A1 road (Great Britain)

The A1 is the longest numbered road in the UK, at 410 miles (660 km). It connects London, the capital of England, with Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland. It passes through or near North London, Hatfield, Welwyn Garden City, Stevenage, Baldock, Letchworth Garden City, Huntingdon, Peterborough, Stamford, Grantham, Newark-on-Trent, Retford, Doncaster, York, Ripon, Darlington, Durham, Sunderland, Gateshead, Newcastle upon Tyne, Alnwick and Berwick-upon-Tweed.[2][3]

It was designated by the Ministry of Transport in 1921, and for much of its route it followed various branches of the historic Great North Road, the main deviation being between Boroughbridge and Darlington. The course of the A1 has changed where towns or villages have been bypassed, and where new alignments have taken a slightly different route. Several sections of the route have been upgraded to motorway standard and designated A1(M). Between the M25 (near London) and the A696 (near Newcastle upon Tyne) the road has been designated as part of the unsigned Euroroute E15 from Inverness to Algeciras.

UK road A1

A1
A1 road map
Route information
Part of Tabliczka E15.svg E15
Length410 mi (660 km)
Major junctions
South end A1211 in City of London[1]
  A40

A406
M1
A41
M25
A421
A428
A14
A15
A47
A606
A43
A52
A17
A46
A57
M18
M62
A63
A64
A168
A61
A66
A66(M)
A689
A690
A194(M)
A1231
A19
A69
A167
A720 A900

A7
North endEdinburgh55°57′08″N 3°11′19″W / 55.9522°N 3.1886°W
Location
Primary
destinations
London, Hatfield, Stevenage, Biggleswade, Huntingdon, Peterborough, Stamford, Grantham, Newark-on-Trent, Retford, Doncaster, Pontefract, Leeds, Wetherby, Harrogate, Ripon, Scotch Corner, Darlington, Durham, Gateshead, Newcastle upon Tyne, Morpeth, Alnwick, Berwick-upon-Tweed, Haddington and Edinburgh
Road network
A1A2

History

The A1 is the latest in a series of routes north from London to York and beyond. It was designated in 1921 by the Ministry of Transport under the Great Britain road numbering scheme.[4][5] The earliest documented northern routes are the roads created by the Romans during the period from AD 43 to AD 410, which consisted of several itinera (plural of iter) recorded in the Antonine Itinerary.[6] A combination of these were used by the Anglo-Saxons as the route from London to York, and together became known as Ermine Street.[7] Ermine Street later became known as the Old North Road.[8] Part of this route in London is followed by the current A10.[9] By the 12th century, because of flooding and damage by traffic, an alternative route out of London was found through Muswell Hill, and became part of the Great North Road.[8][9] A turnpike road, New North Road and Canonbury Road (A1200 road), was constructed in 1812 linking the start of the Old North Road around Shoreditch with the Great North Road at Highbury Corner.[10] While the route of the A1 outside London mainly follows the Great North Road route used by mail coaches between London and Edinburgh, within London the coaching route is only followed through Islington.[11]

Bypasses were built around Barnet and Hatfield in 1927, but it was not until c.1954 that they were renumbered A1. In the 1930s bypasses were added around Chester-le-Street and Durham and the Ferryhill Cut was dug. In 1960 Stamford, Biggleswade and Doncaster were bypassed, as were Retford in 1961 and St Neots in 1971. Baldock was bypassed in July 1967. During the early 1970s plans to widen the A1 along Archway Road in London were abandoned after considerable opposition and four public inquiries during which road protesters disrupted proceedings.[12] The scheme was finally dropped in 1990.[13] The Hatfield cut-and-cover was opened in 1986.[14]

A proposal to upgrade the whole of the A1 to motorway status was investigated by the Government in 1989[15] but was dropped in 1995, along with many other schemes, in response to road protests against other road schemes (including the Newbury Bypass and the M3 extension through Twyford Down).[16]

Inns

The Angel Inn - North Street - geograph.org.uk - 553280
The Angel Inn at Wetherby is a coaching inn on the former A1, bypassed since the 1950s.

The inns on the road, many of which still survive, were staging posts on the coach routes, providing accommodation, stabling for the horses and replacement mounts.[11] Few of the surviving coaching inns can be seen while driving on the A1, because the modern route now bypasses the towns with the inns.

Route

The A1 runs from New Change in the City of London at St. Paul's Cathedral to the centre of Edinburgh. The road skirts the remains of Sherwood Forest, and passes Catterick Garrison. It shares its London terminus with the A40, in the City area of Central London. It runs out of London via St. Martin's Le Grand and Aldersgate Street, through Islington (where Goswell Road and Upper Street form part of its route), up Holloway Road, through Highgate, Barnet, Potters Bar, Hatfield, Welwyn, Stevenage, Baldock, Biggleswade, Sandy and St Neots.

Continuing north, the A1 runs on modern bypasses around Stamford, Grantham, Newark-on-Trent, Retford, Bawtry, Doncaster, Knottingley, Garforth, Wetherby, Knaresborough, Boroughbridge, Scotch Corner, Darlington, Newton Aycliffe, Durham and Chester-le-Street, past the Angel of the North sculpture and the Metrocentre in Gateshead, through the western suburbs of Newcastle upon Tyne, Morpeth, Alnwick, Berwick-upon-Tweed, into Scotland at Marshall Meadows, past Haddington and Musselburgh before arriving in Edinburgh at the East End of Princes Street near Waverley Station, at the junction of the A7, A8 and A900 roads.

