Junction 4, and then meets the A5 at a roundabout (where the A5 becomes the A5183). The A41 continues alongside the M1 into Hertfordshire. This section is known as Elton Way, as far as the roundabout with the B462. The next section is dual-carriageway.

Still running parallel to the M1, it intersects with Junction 5, (Berrygrove Interchange). The road continues north, passing over the River Colne, to the east of Watford, and it is referred to as the "Watford Bypass", crossing the A412 near Garston at "the Dome roundabout". After passing under the junction with the A405, the A41 turns towards the west. At a roundabout, with the A411 to Watford to the south, and the M25 spur straight ahead to join the M25 westbound at Junction 19, the A41 continues north through Langleybury, crossing the River Gade and the Grand Union Canal, to meet the M25 at Junction 20. Here, a new dual-carriageway bypasses Kings Langley. The old route through Kings Langley is now classified A4251 and continues to south of Tring.

Kings Langley to Tring

A41 Langley Bypass - geograph.org.uk - 156652
The A41 west of Hemel Hempstead, at its junction with the A414

North of the M25 the road is a near motorway standard "A" road with all junctions grade-separated via underpasses or flyovers, but curves and gradients a little steeper. There are no hard shoulders but frequent lay-bys. It climbs through the Chiltern Hills then descends into the valley of the River Bulbourne crossing water meadows just outside Hemel Hempstead at Boxmoor. There are grade separated junctions with the A414, A4251 and A416. The route returns to open country north of here, passing west of Berkhamsted. It passes the National Film Archive. Before Tring, near Wigginton, it crosses the Icknield Way Path and Chiltern Way. An arched footbridge spans the road just near the summit before it passes just east of Tring (for the Ridgeway footpath) and descends the Chiltern scarp into the Vale of Aylesbury.

The Tring bypass was built in 1973 as the A41(M) motorway, the first section of the Watford-Tring Motorway, although this section was downgraded on 6 July 1987.[1] The Tring bypass ends with the border of Hertfordshire, at the junction with the B4635, B4009 (former route through Aston Clinton) and B488.

The section to Tring was finally built in the early 1990s, although to a lower standard and only from the M25 junction 20. There were two sections – the 7-mile (11 km) £23.9m Berkhamsted bypass, opened September 1993 and the 5-mile (8 km) £32.7m Kings Langley bypass, opened August 1993.

Tring to Bicester

A41 near Tring - geograph.org.uk - 185615
The former southern terminus of the A41(M) near Tring

On 3 October 2003, the dual carriageway section was extended to the 3-mile (4.8 km) £25m Aston Clinton Bypass, which was originally intended to be built at the same time as the two sections further south. It enters Buckinghamshire and the district of Aylesbury Vale. It crosses the Grand Union Canal, and there is a junction with the B489, and finishes at a roundabout, becoming Aston Clinton Road. The road goes straight through Aylesbury, which is a bottleneck. It meets the A4157 at a junction as Tring Road, and the next roundabout is near Aylesbury Grammar School and a Tesco. It meets the A418 ring-road and becomes Exchange Street, then meets the A413 from Wendover at a roundabout and becomes Friarage Road, passing close to a Morrisons and the railway station. The A418 turns to the left and A41 continues straight ahead to become Gatehouse Road, then at the next roundabout, it leaves to left as Bicester Road near the Applegreen Aylesbury Service Station. After four roundabouts, it crosses the River Thame. It then meets a roundabout with access for the new Berryfields development as well as Aylesbury Vale Parkway before passing under a railway line, then through Waddesdon, then passes close to Westcott near the former airfield of RAF Westcott. At Kingswood, it passes the Crooked Billet (now the "Akeman Inn") and Plough and Anchor (now an Italian restaurant) pubs. It enters Oxfordshire and the district of Cherwell, and at Blackthorn it crosses the River Ray and meets a low bridge which was originally a 14-foot (4.3 m) limit but due to bridge strikes, the road was lowered and the bridge now has a 15-foot (4.6 m) limit.

