The A413 is a major road in England that runs between Gerrards Cross (west of London) to Towcester (northwest of Milton Keynes). It passes through or near various towns and villages including (in northbound order) Amersham, Great Missenden, Wendover, Aylesbury, Winslow, and Buckingham. Most of the road is in Buckinghamshire, with a part at the north end in Northamptonshire.
In the 1960s, a by-pass was built around Great Missenden and re-routing has taken place through Aylesbury town centre. In recent years, by-passes have been built for Amersham (1987) and Wendover (1998). In the early 21st century, the junction near Towcester where the A413 joins the A43 has also been redeveloped along with much-needed A43 redevelopment around Silverstone Circuit.
That part of the route which runs along the Misbourne Valley dates back into pre-history. In Medieval times, the Cartulary of Missenden Abbey simply recorded the road as "the Kings Highway". Also just north of Aylesbury the road crosses Holman's Bridge, the location in 1642 of the Battle of Aylesbury.
The section of the A413 between Aylesbury and Winslow is known locally for its high accident rate. A number of signs have been put up along this stretch of road stating how many casualties have occurred on the road in recent years. The stretch has a high number of blind turnings, sudden speed limits and steep gradients. The worst accident to occur in recent years was in 2003 when a lorry crashed through the side of a bridge just south of the hamlet of Hardwick. The road was closed completely for two days resulting in all bus services being diverted onto the A418 or A41.
|South end||Gerrards Cross, Buckinghamshire|
Aylesbury rockstar John Otway wrote a B-Side about the road on his Number 9 hit single "Bunsen Burner." The song was called "A413 Revisited" and is about John returning home no longer as a one hit wonder but as a two hit artist. The chorus is:
- "From Amersham, to Missenden,
- to Wendover to the Vale of Aylesbury,
- that's me heading down the 4-1-3"
The Buckingham Arm is a canal that once ran from Cosgrove, Northamptonshire to Buckingham (in England). It was built as an arm of the Grand Junction Canal, in two separate phases, opening in 1800 and 1801. It was disused from 1932, but was not finally abandoned until 1964. It is now the subject of a restoration programme with the Buckingham end holding water for a length of nearly 400m.Great Western and Great Central Joint Railway
The Great Western and Great Central Joint Railway was a railway built and operated jointly by the Great Western Railway (GWR) and Great Central Railway (GCR) between Northolt (in north west London) and Ashendon Junction (west of Aylesbury). It was laid out as a trunk route with gentle curves and gradients and spacious track layouts. The two companies each needed approach railways at both ends of the line to connect their respective systems, and these were built as part of a single project.
The joint line opened in 1905 and gave the GCR a better route than previously for its London Extension from Nottingham and Leicester. When the GWR completed its "Bicester Cut-off", combined with the Joint Line itself the GWR had a much shorter and better route for its Birmingham and Birkenhead traffic.
Most of the GCR's London Extension was closed in 1966 but the Joint Line, the GCR approach through Wembley and the GWR Bicester Cut-off are still in use as a secondary main line from London to Birmingham, in intensive use by Chiltern Railways.High Speed 2
High Speed 2 (HS2) is a planned high-speed railway in the United Kingdom. Sections of the railway are under construction, other sections await approval, while some sections will have design amendments to integrate with Northern Powerhouse Rail. HS2 is intended to link London, Birmingham, the East Midlands, Leeds and Manchester. Scheduled to open in phases between 2026 and 2033, high-speed trains will travel up to 225 mph (362 km/h) on 330 miles (530 km) of track. It will be the second high-speed rail line in Britain, the first being High Speed 1 (HS1), which connects London to the Channel Tunnel, commissioned in the mid-2000s. There are no plans to connect HS1 to HS2 in London.
When complete, HS2 will be shaped like a letter "Y" with London at the base, Birmingham at the split, Leeds at top right, and Manchester top left.
The two phases of the project are:
Phase 1 – from London to the West Midlands, with the first services scheduled for 2026.
Phase 2 – from the West Midlands to Leeds and Manchester, scheduled for full completion by 2033.Phase 2 is split into two sub-phases:
Phase 2a – from the West Midlands to Crewe, with the first services scheduled for 2027.
Phase 2b – from Crewe to Manchester, and from the West Midlands to Leeds, with the first services scheduled for 2033.Peak-hour capacity at the HS2 London terminal at London Euston is predicted to more than triple when the network is fully operational, increasing from 11,300 to 34,900 passengers each way. Two fleets of trains will provide services on the new routes: one fleet will be dedicated to the high-speed track, called "captive" trains, servicing Birmingham, Leeds, London and Manchester. The second fleet is called "classic compatible" extending the reach of HS2 to cities on the existing classic network by operating on a mixture of high-speed track and existing slower tracks. Classic compatible trains will serve Carlisle, Chesterfield, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Liverpool, Newcastle, Preston, Sheffield and York.HS2 is being developed by High Speed Two (HS2) Ltd, a private company limited by guarantee established by the UK government. In July 2017, decisions on the full "Y" route were approved by Parliament, and the complete project is estimated to cost £56 billion. Construction of Phase 1 began in 2017.History of High Speed 2
The history of High Speed 2 is the background to the planned construction of High Speed 2 (HS2), a new high-speed railway in Great Britain that will connect London, Birmingham, Manchester, Leeds and other cities in the UK.