Scotch Corner, in North Yorkshire, marks the point where before the M6 was built the traffic for Glasgow and the west of Scotland diverged from that for Edinburgh. As well as a hotel there have been a variety of sites for the transport café, now subsumed as a motorway services.

Overview and post-First World War developments

Most of the English section of the A1 is a series of alternating sections of primary route, dual carriageway and motorway. From Newcastle upon Tyne to Edinburgh it is a trunk road with alternating sections of dual and single carriageway. The table below summarises the road as motorway and non-motorway sections.[17] The non-motorway sections do not have junction numbers.

Road Name Junctions Length Ceremonial counties/
Lieutenancies
Primary destinations
miles km
A1 16.58 26.68 London
Hertfordshire
London
A1(M) 1–10 24.14 38.84 Hertfordshire Hertford
Stevenage
A1 26.25 42.24 Hertfordshire, Bedfordshire
Cambridgeshire
Bedford,
Cambridge,
Huntingdon
A1(M) 13–17 12.84 20.66 Cambridgeshire Peterborough
A1 72.99 117.44 Cambridgeshire, Rutland
Lincolnshire, Nottinghamshire
Stamford, Grantham
Newark on Trent
A1(M) 34–38 15.13 24.34 South Yorkshire Worksop, Blyth, Doncaster,
Rotherham, Barnsley
A1 7.51 12.08 South Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
Pontefract, Castleford,
Wakefield
A1(M) 40–65 93.27 150.10 West Yorkshire
North Yorkshire
County Durham
Tyne and Wear
Selby, Leeds, York, Wetherby, Harrogate,
Thirsk, Ripon, Catterick, Richmond, Scotch Corner,
Darlington, Teesside, Bishop Auckland, Durham,
Chester-le-Street, Stanley, Beamish,
Birtley, Washington (Sunderland), Gateshead
A1 128.29 206.42 Northumberland, Berwickshire
East Lothian, Edinburgh
Gateshead, Blaydon, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Cramlington,
Morpeth, Alnwick, Belford, Lindisfarne, Berwick-upon-Tweed,
Eyemouth, Dunbar, Haddington,
Tranent, Prestonpans, Musselburgh, Edinburgh
397.00 638.78
A1scotland
A single carriageway section of the A1 skirting the Scottish coastline just across the border from Northumberland.

A 13-mile (21 km) section of the road in North Yorkshire, from Walshford to Dishforth, was upgraded to motorway standard in 1995.[18] Neolithic remains and a Roman fort were discovered.

A 13-mile (21 km) section of the road from Alconbury to Peterborough was upgraded to motorway standard at a cost of £128 million (£221 million as of 2019),[19] which opened in 1998[20] requiring moving the memorial to Napoleonic prisoners buried at Norman Cross.[21]

A number of sections between Newcastle and Edinburgh were dualled between 1999 and 2004, including a 1.9-mile (3 km) section from Spott Wood to Oswald Dean in 1999, 1.2-mile (2 km) sections from Bowerhouse to Spott Road and from Howburn to Houndwood in 2002–2003 and the 8.5-mile (13.7 km) "A1 Expressway", from Haddington and Dunbar in 2004. The total cost of these works was some £50 million.[22]

Plans to dual the single carriageway section of road north of Newcastle upon Tyne were shelved in 2006 as they were not considered a regional priority by central government. The intention was to dual the road between Morpeth and Felton and between Adderstone and Belford.[23]

In 1999 a section of A1(M) between Bramham and Hook Moor opened to traffic along with the extension of the M1 from Leeds.[24] Under a DBFO contract,[25] sections from Wetherby to Walshford and Darrington to Hook Moor were opened in 2005 and 2006, taking the section to a junction.

Recent developments

A1 Peterborough to Blyth grade separated junctions

Between August 2006 and September 2009 six roundabouts on the A1 and the A1(M) to Alconbury were replaced with grade-separated junctions. These provide a fully grade-separated route between the Buckden roundabout (just north of St Neots and approximately 8 miles (13 km) north of the Black Cat Roundabout) and just north of Morpeth.[26] This project cost £96 million.[27]

Blyth (A614) Fully operational May 2008
Apleyhead (A614/A57) Fully operational January 2008
Markham Moor (A57) Fully operational April 2009
Gonerby Moor (B1174) Fully operational March 2008
Colsterworth (A151) and the junction with the B6403 Fully operational September 2009
Carpenters Lodge (Stamford) (B1081) Fully operational December 2008

A1(M) Bramham to Wetherby motorway

Upgrading the 6.2 miles (10 km) of road to dual three-lane motorway standard between the Bramham/A64 junction to north of Wetherby to meet the section of motorway at a cost of £70 million began in 2006, including a road alongside for non-motorway traffic. The scheme's public inquiry began on 18 October 2006 and the project was designed by James Poyner. Work began in May 2007, the motorway section opened in July 2009 and remaining work on side roads was still ongoing in late August and was expected to be completed by the end of 2009.[28]

A1(M) Dishforth to Leeming motorway

Upgrading of the existing dual carriageway to dual three-lane motorway standard, with a local road alongside for non-motorway traffic, between Dishforth (A1(M)/A168 junction) and Leeming Bar, began in March 2009 and opened to traffic on or about the scheduled date of 31 March 2012.[29]

A1(M) Leeming to Barton motorway

It had originally been proposed that the road would be upgraded to motorway from Dishforth to Barton (between Scotch Corner and Darlington), which was the start of current northernmost section of A1(M). In 2010 the section between Leeming and Barton was cancelled as part of government spending cuts[30] but it was reinstated in December 2012.[31] Work began on 3 April 2014 and was expected to be completed by Spring 2017, but only reached completion in March 2018 due in part to significant Roman-era archaeological finds along the route of the motorway. Completion has provided a continuous motorway-standard road between Darrington (south of M62 junction) and Washington, and given the North East and North Yorkshire full motorway access to London (via the M1 at Darrington and Hook Moor).