Plans for an Aylesbury bypass exist and are well supported locally but no government decision has been made.[2]

Bicester to Solihull

The £5.7m 2-mile (3.2 km) first stage of the Bicester bypass opened in November 1990, with the 2-mile (3.2 km) £3.9m second stage (part of the A421 section to Wendlebury) opened in May 1993, and has many roundabouts. Since 1993, the road now heads south-west where it officially becomes part of the M40 at junction 9, meeting with the A34 (which also overlaps the M40 to Birmingham – to draw traffic off the previous routes). The former route went through Warwick. From here to the M42, the original route is now mainly designated as the B4100 (multiplexing at points with the current A361 and A422 through Banbury, plus the A452 and A425 approaching and through Warwick) followed by the A4177 and A4141, the latter two both excellent wide roads. At junction 5 of the M42, the A41 follows its old course. Further north, the road bypasses Solihull and goes through the city centres of Birmingham and Wolverhampton. This renumbering took place in 1991. The A4141 and B4100 are new designations, while the A4177 is an extension of an existing route.

Solihull to Wolverhampton

The A41 in Solihull - geograph.org.uk - 172091
The A41 bypass of Solihull

Now as an A road, the road manifests from the junction (opened in November 1976) with the A4141 and M42 near Berry Hall Farm (Picture), and crosses the River Blythe and bypasses Solihull. The former route through Solihull is now the B4025 and B425, which passes Solihull School. The A41 has a staggered junction with the B4102 (for Solihull and Catherine-de-Barnes) near the BUPA Parkway Hospital. At Lode Heath, there is crossroads with the B425 (for Solihull Hospital) where the road is the Seven Star Road. The A41 resumes the old route at another junction with the B425, becoming Warwick Road, which is the name of the route all the way into Birmingham. At Worlds End there is the Shell Solihull garage on the left. Next is Ulverley Green and it passes the BP Mereside garage on the right and passes under the Chiltern Main Line (for Leamington) near Olton station, Olton Library and Olton Reservoir. At the junction with the B4514, there is a Tesco petrol station and the road enters the city of Birmingham. The B4514 leads onto Olton Boulevard and can be used to bypass Acocks Green, although there is one section to be completed near Sparkhill. It passes Archbishop Ilsey RC School at Acocks Green, then meets the B4146 and B4217 at a roundabout near a Sainsburys. It meets the A4040 ring road at a staggered junction and crosses the Birmingham -Stratford Line near Tyseley station and the Tyseley Locomotive Works. At Sparkhill, it crosses the River Cole and meets the B4145 at a roundabout near Golden Hillock School. At Sparkbrook, it meets the A34 Stratford Road and there is a crossroads with the A4540 and B4126. The two main routes overlap around central Birmingham and meet the A4540 Middleway inner ring road. The former route of the A41 through inner Birmingham is now the B4100 heading past the National Express Birmingham coach station, and passes near St Chad's RC Cathedral. The A41 resumes at Constitution Hill near Snow Hill train station, passing through Hockley where it meets the northern section of the A4540. There is a staggered junction with the A4040 as the road passes through Handsworth (at this point known as Soho Road) which is a particular bottleneck with narrow lanes, on-street parking, bad drivers and several close-set junction, often very badly congested. Just before The Hawthorns football stadium, home of West Bromwich Albion F.C., it leaves Birmingham and enters the borough of Sandwell. It meets the M5 at junction 1, where it also meets the A4168.

In 2004, there were plans to re-route the road between Birmingham & West Bromwich along the current A457 via Smethwick & up to the M5 at Junction 1 along the current A4168. These plans were scrapped soon after. It bypasses West Bromwich on a dual-carriageway called the Expressway, which opened in 1973. There is a roundabout with the A4031 and the former route follows the A4196 from a roundabout.

The new route opened in 1995 and is called the Black Country New Road, and crosses the Midland Metro tram near Guns Village. There is a roundabout with the B4149 at Swan Village. From the roundabout with the A461 (for Dudley) at Great Bridge, it overlaps the A461 (to Walsall), crosses the Tame Valley Canal, meets the A4037 at a roundabout and goes under the Midland Metro near Wednesbury Parkway station. The A461 heads off to junction 9 of the M6 and Walsall. The A41 follows the old route from the next roundabout and enters the borough of Walsall. At the junction with the A4444 (the final phase of the Black Country New Road) it crosses the Walsall Canal.

