A2A S.p.A. is an Italian utility company born out of the merger of two independent Italian companies, AEM (Azienda Energetica Municipale) of Milan and ASM Brescia (Azienda dei Servizi Municipalizzati) at the end of 2007. It is the first Italian operator in the private urban waste sector to work 24 hours for an energy production of 1.5 TWh. It is the third largest company in Italy in the production and distribution of electricity. The A2A Group is listed on the Borsa Italiana and is a member of the FTSE MIB index. As well as Italy, the firm operates in Spain, France, England and Montenegro.
|Società per Azioni|
|Traded as||BIT: A2A|
FTSE MIB Component
|Founded||1 January 2008|
|Luca Valerio Camerano (CEO and Managing Director)|
|Services||Gas and electricity distribution, water distribution and treatment, waste management|
|Revenue||€6.041 billion (2010)|
|€498 million (2010)|
|€308 million (2010)|
|Total assets||€12.36 billion (end 2010)|
|Total equity||€4.845 billion (end 2010)|
Number of employees
|12,170 (end 2010)|
The A2A Spa Group is mainly active in the following sectors:
Activities are organised in four “distribution chains”:
The activity is aimed at the wholesale and retail market of electrical energy and natural gas. Support to the marketing areas is guaranteed by activities of fuel supply, the programming and system control of electrical energy generating plants, the optimisation of portfolio and trading in the domestic and foreign markets
The activity is principally aimed at the sale of heating and electricity produced by cogeneration plants (mostly belonging to the Group). The sale of cogenerated heat is effected by means of district heating networks. The distribution chain guarantees too the service of managing heating plant property of third parties (heat management service) and activities of facility management.
The activity relates to the whole cycle of waste handling, from the collection and refuse sweeping to the treatment, disposal, and recouping of material and energy. Included in fact within the activity of this distribution chain is the recouping of energy content in waste by means of waste to energy or biogas plants.
The activity includes the techno-operating management of networks of transmission and distribution of electrical energy, transport and distribution of natural gas and the handling of the entire Integrated Water Cycle (Water collection, management of aqueducts, water distribution, management of sewage networks, purification).
The Corporate Services comprise the activities of consultancy, strategic policy, co-ordination and control of industrial management, as well as services to support business and operating activities (e.g. services of administration and accounting, financial, legal, supply, personnel management, information technology, communication etc.). Other Services comprise activities relating to public lighting, equipment for traffic control, video surveillance and the management of votive lamps.
01.01.2008 Start up of A2A Spa
24.12.2007 Drawing up of separation proceedings of AMSA and the merger proceedings of AMSA with AEM and of ASM with AEM
19.12.2007 Antitrust Authorisation
22.10.2007 Approval of the project by Extraordinary Meeting of ASM and AEM
23.07.2007 Approval of the Milan Municipal Council
27.06.2007 Approval of the Brescia Municipal Council
25.06.2007 Board of Directors of AEM, ASM, AMSA to approve the merger plans
04.06.2007 Signing of Agreement with Milan and Brescia Municipalities
04.06.2007 Board of Directors of AEM, ASM, AMSA to approve the Framework Agreement
18.12.2006 Board of Directors of AEM, ASM, to approve the Industrial Plan relating to company integration
The company is governed via a two-tier board structure, comprising a management board and an independent supervisory board.
The supervisory board is composed of 15 directors, of whom 6 are appointed directly by the Brescia Municipality, 6 by the Milan Municipality and the remaining three by a vote from the list of the remaining shareholders. The current chairman and vice-chairman of the supervisory board are Graziano Tarantini and Rosario Bifulco.
The management board is composed of 8 directors appointed by the supervisory board, on the basis of lists supplied by the supervisory directors. The chairman and vice-chairman of the management board are Giuliano Zuccoli and Vittorio Cinquini.
Zero Impact, many advantages. The A2A project for electric vehicles for the sustainable city
The project for electric vehicles “E-Moving” has been presented at Palazzo Marino, the Headquarters of the Milan Municipality.
The pilot phase will start in June 2010 in the cities of Milan and Brescia and will continue for a year.
The two Lombardy cities are vying to become the “reference cities” for electric transport in Italy, starting first of all with the development of a structured, complete and avant-garde electrical recharging network.