Councils in the north east have called for the section from Hook Moor in Yorkshire (where the M1 link road joins the A1(M)) to Washington to be renumbered as the M1. They maintain that this would raise the profile of the north-east and be good for business.[32]

A1 (Gateshead Western Bypass)

In his Autumn Statement on 5 December 2012, the Chancellor of the Exchequer announced that the Government would upgrade a section of road from two to three lanes in each direction within the highway boundary[33] at Lobley Hill (between Coal House and the Metro Centre[33]), Gateshead at a cost of £64 m[34] and create parallel link roads between the Lobley Hill and Gateshead Quay junctions.[33] The same Road investment strategy announcement said that the remaining section of road between Birtley and Coal House will also be widened to three lanes each way, alongside the replacement of the Allerdene Bridge.[33] A modified scheme commenced in August 2014 and was open to traffic in June 2016. The road is now three lanes each way with lane 3 narrower than lanes 1 and 2 so that all existing bridges remained as originally built. [35]

The A1 around Durham, Gateshead and Newcastle has seen a number of incarnations, following routes through, to the east and to the west of both Gateshead and Newcastle. See A1 (Newcastle upon Tyne) for more information.

Ongoing developments

There are currently no ongoing developments, though a number of proposed developments listed following are scheduled to begin in the near future.

Proposed developments

A1(M) Red House to Darrington motorway

In the "Road investment strategy" announced to Parliament by the Department for Transport and Secretary of State for Transport on 1 December 2014, planning will begin to upgrade the road in South Yorkshire to raise the last non-motorway section from Red House to Darrington to motorway standard.[33] Once completed, it will provide a continuous motorway-standard road between Blyth, Nottinghamshire and Washington, Tyne and Wear and will provide the North East and Yorkshire with full motorway access to London via the M1, M62 and M18. It will also improve safety along this route, as well as creating a new corridor to the North East, and reducing congestion on the M1 around Sheffield and Leeds.

A1 Scotswood to North Brunton

The same announcement said that the road from Scotswood to North Brunton would be widened to three lanes each way, with four lanes each way between some junctions.[33]

A1 Morpeth to Ellingham

The announcement then said that the road from Morpeth to Ellingham would be upgraded to dual carriageway.[33] The selection of the preferred route was scheduled for the year 2017, with construction due to begin in 2019.[36] In response to questions regarding transport in the north, Highways England stated that a new dual carriageway section between Morpeth and Fenton and also that of Alnwick to Ellingham would start in 2012 with full opening in 2023.[37]

A1 North of Ellingham

Measures were also announced to enhance the performance and safety of the A1 north of Ellingham to include three sections of climbing lanes, five junctions with improved right turn refuges, and better crossing facilities for pedestrians and cyclists.[33] Start of construction is scheduled for 2018.[36]

Ellington to Fen Ditton scheme

The planned A14 Ellington to Fen Ditton scheme would require a new junction at Brampton, north of which the A1 will be widened to a three-lane dual carriageway from Brampton to the Brampton Hut interchange. The new two-lane dual carriageway section of the A14 would run parallel with the A1 on this section.[38]

Black Cat roundabout replacement

The same announcement in December 2014 said that the A1/A421 Black Cat Roundabout would be replaced with a grade-separated junction,[39] just a few years after this roundabout was expensively upgraded.

A46 Newark northern bypass scheme

It was then also announced that planning would begin to upgrade the Newark northern bypass to dual carriageway, and the A46 junction with the A1 will be replaced to support nearby housing growth and improve links from the A1 to Newark and Lincoln.[40]

A1(M) Doncaster By-pass

It was also announced that the Doncaster By-pass, which is the oldest stretch of two-lane motorway still in service, would be upgraded to dual three lanes. This will relieve local congestion and provide the capacity needed to make the A1 an alternative (and better) strategic route to the north east.[33]

Sandy-Beeston By-pass

Sandy-Beeston Bypass
LocationBedfordshire
ProposerHighways Agency
Cost estimate£67 million
Start date2016

In 2003 a proposal for a bypass of Sandy and Beeston, Bedfordshire, was put forward as a green-lighted scheme as part of a government multi-modal study, with a cost of £67 million.[41] However, the Highways Agency was unwilling to confirm the information as the study was preliminary and intended for future publication.[42] In 2008 the proposal was submitted for consideration in the pre-2013/14 Regional Funding Advice 2 Programme of the East of England Development Agency.[43]