Construction is planned in two phases: Phase One will include the route from London to Birmingham, and Phase 2 will consist of a Y-shaped route north of Birmingham to Manchester and Leeds. Work on Phase One of the route began in 2017, and passenger services are planned to begin in 2026. Phase 2a to Crewe on the initial part of the western leg of the "Y" is due to start services in 2027, and the remainder of phase 2b by 2033.Holman's Bridge
Holman's Bridge is a brick-built bridge on the A413 to the north of Aylesbury in Buckinghamshire, England. It is where the A413 road crosses the River Thame. Aylesbury's first Charter of Incorporation in 1554 marked Holman's Bridge as the northernmost boundary of the town.Linford Christie
Linford Cicero Christie (born 2 April 1960) is a Jamaican-born British former sprinter. He is the only British man to have won gold medals in the 100 metres at all four major competitions open to British athletes: the Olympic Games, the World Championships, the European Championships and the Commonwealth Games. He was the first European to break the 10-second barrier in the 100 m and still holds the British record in the event. He is a former world indoor record holder over 200 metres, and a former European record holder in the 60 metres, 100 m and 4 × 100 metres relay.
He remains one of the most highly decorated British athletes of all-time. By the end of his track career Christie had won 24 medals overall, more than any other British male athlete before or since. In 1993 he was awarded the BBC Sports Personality of the Year.
Despite first testing positive for a prohibited substance in 1988, it was only following his failed drug testing in 1999 that he was banned from competition by IAAF.Little Missenden
Little Missenden is a village and civil parish on the River Misbourne in Buckinghamshire, England. It is in the Chiltern Hills, about 3 miles (5 km) southeast of Great Missenden and 3 miles (5 km) west of Amersham.
The parish includes the villages of Holmer Green, Hyde Heath and Little Kingshill, and the hamlets of Beamond End, Brays Green, Mop End and Spurlands End. The 2011 Census recorded the population of the ward of Little Missenden (which includes Hyde Heath and Little Kingshill) as 2,234. The population of the entire parish was estimated as 6,490 in 2017.The main London – Aylesbury road used to run through the centre of Little Missenden and past the two pubs – The Red Lion and The Crown. Early in the 19th century a new by-pass road was built to the north and this now forms part of the modern A413 road.London–Aylesbury line
The London–Aylesbury Line is a railway line between London Marylebone and Aylesbury, going via the Chiltern Hills; it is operated by Chiltern Railways. Nearly half of the line is owned by London Underground, approximately 16 miles (26 km) – the total length of the passenger line is about 39 miles (63 km) with a freight continuation.
The line is part of the former trunk route, the Great Central Main Line.Wendover
Wendover is a market town and civil parish at the foot of the Chiltern Hills in Buckinghamshire, England. It is situated at the point where the main road across the Chilterns between London and Aylesbury intersects with the once important road along the foot of the Chilterns. The town is some 35 miles (56 km) north west of London and 5 miles (8 km) south east of Aylesbury, and is very popular with commuters working in London.The parish has an area of 5,832 acres (2,360 ha) and had, at the time of the 2011 census, a population of 7,399. Outside the town of Wendover, the parish is mainly arable and also contains many hamlets that nestle in amongst the woodlands on the surrounding hills. Although Wendover has a weekly market, and has had a market charter since medieval times, many of its inhabitants identify it as a village, and the parish council does not describe itself as a town council.The town name is of Brythonic origin and means "white water", referring to the stream that rises in the adjacent hills and flows through the middle of the town, bringing chalk deposits on its way.Whitchurch, Buckinghamshire
Whitchurch is a village and civil parish in the Aylesbury Vale district of Buckinghamshire, England. The village is on the A413 road about 4 miles (6.4 km) north of Aylesbury and 4.5 miles (7 km) south of Winslow. The 2011 Census recorded a parish population of 932.Winslow, Buckinghamshire
Winslow is a market town and civil parish designated as a town council in the Aylesbury Vale district of north Buckinghamshire. It has a population of just over 4,400.Winslow Hall
Winslow Hall is a country house, now in the center of the small town of Winslow, Buckinghamshire, England, built in 1700; it was sited in the centre of the town, with a public front facing the highway and a garden front that still commanded 22 acres (89,000 m2) in 2007, due to William Lowndes' gradual purchase of a block of adjacent houses and gardens from 1693 onwards. The architect of the mansion has been a matter of prolonged architectural debate: the present candidates are Sir Christopher Wren or a draughtsman, whether in the Board of Works, which Wren oversaw, or a talented provincial architect.
A roads in Zone 4 of the Great Britain road numbering scheme