There are junctions with the A4098 (where the road enters the borough of Wolverhampton) and B4163. The road goes straight through the middle of Bilston, where it meets the dual-carriageway A463 Black Country Route at a busy roundabout. Close by is the Bilston Central station, near Morrisons. There is a junction with the B4484 (for the A454) near The Crescent tram stop. At Priestfield, it meets the B4162, and passes the City of Wolverhampton College Wellington Road Campus (Bilston) near Priestfield station. From here, the Midland Metro runs down the centre of the road. There is a roundabout with the A4126 and the road passes under the Wolverhampton loop of the West Coast Main Line at Monmore Green, and crosses the Birmingham Canal. It overlaps the A4150 Wolverhampton Ring Road, then passes West Park Hospital and crosses the Staffordshire & Worcestershire Canal. It passes through Tettenhall, past Tettenhall College.

Wolverhampton to Newport

It leaves the borough of Wolverhampton near Wergs where it crosses the River Penk. It passes Wrottesley Hall, where there is a golf course. There is a junction with the A464 (for Shifnal), and the road enters Shropshire. It crosses the Wolverhampton to Shrewsbury Line on the Albrighton bypass. The Monarch's Way crosses and the road passes close to the RAF Museum at Cosford (through the middle of the RAF base). There is the M54 junction 3 and the road passes through Tong, and is crossed by the Monarch's Way. Close by to the east is one of the sites of the V Festival at Weston Park. The road meets the A5 at a roundabout, which is on the border with Staffordshire. At Weston Heath, there is a junction with the B5314. At the junction of the B4379, the road enters Telford and Wrekin. Nearby is Woodcote Hall (now a nursing home). The 5-mile (8.0 km) £6m Newport bypass opened in early 1985. The former route went through Chetwynd Aston. Newport is home of the Harper Adams agricultural university, at Edgmond. The road meets the A518 (for Telford) at a roundabout. There is another roundabout with the A518 for the eastern direction (which passes nearby Aqualate Park). There is a roundabout with the A519 and B5062 (for Whitchurch).

Newport to Whitchurch

The road rejoins the old route and passes Chetwynd Park. The £1.5m Hinstock Bypass opened in late 1983 It then passes through Standford, Standford Bridge and over the River Meese. It passes High Heath, Shakeford, Crickmery which is near Wistanswick. Nearby is the former wartime fighter base RAF Ternhill, now an army base known as Clive Barracks. The road crosses the River Tern, meets the A53 at a roundabout at Ternhill. After Bletchley Manor, there is 3 miles (4.8 km) of dual carriageway. The road passes through Prees Higher Heath near a former airfield (RAF Tilstock), and meets the A49 at a roundabout near Tilstock. The 3-mile (4.8 km) £13.7m Whitchurch Bypass opened in July 1992, where the road meets the A49.

Whitchurch to Birkenhead

Chester Road (A41) from Backford Cross - geograph.org.uk - 216657
Looking north from Backford Cross roundabout towards Great Sutton

The final stretch of the road leaves Shropshire and heads north through Cheshire on a modern alignment bypassing the villages of Tushingham cum Grindley and No Mans Heath before reaching a nineteenth century bypass of the stagecoach road through Broxton. The road crosses the A534 at Broxton Roundabout before passing Beeston, Bolesworth and Peckforton Castles. The road bypasses Chester, before running through the suburbs of Ellesmere Port (where the road was downgraded for safety reasons in the early 1990s). It heads to junction 5 of the M53 motorway and the Merseyside county boundary at Hooton. From this junction it is named New Chester Road, passing through Eastham and Bromborough. At Port Sunlight the A41 diverts onto a dual-carriageway section bypassing New Ferry and Rock Ferry before rejoining New Chester Road at Tranmere Oil Terminal. After passing Green Lane railway station, a 2.3 miles (3.7 km) spur of the A41 separates at the southern approach to the Queensway Tunnel, which passes under the River Mersey and enters Liverpool to meet the start of the A59.