The recharging infrastructure, whose installation by A2A in the cities of Milan and Brescia will commence in May, will be developed to carry out two recharging methods:
The electrical energy supplied by A2A for recharging electric vehicles will derive significantly from renewable sources, this being a useful factor in pursuing an objective of a complete zero emission cycle.
The vehicles that will be involved in the “E-MOVING” pilot scheme are two of the four comprising the Renault-Nissan Zero Emission range that will come onto the market as from 2011.
The Renault-Nissan Alliance and A2A will work together to offer customers a wide range of commercial solutions for the purchase or the hire of Renault and Nissan zero emission vehicles and for the supply of electrical energy at a flat rate or based on consumption
8-Phenyltheophylline (8-phenyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine, 8-PT) is a drug derived from the xanthine family which acts as a potent and selective antagonist for the adenosine receptors A1 and A2A, but unlike other xanthine derivatives has virtually no activity as a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. It has stimulant effects in animals with similar potency to caffeine. Coincidentally 8-phenyltheophylline has also been found to be a potent and selective inhibitor of the liver enzyme CYP1A2 which makes it likely to cause interactions with other drugs which are normally metabolised by CYP1A2.A2A Simulations
Air to Air Simulations (A2A) specializes in the development and publication of flight simulations, strategy games, visual effects, and sound. The company is based in Simsbury, Connecticut.
Formerly known as "Shockwave Productions Inc." (see History below), the company built its reputation for designing high quality flight simulation products. A2A also has designed its own proprietary Air-Combat computer game engine called the "Merlin Air Combat Engine", which is used in A2A's 2005 release, Battle of Britain II: Wings of Victory. The release was met with many favorable reviews, and won several awards including the SimHQ Best of 2006 award.ATL-444
ATL-444 is a drug which acts as a potent and reasonably selective antagonist for the adenosine receptors A1 and A2A. It has been used to study the role of the adenosine receptor system in the reinforcing action of cocaine.Adenosine A2A receptor
The adenosine A2A receptor, also known as ADORA2A, is an adenosine receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it.Adenosine receptor
The adenosine receptors (or P1 receptors) are a class of purinergic G protein-coupled receptors with adenosine as endogenous ligand. There are four known types of adenosine receptors in humans: A1, A2A, A2B and A3; each is encoded by a different gene.
The adenosine receptors are commonly known for their antagonists caffeine and theophylline, whose action on the receptors produces the stimulating effects of coffee, tea and chocolate.CGS-15943
CGS-15943 is a drug which acts as a potent and reasonably selective antagonist for the adenosine receptors A1 and A2A, having a Ki of 3.3nM at A2A and 21nM at A1. It was one of the first adenosine receptor antagonists discovered that is not a xanthine derivative, instead being a triazoloquinazoline. Consequently, CGS-15943 has the advantage over most xanthine derivatives that it is not a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, and so has more a specific pharmacological effects profile. It produces similar effects to caffeine in animal studies, though with higher potency.CGS-21680
CGS-21680 is a specific adenosine A2A subtype receptor agonist. It is usually presented as an organic hydrochloride salt with a molecular weight of 536.0 g/M. It is soluble up to 3.4 mg/mL in DMSO and 20 mg/mL in 45% (w/v) aq 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin.
The chemical is currently used by researchers interested in studying neuronal transmission with a high-affinity, subtype specific analogue for adenosine. This includes research in respiration where it is believed that A2A receptors are involved in rhythm generation in the pre-Bötzinger complex. The drug is not currently approved for use in a therapeutic capacity.Caffeine dependence
Caffeine is a commonplace central nervous system stimulant drug which occurs in nature as part of the coffee, tea, yerba mate and other plants. It is also an additive in many consumer products, most notably beverages advertised as energy drinks and colas.
Caffeine's mechanism of action is somewhat different from that of cocaine and the substituted amphetamines; caffeine blocks adenosine receptors A and A2A. Adenosine is a by-product of cellular activity, and stimulation of adenosine receptors produces feelings of tiredness and the need to sleep. Caffeine's ability to block these receptors means the levels of the body's natural stimulants, dopamine and norepinephrine, continue at higher levels.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders describes four caffeine-related disorders including intoxication, withdrawal, anxiety, and sleep.List of amateur radio frequency bands in India
Amateur radio or ham radio is a hobby that is practised by over 16,000 licensed users in India.