A1(M) technology enhancements and upgrades; A1 East of England feasibility study

It was also announced in 2014 that new technology would be implemented to bring the road to motorway standards, including detection loops, CCTV cameras and variable message signs to provide better information for drivers and active traffic management across Tyne and Wear,[33] while Junction 6 (Welwyn North) to Junction 8 (Hitchin) would be upgraded to smart motorway, including widening of a two-lane section to dual three lanes and hard shoulder running.[39]

A strategic study will examine how to improve the safety and performance of the A1 between Peterborough and the M25, including whether to upgrade the old dual carriageway section to motorway standard.[39]

Other proposals

The Highways Agency has been investigating an upgrade of the A1 Newcastle/Gateshead Western Bypass to dual three-lane motorway standard to alleviate heavy congestion which in recent years has become a recurrent problem.[44]

Improvements to junctions near the village of Elkesley, Nottinghamshire are planned: the village's only access to the rest of the road network is via the A1.[45]

Consideration is being given to widening the Brampton Hut interchange to Alconbury sections to a three-lane dual carriageway.[38]

A1(M)

UK-Motorway-A1 (M)
A1(M), Hatfield, South of junction 2. - geograph.org.uk - 111467
A1(M) looking southwards from junction 2 at Hatfield

Some sections of the A1 have been upgraded to motorway standard. These are known as the A1(M) and are part of European route E15. These include:

M25 to Stotfold

The M25 to Stotfold section is 23 miles (37 km), and was constructed between 1962 and 1986. The main destinations are Hatfield, Welwyn Garden City, Stevenage, and Letchworth. It opened in five stages: junctions 1 to 2 in 1979; 2 to 4 in 1986; 4 to 6 in 1973; 6 to 8 in 1962; and 8 to 10 in 1967.

Alconbury to Peterborough

The Alconbury to Peterborough section is 14 miles (23 km), and opened in 1998.

Doncaster By-pass

The Doncaster By-pass opened in 1961 and is one of the oldest sections of motorway in Britain.[46] It is 15 miles (24 km) long, and runs from Blyth to Carcroft.

Darrington to Gateshead

The Darrington to Gateshead section was constructed between 1965 and 2018. It is 93 miles (150 km), and opened in sections:

  • Junctions 56 to 59 in 1965
  • Junctions 59 to 63 in 1969
  • Junctions 63 to 65 in 1970
  • Walshford to 49 in 1995
  • Junctions 43 to 44 in 1999
When this section opened it ended at a temporary terminus south of the M1. There was a final exit into Micklefield Village for non-motorway traffic onto what is now the access road. During the first week of June 2009, Junctions 44 and 45 were renumbered 43 and 44. At the same time the A1/A659 Grange Moor junction became A1(M) Junction 45.[47] As a result many atlases show incorrect junction numbering for this stretch of motorway.
  • Junction 46 to temporary junction at Walshford opened in 2005[48]
  • Junction 40 to south of 43 opened in 2005 & 2006
The northern section of the upgrade, bypassing Fairburn village opened in April 2005 with a temporary connection with the A1 between Fairburn and Brotherton. The southern section, with a free-flow interchange with the M62 motorway opened on 13 January 2006.
  • Junctions 44 to 46 opened in 2009[49]
  • Junctions 49 to 51 opened as of 31 March 2012. Work began in March 2009 to upgrade the Dishforth to Leeming section to dual three-lane motorway standard with existing connections being replaced by two new junctions.[50] This work was completed on 31 March 2012.
  • Junctions 51 to 56 opened in 2017 & 2018.

In popular culture

The A1 is celebrated in song. It is mentioned by Jethro Tull on the title track of the album Too Old to Rock 'n' Roll: Too Young to Die! "Up on the A1 by Scotch Corner". "Scotch Corner," by the Welsh band Man, on the album Rhinos, Winos and Lunatics is about an encounter there. Near the southern end, signs saying "Hatfield and the North" inspired the eponymous 1970s rock band Hatfield and the North. The A1 is mentioned in The Long Blondes' song, "Separated By Motorways", along with the A14. The A1(M) is mentioned in the song "Gabadon" by Sheffield band, Haze. Andrew Blackman's 2009 novel "On the Holloway Road", inspired by Jack Kerouac's On the Road, centres on a road trip along the A1.[51]

Junctions

A1 Road junctions - Central London to Barbican
Northbound exits (A carriageway) Junction Southbound exits (B carriageway)
A1 Road junctions - Barbican to South Mimms
Northbound exits (A carriageway) Junction Southbound exits (B carriageway)
A1(M) Motorway junctions - South Mimms to Stotfold
Northbound exits (A carriageway) Junction Southbound exits (B carriageway)
M25 - (M1),

(M3), (M11), (M4), (M40), (M23), (M20), Heathrow, Gatwick, Stansted

A1081 - Barnet

South Mimms Services

J1

Services

Road continues as A1 to London
A1001 - Welham Green J2 No access
A1001 - Hatfield

A414 - St Albans

J3 A1001 - Welham Green

A414 - St Albans

A414 - Hertford

A6129 - Welwyn Garden City

J4 A1001- Hatfield

A414 - Hertford

A6129 - Welwyn Garden City

Ramp on Only J5 No access
A1000 - Welwyn J6 A1000 - Welwyn Garden City, Welwyn
A602 - Stevenage J7 A602 - Stevenage, Ware
A602 - Stevenage, Hitchin, Luton Airport J8 A602 - Stevenage, Hitchin, Luton Airport
A505 - Letchworth, Baldock J9 A505 - Letchworth, Baldock
A507 - Stotfold, Shefford,