The road then passes a junction with the A554 near Hamilton Square railway station, terminating at the bus station at Woodside. The end of the road has views over the Mersey to Liverpool and transport links to Mersey Ferry services.

Major junctions

A41 road major junctions
Southbound exits Junction Northbound exits
Greater London
Road continues as North Audley Street towards Grosvenor Square
Oxford Street Start of road
Piccadilly Circus, Oxford Circus A5204
Marble Arch A5204
Portman Square Oxford Circus, Piccadilly Circus A5204
Start of congestion charge End of congestion charge
Swiss Cottage, St John's Wood, Marylebone BR-logo.svg (A41) York Street UK traffic sign 612.svg
(A40, A4), Notting Hill Gate, Westminster, Paddington A501 Baker Street Ring road, (A40, A4), Westminster, Paddington A501
Ring road, (A400, A1, A10), The City, Euston, Kings Cross A501
Camden Town A5205
Paddington, Maida Vale A5205
Lord's Roundabout Paddington, St John's Wood A5205
Camden Town A5205
Camden Town B509
Kilburn B509
Swiss Cottage Kilburn B509
Hampstead B511
Camden Town, Chalk Farm B509
Kilburn, West Hampstead B510 B510
Golders Green A598 (TOTSO NB) Finchley, Golders Green A598
Golders Green (A598)
Willesden, Cricklewood A407
Willesden, Cricklewood A407
North Circular A406, (A10), (M11), Wood Green, (M1), (A40), Wembley, Brent Cross Brent Cross The NORTH, Watford (M1), North Circular A406, Wood Green, Brent Cross
Golders Green B551 Hendon Central West Hendon (A504)
Colindale A504 A504
No access (on-slip only) Colindeep Colindale A5150
Start of road M1 J2[a] Finchley A1
Concurrency with A1
The NORTH, Hatfield A1, (M25) Apex Corner Start of road
Harrow, Stanmore A410, Edgware (A5) Harrow, Stanmore A410
M1 J4
Brockley Hill Roundabout

History of the road number

The original (1923) route was Stanmore north-west of London to Oakengates, west of Wolverhampton, in Shropshire, meeting the A5 at both ends.

The A41 was extended by numbering as follows:

The northern extension dates from 1935; in Shropshire, it swapped with a combination of the A464/A529; from Kingswood Common to Nantwich, Cheshire and the original A529 ran from Hinstock to Chester. North of Chester, the A41 replaced part of the A51.

The southern extension dates from after the Second World War using Watford Way which opened in about 1930 as the A5088. In the remaining years after 1935, it was renumbered A500.

See also


  1. ^ No direct access between the M1 and A41.


  1. ^ A41(M) at Pathetic Motorways. Accessed January 2009
  2. ^ Speak now if you want a bypass by Hartley-Parkinson The Bucks Herald, 21 March 2007. Accessed January 2009.

External links

Coordinates: 52°25′09″N 1°46′01″W / 52.4193°N 1.7670°W

Akeman Street

Akeman Street was a major Roman road in England that linked Watling Street with the Fosse Way. Its junction with Watling Street was just north of Verulamium (near modern St Albans) and that with the Fosse Way was at Corinium Dobunnorum (now Cirencester). Evidence suggests that the route may well have been an older track, metalled and reorganised by the Romans. Its course passes through towns and villages including Hemel Hempstead, Berkhamsted, Tring, Aylesbury, Alchester (outside modern Bicester), Chesterton, Kirtlington, Ramsden and Asthall. Parts of the A41 road between Berkhamsted and Bicester use the course of the former Roman road, as did the Sparrows Herne turnpike between Berkhamsted and Aylesbury. A minor road between Chesterton and Kirtlington also uses its course. Other parts are in use as public footpaths, including a 6-mile (9.7 km) stretch between Tackley and Stonesfield that is part of the Oxfordshire Way.