Licences are granted by the Wireless and Planning and Coordination Wing (WPC), a branch of the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology. In addition, the WPC allocates frequency spectrum in India. The Indian Wireless Telegraphs (Amateur Service) Rules, 1978 lists five licence categories:To obtain a licence, candidates must pass the Amateur Station Operator's Certificate examination conducted by the WPC. The examination consists of two 50-mark written sections: Radio theory and practice, Regulations; and a practical test consisting of a demonstration of Morse code proficiency in sending and receiving. After passing the examination, the candidate must clear a police interview. After clearance, the WPC grants the licence along with the user-chosen call sign. This procedure can take up to one year. This licence is valid for up to five years.Each licence category has certain privileges allotted to it, including the allotment of frequencies, output power, and the emission modes. This article list the various frequencies allotted to various classes, and the corresponding emission modes and input DC power.List of power stations in Italy
The following page lists power stations in Italy.Lycoming O-320
The Lycoming O-320 is a large family of 92 different naturally aspirated, air-cooled, four-cylinder, direct-drive engines commonly used on light aircraft such as the Cessna 172 and Piper Cherokee. Different variants are rated for 150 or 160 horsepower (112 or 119 kilowatts). As implied by the engine's name, its cylinders are arranged in horizontally opposed configuration and a displacement of 320 cubic inches (5.24 L).Lycoming O-340
The Lycoming O-340 is a family of four-cylinder horizontally opposed, carburetor-equipped aircraft engines, that was manufactured by Lycoming Engines in the mid-1950s.Lycoming O-360
The Lycoming O-360 is a family of four-cylinder, direct-drive, horizontally opposed, air-cooled, piston aircraft engines. Engines in the O-360 series produce between 145 and 225 horsepower (109 to 168 kW), with the basic O-360 producing 180.The engine family has been installed in thousands of aircraft, including the Cessna 172, Piper Cherokee/Archer, Grumman Tiger, and many home-built craft. It has a factory rated time between overhaul (TBO) of 2000 hours or twelve years. O-360 family engines are also widely used in airboats, most notably in the Hurricane Aircats used by the US Army during the Vietnam War.The first O-360 certified was the A1A model, certified on 20 July 1955 to United States CAR 13 effective March 5, 1952 as amended by 13-1 and 13-2. The Lycoming IO-390 is an O-360 which has had its cylinder bore increased by 3⁄16 inch (4.76 mm), developing 210 hp (157 kW).Preladenant
Preladenant (SCH 420814) was a drug that was developed by Schering-Plough which acted as a potent and selective antagonist at the adenosine A2A receptor. It was being researched as a potential treatment for Parkinson's disease. Positive results were reported in Phase II clinical trials in humans, but it did not prove itself to be more effective than a placebo during Phase III trials, and so was discontinued in May 2013.SCH-442,416
SCH-442,416 is a highly selective adenosine A2a subtype receptor antagonist. It is widely used in its 11C radiolabelled form to map the distribution of A2a receptors in the brain, where they are mainly found in the striatum, nucleus accumbens, and olfactory tubercle. Given its distribution in the brain, A2a receptors have been investigated for the treatment of various neurological disorders, and SCH-442,416 has shown promise in treatment of depression, Parkinson's disease, and catalepsy.SCH-58261
SCH-58261 is a drug which acts as a potent and selective antagonist for the adenosine receptor A2A, with more than 50x selectivity for A2A over other adenosine receptors. It has been used to investigate the mechanism of action of caffeine, which is a mixed A1 / A2A antagonist, and has shown that the A2A receptor is primarily responsible for the stimulant effects of caffeine, but blockade of both A1 and A2A receptors is required to accurately replicate caffeine's effects in animals. SCH-58261 has also shown antidepressant and neuroprotective effects in a variety of animal models, and has been investigated as a possible treatment for Parkinson's disease.UK-432,097
UK-432,097 is a drug developed by Pfizer for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which acts as a potent and selective agonist of the adenosine A2A receptor. It was discontinued from clinical trials following poor efficacy results, but its high selectivity has made it useful for detailed mapping of the internal structure of the A2A receptor.ZM-241,385
ZM-241,385 is a high affinity antagonist ligand selective for the adenosine A2A receptor.In animal models, ZM-241,385 has been shown to protect against beta amyloid neurotoxicity and therefore may be useful as a treatment for Alzheimer's disease. ZM-241,385 has also been shown to enhance L-DOPA derived dopamine release and therefore may be useful in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.
FTSE MIB companies of Italy