Baldock Services

J10

Services

A507 - Stotfold, Baldock

Baldock Services

A1 Road junctions - Stotfold to Alconbury
Northbound exits (A carriageway) Junction Southbound exits (B carriageway)
Langford, Edworth, Hinxworth Langford Turn Langford, Edworth, Ashwell, Hinxworth
A6001 - Biggleswade Biggleswade Roundabout A6001 - Biggleswade
A6001 - Biggleswade, Old Warden Old Warden Roundabout A6001 - Biggleswade, Old Warden
A603 - Bedford

B1042 - Sandy

Sandy Roundabout A603 - Bedford

B1042 - Sandy

Blunham Blunham, Tempsford, Little Barford, Everton
A421 - Milton Keynes, Bedford, (M1) Black Cat Roundabout A421 - Milton Keynes, Bedford, (M1)
A428 - Cambridge, St Neots, Eaton Socon A428 - Cambridge, St Neots, Eaton Socon
B645 - Kimbolton

B1048 - St Neots

B645 - St Neots
Little Paxton, St Neots Little Paxton, St Neots
B661 - Kimbolton, Buckden Buckden Roundabout B661 - Kimbolton, Buckden
Brampton, RAF Brampton Brampton, RAF Brampton
A14 - THE MIDLANDS, Kettering, Corby, Huntingdon, (M1), (M6) A14 Junction A14 - THE MIDLANDS, Huntingdon, Harwich, Felixstowe, (M1), (M6)

References

  1. ^ 51°30′55″N 0°05′50″W / 51.5153°N 0.0972°W
  2. ^ Marshall, Chris, CBRD Motorway Database: A1, archived from the original on 17 June 2009, retrieved 2 May 2019
  3. ^ Roadlists
  4. ^ Chris Marshall (2011). "CBRD » In Depth » Road Numbers » How it happened". cbrd.co.uk. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 7 August 2011.
  5. ^ "Memorandum on Route Numbering". The National Archives. 28 June 1922. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
  6. ^ Thomas Codrington (1903). Roman Roads in Britain – Antonine Itinerary. roman-britain.org. Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. Archived from the original on 3 July 2011. Retrieved 23 August 2011.
  7. ^ Thomas Codrington. "LacusCurtius • Codrington's Roman Roads in Britain — Chapter 4". penelope.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 23 August 2011.
  8. ^ a b Frank Goddard (2004). Great North Road. Frances Lincoln Ltd. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-7112-2446-9. Retrieved 23 August 2011.
  9. ^ a b Christopher Hibbert, Ben Weinreb (2009). The London Encyclopedia. Pan Macmillan. p. 343. ISBN 978-1-4050-4925-2. Retrieved 23 August 2011.
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  11. ^ a b Norman W. Webster (1974) The Great North Road
  12. ^ Adams, John (1981). Transport planning, vision and practice. ISBN 978-0-7100-0844-2.
  13. ^ "Road Victories" (PDF). Road Block. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 February 2008. Retrieved 22 January 2008.
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  16. ^ "Column: 1180". Hansard. 20 December 1995. Retrieved 20 January 2008.
  17. ^ The table was drawn up by reading values from the AA Route Planner for the journey Bank of England, London to Waverley Station, Edinburgh via Wittering. Adjustments were made for sections of the route that were not part of the A1."Route planner". AA. Archived from the original on 31 January 2011. Retrieved 15 January 2011.
  18. ^ "A1(M). Walshford to Dishforth". Archived from the original on 2 August 2010. Retrieved 20 February 2010.
  19. ^ UK Retail Price Index inflation figures are based on data from Clark, Gregory (2017). "The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)". MeasuringWorth. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
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  21. ^ "Norman Cross Eagle Appeal". Local Heritage Initiative. Archived from the original on 9 February 2008. Retrieved 22 January 2008.
  22. ^ "A1 expressway opened".
  23. ^ "Northumberland Today – A1 dualling hopes dashed". Northumberland Today. 13 July 2006. Retrieved 20 January 2008.
  24. ^ CBRD » Photo Gallery » Spontaneous Motorway Archived 31 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine
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  26. ^ "A1 Peterborough to Blyth Grade Separated Junctions Scheme". Highways Agency. Archived from the original on 10 August 2012. Retrieved 20 January 2008.
  27. ^ "Bigger and bigger pricetag". Archived from the original on 25 September 2009.
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  31. ^ Autumn Statement 2012 (PDF). Her Majesty's Stationery Office. 5 December 2012. ISBN 978-0-10-184802-2. Retrieved 5 December 2012.
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  33. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Road investment strategy: north east and Yorkshire, 1 December 2014".
  34. ^ "Autumn Statement: A1 to be upgraded to motorway status". BBC.
  35. ^ "A1 Coal House to Metro Centre Improvement". Archived from the original on 7 June 2016.
  36. ^ a b "Highways England Delivery Plan 2015-2020" (PDF). Retrieved 5 August 2015.
  37. ^ "Your transport questions answered". BBC News. 3 August 2018. Retrieved 8 August 2018.
  38. ^ a b "A14 Ellington to Fen Ditton Scheme". Highways Agency. Archived from the original on 31 January 2008. Retrieved 20 January 2008.
  39. ^ a b c "Road investment strategy: East of England, 1 December 2014".
  40. ^ "Road investment strategy: Midlands, 1 December 2014".
  41. ^ "List of schemes announced". The Daily Telegraph. 9 July 2003. Retrieved 2 July 2009.
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  43. ^ "Regional Funding Advice – Transport Update" (PDF). East of England Development Agency. 11 December 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 June 2011. Retrieved 2 July 2009.
  44. ^ Highways Agency – A1 Western By-pass Archived 19 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine
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  46. ^ "The Motorway Archive. Oldest, widest, longest, highest". ciht.org.uk. 2008. Archived from the original on 22 January 2010. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
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  49. ^ "A1(M) Bramham to Wetherby". Highways Agency. Archived from the original on 20 August 2008. Retrieved 6 August 2008.
  50. ^ "A1 Dishforth to Leeming Improvement Scheme (A1 Dishforth to Barton)". Highways Agency. Archived from the original on 1 July 2010. Retrieved 17 July 2010.
  51. ^ "On the Holloway Road by Andrew Blackman"