The origins of the road's name are uncertain but certainly date back to the Early Middle Ages. Some have suggested that "Akeman" derives from the Anglo-Saxon words for "oak-man". Others have suggested a connection with Bath, which the Anglo-Saxons called Acemannesceastre (Acemannes apparently being derived from the Roman name Aquae Sulis). It is unclear how this might have become associated with the road, but one possibility is that the name was originally used for the longer stretch of road from Bath.The name "Akeman Street" is also given to the Roman road that ran from Ermine Street near Wimpole Hall northeast to the settlement at Durolipons (Cambridge), where it crossed the Roman road known as the Via Devana. Within north Cambridge, the road followed the present-day Stretten Avenue, Carlton Way and Mere Way running northeast past Landbeach before joining the present A10 and on towards Ely and The Fens. It then reached Denver and the coast at Brancaster.

Akeman Street railway station

Akeman Street was a railway station at Woodham, Buckinghamshire, where the railway linking Ashendon Junction and Grendon Underwood Junction crossed the Akeman Street Roman road (now the A41 road).


Ambrosden is a village and civil parish in Cherwell, Oxfordshire, England, 3 miles (5 km) southwest of Bicester to which it is linked by the A41 road, and 13 miles (21 km) from Oxford. The 2011 Census recorded the parish's population as 2,248. The parish is bounded by the River Ray to the south, its tributary the River Bure to the west, the outskirts of Bicester to the north and field boundaries to the east.The village is 2 miles (3 km) east of Alchester Roman Town. Ambrosden has a Church of England parish church and a public house. Since the Second World War Ambrosden has housed British Army personnel stationed at St. George's Barracks, which is at Arncott about 1 1⁄2 miles (2.4 km) south of Ambrosden. The Ministry of Defence had many new houses built at Ambrosden in the early 1950s.

Cosford, Shropshire

Cosford is a village in Shropshire, England. It is located on the A41 road, which is itself just south of junction 3 on the M54 motorway. The village is very small and is mostly made up of dwellings that house Royal Air Force personnel who work at the adjacent RAF Cosford.

Fleet Marston

Fleet Marston is a civil parish and deserted medieval village in the Aylesbury Vale district of Buckinghamshire, England, about 2.5 miles (4 km) northwest of the centre of Aylesbury. The parish measures about 2.5 miles (4 km) north – south, but east – west it is nowhere more than about 3⁄4 mile (1.2 km) wide. It is bounded to the southeast by the River Thame, to the east by a stream that joins the Thame, and to the west by field boundaries. It has an area of 934 acres (378 ha).The A41 main road between Aylesbury and Waddesdon runs through the middle of the parish. Aylesbury Vale Parkway railway station is on the A41 road, just outside the parish's eastern boundary.

In 2010 the Office for National Statistics estimated the parish population to be 47. The 2011 Census included its population in that of the civil parish of Waddesdon.

Great Sutton

Great Sutton is a village, in the unitary authority of Cheshire West and Chester and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, England. It is in the town of Ellesmere Port, and as with Little Sutton to the north, it was once a separate village which was incorporated into Ellesmere Port as it expanded outwards.

Mentioned in the Domesday Book as part of the parish of Eastham in the Wirral Hundred,

Great Sutton became part of Ellesmere Port civil parish in 1950. The population was 153 in 1801, 203 in 1851 and 397 in 1901.Great Sutton is a residential area in close proximity to the A41 road that links Birkenhead and Chester. Dating back to about 1850 is the 'White Swan Inn' public house. Consecrated in November 1879, the Church of St John the Evangelist is located on Chester Road (A41).The village was struck by an F1/T3 tornado on 23 November 1981, as part of the record-breaking nationwide tornado outbreak on that day.

Ham Home-cum-Hamgreen Woods

Ham Home-cum-Hamgreen Woods is a 23.2 hectare biological Site of Special Scientific Interest in KIngswood near Grendon Underwood in Buckinghamshire. It is composed of two separate areas, Ham Home Wood and Hamgreen Wood, and is a small part of the formerly extensive Bernwood Forest.The site is woodland on clay, and although most of it has been coppiced at different times, it has a varied structure, and rich variety of flora and invertebrates. These factors, together with the presence of wild service trees, show that the woods are ancient. The main tree is oak, with and understorey which includes wych elm, crab apple and guelder rose. Flowers include primroses and bluebells, and in wetter areas there are ragged robin and marsh bedstraw. The woods have the largest British breeding colony of the nationally rare black hairstreak butterfly.There is access from the A41 road and Grendon Road

Hendon Way

Hendon Way is one of London's busiest roads. It connects Finchley Road to Watford Way. It passes through Cricklewood and Hendon, and forms part of the A41 road.


Hinstock is a village and civil parish in Shropshire, England.

It appeared in the Domesday book survey as "Stoche" (from Old English stoc, "dependent settlement"); the present version of its name was created in the mediaeval period by prefixing Middle English hine ("domestic servants").Hinstock is approximately halfway between the market towns of Newport and Market Drayton. The A41 road, which until the 1980s ran through its centre, now bypasses the village. Hinstock is at the junction of the A529 road joining to Nantwich to the A41. A Roman road still exists in part as a road and as a footpath through Hinstock. The settlement of High Heath is to the north of the village alongside the A41 and to the west of Hinstock (at grid reference SJ682260) and forming part of the civil parish is the hamlet of Pixley.

Hinstock's facilities include a primary school; a village shop and post office; St Oswald's Church of England parish church; a pub named the Falcon Inn; a village hall; a Methodist chapel; two tennis courts; a football pitch; a five a side court; a cricket pitch; a small snooker hall and a running club.

Victorian hymn-writer and hymnologist John Ellerton was parish Rector of Hinstock from 1872 to 1876.The village hall was built as a memorial after World War I, as was a wheel cross monument which stands at a junction in the village.Near the village is a very small nature reserve, Quarry Wood, which is managed by the Shropshire Wildlife Trust.

From 1941 to 1947 there was a co-located Royal Air Force and Royal Navy Fleet Air Arm training station called HMS Godwit, which specialised in instrument and blind landing technologies. A Royal Navy officer and seaman from the base are buried in Hinstock Church's burial ground.

Little Sutton, Cheshire

Little Sutton is a village in north west Cheshire, England, located between Childer Thornton and Great Sutton. It is a suburb of the town of Ellesmere Port and part of the unitary authority of Cheshire West and Chester.

Formerly a township in the parish of Eastham in the Wirral Hundred, Little Sutton became part of Ellesmere Port civil parish in 1950. The population was 166 in 1801, 432 in 1851 and 1,109 in 1901.Little Sutton is mostly residential and sits either side of the A41 road, linking Birkenhead and Chester. Little Sutton railway station is situated on the Wirral Line of the Merseyrail network. The 'Old Red Lion' public house, which was rebuilt in 1934 to replace a much older building, is located near the junction of Chester Road (A41) and Station Road (B5463).

Long Herdon Meadow

Long Herdon Meadow is a 4.5 hectare biological Site of Special Scientific Interest south of Marsh Gibbon in Buckinghamshire. It is part of Upper Ray Meadows nature reserve, which is managed by the Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire Wildlife Trust.The site is an alluvial meadow next to the River Ray in the Vale of Aylesbury. It has clay soil and is liable to flooding. A regime of a hay cut followed by cattle grazing, without the use of artificial fertilisers, has resulted in a diverse grassland habitat now rare in England. Herbs include meadow buttercup, lesser knapweed and devil's bit scabious. Ditches and the riverbank provide a permanently wet habitat, encouraging wading birds such as snipe and curlew. Invertebrates include damselflies.There is access from the Bernwood Jubilee Way between Marsh Gibbon and the A41 road, adjacent to the River Ray.

No Man's Heath, Cheshire

No Man's Heath is a village in the unitary authority of Cheshire West and Chester and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, England. Its name has historically also been spelt Nomansheath and Noman's Heath, the latter being the version formerly favoured by the General Post Office.It lies 2 miles (3.2 km) east of the village of Malpas and 5 miles (8 km) north-west of Whitchurch, Shropshire. Originally on the A41 road, there is now a bypass. Bickleywood is a very small settlement about 1 km to the east. The settlement of No Man's Heath was, historically, largely within the boundaries of Macefen civil parish until 2015 boundary changes which created the civil parish of No Man's Heath and District.There is no church in the village, due to the proximity of the church in Tushingham. However, there are The Wheatsheaf Inn, a disused non-conformist chapel and a small telephone exchange (which was called "Noman's Heath" in the days when exchanges had names) in close proximity to one another.