External links

Route map:

A1(M) motorway

A1(M) is the designation given to a series of four separate motorway sections in England. Each section is an upgrade to a section of the A1, a major North-South road, which connects London, the capital of England, with Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland. The first section, the Doncaster Bypass, opened in 1961 and is one of the oldest sections of motorway in Britain. Construction of a new section of A1(M) between Leeming and Barton was completed on 29 March 2018, a year later than the anticipated opening in 2017 due to extensive archaeological excavations. Its completion linked the Barton to Washington section with the Darrington to Leeming Bar section, forming the longest A1(M) section overall and reducing the number of sections from five to four.

There has been a proposal to renumber the section of A1(M) to M1 between Micklefield to Washington, making this section a northern extension of the M1.

A1 in London

The A1 in London is the southern part of the A1 road. It starts at Aldersgate in the City of London, passing through the capital to Borehamwood on the northern fringe of Greater London, before continuing to Edinburgh. The road travels through the City and three London boroughs: Islington, Haringey and Barnet, which include the districts of Islington, Holloway, Highgate, Hendon and Mill Hill, and travels along Upper Street and Holloway Road, crossing the North Circular Road in Hendon, a district in the London Borough of Barnet.

The A1 is the most recent in a series of routes north out of London to York and beyond. It was designated in 1921 by the Ministry of Transport under the Great Britain road numbering scheme, comprising existing roads and streets, mostly historic, and later using stretches of purpose-built new roads in what is now the outer London borough of Barnet. The Archway Road section was built by Thomas Telford using Roman cement and gravel, an innovative technique that was used there for the first time, and is the basis for modern road building. The route closely follows the historic route of the Great North Road, though from 1954 it has diverted round the congested suburbs of Finchley and High Barnet along modern roads constructed in the 1920s and 1930s.

The A1 is one of London's main roads, providing a link to the M1 and the A1(M) motorways, and on to the Midlands, Northern England and Scotland. Despite this, its main use is to connect a number of neighbourhoods within north London; less than 5% of its vehicles are through traffic – the bulk is local. The roads along which the A1 route travels are the shared responsibility of the local boroughs, the Greater London Authority, and the British Government via the Department for Transport.

Black Cat Roundabout

Black Cat Roundabout is the name of the roundabout on the junction between the A1 and A421 (formerly A428) Bedford road just south of St Neots. It was reconstructed in 2005-6 as part of the Great Barford bypass works to allow access to the new dual carriageway bypass.

It takes its name from the garage and car repair workshop which opened in the 1920s at the junction called the Black Cat Garage. In later years the garage was converted to a nightclub and then a restaurant, before becoming derelict for many years. In the 1980s, the current large covered petrol station was opened on the site.

A metal black cat sign was installed on the roundabout in January 2004, taking its shape from the cat on the original garage clock tower. During construction of the Great Barford bypass the black cat was temporarily relocated to the construction site office, before a second larger cat was returned to the roundabout upon completion in 2006. However, this sign was stolen during the summer of 2007. On 12 August 2008 it was announced that a third replacement Black Cat had been installed on the roundabout. In April 2009 the original sign was returned (albeit to a different location), accompanied by a note saying it had been found in a ditch.The roundabout can regularly be heard being referred to on traffic reports because of the major traffic jams that it causes on the A1.

Blaydon Bridge

Blaydon Bridge is one of the main bridges crossing the River Tyne in North East England linking Scotswood in Newcastle upon Tyne and Blaydon in Gateshead.

The bridge was designed by Bullen and Partners and built by Edmund Nuttall Ltd between 1987 and 1990. It is a concrete bridge with two concrete piers in the river. When completed, it formed the link between the existing Gateshead Western By-pass and the newly constructed Newcastle-upon-Tyne Western By-pass. From the opening, it was designated as the A1 road: before the Blaydon Bridge was built the A1 crossed the Tyne to the east of Newcastle and Gateshead via the Tyne Tunnel.

Brampton Hut interchange

The Brampton Hut interchange links the A1 and A14 road west of Huntingdon. The A1 passes over a grade separated roundabout which provides access to the A14 and a comprehensive service station. East and west traffic on the A14 uses the roundabout to join the A1 southbound and to continue on the A14. Traffic from the A14 East and wishing travel north would have previously used the A14 northern spur to access the A1(M) at Alconbury. There is a large BP Connect filling station and truck park, a Brewers Fayre restaurant, Premier Inn hotel, McDonald's, Starbucks and Greggs.