The southern section of the 30-mile Sandstone Trail footpath passes just east of the village, while the 200-mile Marches Way footpath passes just south. The Sustrans Regional Route 70 cycleway passes through the village, running out from Malpas.

Just over two miles east of the village is the 19th century Cholmondeley Castle and gardens. Just to the north is the well-preserved Iron Age hillfort of Maiden Castle, spectacularly sited above the Dee valley.

The Whitchurch and Tattenhall Railway used to pass within a kilometre of the village but the nearest station was Malpas railway station which was nearly three kilometres away and actually in Hampton Heath.

Sparrows Herne Turnpike Road

Sparrows Herne Turnpike Road from London to Aylesbury was an 18th-century English toll road passing through Watford and Hemel Hempstead. The route was approximately that of the original A41 road; the Edgware Road, through Watford, Kings Langley, Apsley, the Boxmoor area of Hemel Hempstead, Berkhamsted and Tring. Much of this part is now numbered the A4251 road. It linked in with other turnpikes to the north forming a route to Birmingham.

The turnpike trust was set up in 1762 by around 300 landed gentry to look after about 26 miles of road between Sparrows Herne near Bushey and Walton near Aylesbury. It was the turnpike's depot at Sparrows Herne which gave the road its name.

The frequent use of the route by heavy carts carrying grain to London made it notorious for its rutted and pitted state even after being made into a turnpike.

The turnpike survived the coming of the railways until 1872, when it passed to the route's various parishes and highway boards to maintain and the tolls were removed.

St Chad's Chapel, Tushingham

St Chad's Chapel (often referred to as Old St Chad's) is an isolated church in the scattered community of Tushingham in the civil parish of Tushingham-cum-Grindley, Macefen and Bradley, Cheshire, England. The only approach to the chapel is on footpaths across fields from the A41 road. It is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade I listed building.

St Mary's Church, Fleet Marston

'St Mary's Church is the redundant Church of England parish church of the deserted medieval village of Fleet Marston, Buckinghamshire, England. It is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade II* listed building, and is under the care of the Churches Conservation Trust. The church stands in a field to the northeast of the A41 road, some 2 miles (3 km) northwest of Aylesbury. John Wesley preached his first sermon in the church soon after he was ordained deacon in September 1725.

St Oswald's Church, Backford

St Oswald's Church is in the village of Backford, to the northwest of Chester, Cheshire, England, close to the A41 road and adjoining Backford Hall. It is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade II* listed building. The church dates from the 14th century with later additions and restorations. It contains one of the few surviving aumbries in Cheshire and a number of memorial boards painted by the Randle Holme family. It is an active Anglican parish church in the diocese of Chester, the archdeaconry of Chester and the deanery of Wirral South. Its benefice is combined with that of Holy Trinity Church, Capenhurst. From March 2018 this benefice shares a Vicar with All Saints, Saughall.


Waddesdon is a village within the Aylesbury Vale district in Buckinghamshire, England, 6 miles from Aylesbury on the A41 road. The centre of a civil parish, which also includes the hamlets of Eythrope and Wormstone, Waddesdon was an agricultural settlement with milling, silk weaving and lace making enterprises.

Warmington, Warwickshire

Warmington is a village and civil parish in the Stratford-on-Avon district of Warwickshire, England. It is located on the border with Oxfordshire, around 5 miles (8 km) northwest of Banbury. The civil parish had, according to the 2001 Census a population of 297 increasing to 304 at the 2011 Census. The parish also includes Arlescote and the council is called Warmington & Arlescote. The National Herb Centre is found just outside the village.

Warmington is on the northern side of Edge Hill, a prominent local ridge. Its church is one of six that make up the Edgehill group, along with those of nearby Radway, Ratley and Shotteswell. The village is also regarded as being part of the informal area of Banburyshire. The M40 motorway passes just to the north and east of Warmington. Before the motorway was built, the village lay on the A41 road.

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