European route E15

The European route E 15 is part of the United Nations international E-road network. It is a north-south "reference road", running from Inverness, Scotland south through England and France to Algeciras, Spain. Along most of its route between Paris and London, the road parallels the LGV Nord (as the French A1 autoroute) and High Speed 1 (as the English M20 motorway). Its length is 2,300 miles (3,700 km).

Goswell Road

Goswell Road is a road in central London. The road forms part of the A1. The southern part of the road is located in the City of London, it continues north into to the London Borough of Islington through Clerkenwell, crossing Old Street ending at Angel.

All of the road is inside the Central London congestion charge zone.

Notable places along the road include the main campus of City University to the west and the Headquarters of DB Schenker Rail (UK) at 310 Goswell Road.

London Bus routes 4 and 56 serve Goswell Road.

Grantham North services

Grantham North Services is a service area operated by Moto located on the A1 at Gonerby Moor Roundabout, four miles north of Grantham in Lincolnshire, England. The service station has a main car park and coach/lorry park, off which is a BP petrol station.

It lies in the parish of Great Gonerby, south of College Farm. It is the only motorway service station in Lincolnshire, which has no motorways (excluding former Humberside). Very few people refer to it as Grantham North, and is ubiquitously known as the Gonerby Moor Service Area.

Great North Road (Great Britain)

The Great North Road was the main highway between London and Scotland. It became a coaching route used by mail coaches travelling between London, York and Edinburgh. The modern A1 mainly parallels the route of the Great North Road. Coaching inns, many of which survive, were staging posts providing accommodation, stabling for horses and replacement mounts. Nowadays virtually no surviving coaching inns can be seen while driving on the A1, because the modern route bypasses the towns in which the inns are found.

Hatfield and the North

Hatfield and the North were an experimental Canterbury scene rock band that lasted from October 1972 to June 1975, with some reunions thereafter.

Henlys Corner

Henlys Corner is a road junction in Finchley, North London, where the A1 meets the North Circular Road and crosses the A598, and is named after the Henlys Group garage which sat at the junction from 1935 to 1989. The two routes share the roadspace through the junction, along with a local road, the A598 Finchley Road / Regent's Park Road, together with some other local residential roads, and consequently it has been described by Arriva as "a major hotspot for traffic congestion", with approximately 94,000 vehicles traversing the junction daily.The London Buses route 102, which runs from Brent Cross to Edmonton Green, also goes through the junction. Other routes that cross the junction include the 13, 460 and 232.

The junction was created as part of the construction of the Barnet Bypass, which opened in 1928, with future provision for the North Circular. It was designed as a dual carriageway junction, but due to the urban sprawl of London already surrounding it, meant that by the 1950s it had a 30 mph speed limit, traffic lights and pedestrian crossings. In 1967, the junction was widened from two to three lanes in each direction, which remains the basic configuration today.In October 2011, Britain's first "hands free" pedestrian crossing was installed at the junction, so that the local Jewish community did not have to use electricity or operate machinery on the Sabbath. Traffic is held every 90 seconds over this duration (sunset Friday to sunset Saturday), with foot traffic principally to and from Kinloss Synagogue.During 2011, the junction was also upgraded in order to improve traffic movements. Traffic between the North Circular Road and Finchley Road / Regent's Park Road was rerouted into a central area, as right turns had previously restricted other traffic movements. The improvements cost over £30 million. On 13 January 2012, the Mayor of London, Boris Johnson officially opened improvements to the junction, stating "This is a tremendous example of how we are improving London’s roads for every type of user."

Holloway Road

Holloway Road is a road in London, 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) in length. It is one of the main shopping streets in North London, and carries the A1 road as it passes through Holloway, in the London Borough of Islington. The road starts at the Archway, near Archway Underground station, then heads south-east, past Upper Holloway railway station, Whittington Park, past the North London campus of London Metropolitan University near Nag's Head, past Holloway Road Underground station, and the main campus of the university, and then becomes Highbury Corner, near Highbury & Islington station.

List of A1 roads

A list of roads designated A1, sorted by alphabetical order of country.

A01 highway (Afghanistan), a long ring road or beltway connecting Kabul, Kandahar, Herat and Mazar

A1 motorway (Albania), connecting Durrës and Kukës

A001 highway (Argentina), a beltway surrounding the city of Buenos Aires

A1 road (Australia) may refer to several roads part of the highway 1 including the following segments:

A1 highway (Queensland), connecting Kybong and Cairns

A1 highway (South Australia), connecting Victoria via Mount Gambier, Adelaide and Port Augusta to Western Australia

A1 highway (Victoria), connecting New South Wales via Melbourne and Portland to South Australia

A1 (New South Wales), consisting of several discrete sections including the Princes Highway and Pacific Highway

A1 motorway (Austria), connecting Vienna and Salzburg.

A1 motorway (Belgium), connecting Brussels, Antwerp and Breda

A1 highway (Bosnia and Herzegovina), carrying Corridor Vc

A1 highway (Botswana), connecting Gaborone and Francistown

A1 motorway (Bulgaria), connecting Sofia and Burgas via Plovdiv

A1 road (Canada) may refer to a class of provincial roads in Manitoba, Canada: see for instance Manitoba Provincial Road 280

A1 motorway (Croatia), connecting Zagreb and Split and continuing to Dubrovnik

A1 motorway (Cuba), connecting Havana to Sancti Spíritus, largely under construction

A1 motorway (Cyprus), connecting Nicosia and Limassol

A1 road (France) may refer to:

A1 motorway (France), connecting Paris and Lille

A1 motorway (Martinique), connecting Aimé Césaire International Airport in Le Lamentin and Fort-de-France

A1 motorway (Germany), connecting Oldenburg, Holstein and Saarbrücken

A1 highway (Greece), the principal north-south motorway, connecting Athens with Thessaloniki and the northern border

A1 road (Isle of Man), connecting Douglas and Peel

A1 motorway (Italy), connecting Milan and Naples

A1 road (Jamaica), connecting Kingston and Lucea

A1 road (Jersey), connecting St. Helier and St. Aubin

A1 road (Kenya), connecting Tanzania and the Sudanese border

A1 road (Latvia), connecting Riga and Ainaži

A1 highway (Lithuania), connecting Vilnius and Klaipėda

A1 motorway (Luxembourg), connecting Luxembourg City and the German A64

A1 road (Malaysia) may refer to:

A1 road (Perak), connecting Chemor and Ipoh

A1 road (Sabah), connecting Kota Kinabalu and Kudat

A1 motorway (Morocco), connecting Rabat and Tanger

A1 motorway (Netherlands), connecting Amsterdam and Oldenzaal at the German border

A1 highway (Nigeria), connecting Lagos to Niger in the north

A1 motorway (North Macedonia), connecting Serbian and Greek borders

A1 road (People's Republic of China) may refer to:

Yingbin Expressway, previously designated A1, now designated S1, in Shanghai

A1 highway (Poland), a planned road that will span Poland from north to south

A1 motorway (Portugal), connecting Lisbon and Porto

A1 motorway (Romania), planned to connect when fully constructed Bucharest to the western border town of Nădlac

A1 motorway (Serbia), connecting Horgoš at the Hungarian border and Preševo at the Macedonian border via Belgrade

A1 motorway (Slovenia), connecting Šentilj at the Austrian border and Koper via Maribor and Ljubljana

A1 road (Spain) may refer to:

A-1 motorway (Spain), connecting Madrid and Irún at the French border

A1 motorway (Aragon), connecting Villafranca de Ebro and El Burgo de Ebro

A1 motorway (Extremadura), connecting Navalmoral de la Mata and Alcántara at the border with Portugal

A 1 highway (Sri Lanka), connecting Colombo and Kandy

A1 motorway (Switzerland), connecting St Margrethen and Geneva

A1 motorway (Tunisia), connecting Tunis and Sfax

A1 road (United Kingdom) may refer to:

A1 road (Great Britain), connecting London and Edinburgh

A1 road in London, the London section of the A1 road

A1 (Newcastle upon Tyne), the Newcastle upon Tyne section of the A1 road

A1 road (Northern Ireland), connecting Belfast and Newry

A1 road (United States of America) may refer to:

Intestate A-1, connecting the Glenn Highway and the Canada–US border

Florida State Road A1A

County Route A1 (California), in Lassen County connecting Route 36 near Susanville and Route 139 near Eagle Lake

A-1 corridor (Georgia), connecting State Route 400 and Dahlonega

A1 road (Zimbabwe), connecting Masvingo and Beitbridge

List of highways numbered 1

The following highways are numbered 1. For roads numbered A1, see list of A1 roads. For roads numbered B1, see list of B1 roads. For roads numbered M1, see List of M1 roads. For roads numbered N1, see list of N1 roads.

Markham Moor

Markham Moor is a village which lies five miles south of the town of Retford in Nottinghamshire. The appropriate civil parish is called West Markham and had a population of 170 at the 2011 census. Markham Moor lies on the junction between the A1, A638 and A57 roads. The village was on the route of the old Great North Road and was also traditionally part of the East Markham parish.

Scotch Corner

Scotch Corner is an important junction (now a roundabout interchange) of the A1(M) and A66 trunk roads near Richmond in North Yorkshire, England (grid reference NZ214053). One of the best-known junctions in the country – it has been described as "the modern gateway to Cumbria, the North East and Scotland" – it is a primary destination signed from as far away as the M6 motorway. The junction's name is derived from the fact that it is the point of divergence for traffic coming from London, the East Midlands and Yorkshire wishing to continue either to Edinburgh and eastern Scotland (along the A1(M)) or to Glasgow and western Scotland (by taking the A66).

Upper Street

Upper Street is the main shopping street of the Islington district of inner north London, and carries the A1 road. It begins at the junction of the A1 and Pentonville Road and City Road, and runs roughly northwards past Angel Underground station, then past the Business Design Centre, then splits at Islington Green (where Essex Road, formerly named Lower Street, branches off), then past the Screen on the Green cinema, the town hall, ending at Highbury & Islington tube station on Highbury corner, where the A1 carries on as Holloway Road. The southernmost 500 metres (0.31 mi), from the junction to Islington Green, also carries the historical name of Islington's High Street.

It contains many fashionable shops, pubs, restaurants and theatres, including the now closed Granita restaurant where Tony Blair and Gordon Brown were said to have made their deal on the future leadership of the Labour Party.

A roads in Zone 1 of the Great Britain road numbering scheme

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