A. E. Staley

Tate & Lyle Ingredients Americas LLC, formerly, A. E. Staley Manufacturing Company, is an American subsidiary of Tate & Lyle PLC and produces a range of starch products for the food, paper and other industries; high fructose corn syrup; crystalline fructose; and other agro-industrial products. The company was incorporated in 1906 as A. E. Staley Manufacturing Company by Augustus Eugene Staley.

Tate & Lyle Ingredients Americas LLC (formerly A. E. Staley Manufacturing Company)
Subsidiary
Founded1906 (incorporated as A. E. Staley Manufacturing Company)
HeadquartersDecatur, Illinois, United States
ProductsStarches
Sweeteners
ParentTate & Lyle PLC

History

Augustus Eugene "Gene" Staley (25 February 1867 – 26 December 1940)[1] founded a business of repacking and selling cornstarch under his own Cream brand in Baltimore in 1898. On 6 November 1906, he incorporated the business as A. E. Staley Manufacturing Company (A. E. Staley) in order to start his own production of food starch. In 1909, Gene Staley purchased an inoperative cornstarch plant in Decatur, Illinois.[2] He paid $45,000 and spent three years rebuilding and upgrading the plant with capital that he had raised from stockholders.[3] The factory began processing on March 12, 1912.[4]

A. E. Staley became one of the largest processors of corn in the United States, second only to the Archer Daniels Midland (ADM), also based in Decatur, Illinois. It also processed soybeans under a partnership agreement with ADM at its Decatur, Illinois plant. ADM, through a subsidiary, owned 7.4% of A. E. Staley and would often assist A. E. Staley in filling corn syrup orders for CPC International when the company was in short supply of product. Both companies also had joint ventures producing corn sweeteners in Central America.[5]

A. E. Staley also produced many famous food and household brands including Cream Corn Starch, Staley Pancake and Waffle Syrup, Sta-Puf fabric softener, and Sta-Flo liquid starch. The food and household brands were subsequently sold to Purex Industries, Inc. in 1981.[6]

In 1985, A. E. Staley purchased CFS Continental, a wholesale grocery company, for $360 million. A. E. Staley stated a need to diversify away from bulk food processing. After the acquisition, A. E. Staley changed its name to Staley Continental, Inc. (until 1993).[7]

In 1988, British company Tate & Lyle acquired 90% of A. E. Staley for $1.42 billion.[8] Prior to the purchase, Tate & Lyle announced that it planned to sell CFS Continental to SYSCO, another wholesale grocer, for $700 million to help fund the acquisition.[9] In 2000, Tate & Lyle acquired the remaining 10% of the company.

In 2005, the company changed its name to Tate & Lyle Ingredients Americas LLC.

1993 labor lockout controversy

On Sunday, June 27, 1993, A. E. Staley officials decided to lock out A. E. Staley employees who were members of the Allied Industrial Workers of America Union. [10] The lockout incident was the result of nearly a decade of labor disputes between management and Staley’s unionized workers. The decline in pay and wages began in 1985 when A. E. Staley merged with Continental Foods, forming Staley Continental. During the next three years, the union was forced to make concessions as management was concerned about the plant remaining viable. Base pay was frozen at $10.80 per hour and workers complained of long overtime hours and declining safety conditions. After London based Tate & Lyle purchased A. E. Staley in 1988, conditions got worse for the factory workers. In 1989, contract negotiations began for a new three-year contract. While the bargaining committee was hoping to end the salary freeze and improving safety standards, the company was ushering in new practices, such as rotating shifts and deskilling of jobs as well as elimination of many safety procedures.

In 1991, the company hired a new labor relations director who was known for promoting union busting practices. Workers with years and decades of experience at the plant were fired and new supervisors forced workers to ignore OSHA regulations. A new attendance policy was also instituted and workers were shocked to find out that anyone with over seven absences per year would be fired and the number of allowed absences would decrease every year. A few months later, company management announced a new set of offences that were grounds for immediate termination. This list included “smoking outside of designated areas; loafing; dishonesty; sleeping on duty; insubordination; refusal to work overtime as directed; unauthorized possession of a camera; and use of abusive or threatening language.” This was a gross violation of the union contract, which states that employers cannot fire employees without having the “just cause” to do so. Due to this new regulation, more workers were fired during the next year than had been fired in the previous twenty years combined.

Considering the climate, it was no surprise that continued contract negotiations were unsuccessful. Under the guidance of Jerry Tucker, the union began to organize an in-plant “work to rule” campaign, where workers pressure management to reach a fair campaign by altering their behavior on the job, as opposed to going on strike. At A. E. Staley, this meant that the workers collectively decided to do only what they were told to do by their supervisor without their past knowledge and experiences. They performed only their outlined job duties and nothing extra. The goal of the work to rule campaign was to show management that the factory could not be run without the knowledge and skills of the workers. In many ways, A. E. Staley was the perfect environment for this type of labor tactic, as most unionized workers had acquired skills over the years that boosted overall production and quality of the product. Management and new supervisors simply did not have this knowledge and skills to effectively instruct workers. This was evidenced in the fact that over the next 11 months during which the work to rule campaign occurred, production fell drastically. A company spokesperson estimated that production had fallen by 32%, but union estimates were upwards of 50%.[11]

The New York Times reported that the decision resulting in the lockout A. E. Staley union employees were due to A. E. Staley officials claiming that workers had been sabotaging plant operations for the weeks prior to the lockout. Representatives from the Allied Industrial Workers of America, claimed that there were no reports of any employees being reprimanded for sabotage, going back nine months since the lockout.[10]

The lockout would result in a two and half-year labor movement that would end in 1996. During that period, union workers fought to win back a fair contract, which would eliminate mandatory 12-hour shifts and mandatory overtime, and address safety concerns.[12] The lockout turned into a national labor movement when union workers from two other Decatur-based companies, Caterpillar Inc. and Firestone Tire and Rubber Company, walked out on contract disputes in August 1994 and joined lockout workers from A. E. Staley in protests, picketing and public demonstrations.[13] The A. E. Staley plants were operated at full capacity by the white collar works and the union ended up giving in to company demands.

Chicago Bears football team

In 1917, A. E. Staley's Fellowship Club formed a baseball team managed by future Baseball Hall of Famer Joe McGinnity.[15] Gene Staley was a big sports fan, believing it helped build character and instill a sense of competition in his employees. Two years later, the Fellowship Club created a football counterpart.[16] The players on both teams worked as semi-professionals in his factory. The football team, nicknamed the Decatur Staleys and headed by a coach named Brennan, competed on the independent circuit in 1919; after losing its first game, the team won six in a row to go 6–1.[17]

In March 1920, George Halas, a minor league baseball and college football player, was invited by A. E. Staley superintendent George Chamberlain to head the football team.[18] Halas agreed on the conditions that he may sign and invite his former teammates to play and work for the company, which Chamberlain accepted. "I was elated," Halas wrote in his autobiography. "I saw the offer as an exciting opportunity but did not suspect the tremendous future Mr. Staley was opening for me."[19] Halas played for both the football and baseball teams in addition to working as a scale clerk. In the summer, he assisted in forming the American Professional Football Association (APFA), which would eventually become the National Football League.[20] The Staleys went 10–1–2 in the 1920 season and lost out to the Akron Pros for the championship.[21] Although much of the team's home games were played at Staley Field, the team struggled financially due to the stadium holding only 1,500 fans and not producing enough money from ticket sales. The situation was exacerbated by company employees receiving 50 percent discounts on their tickets. Halas elected to move a game against the Chicago Cardinals to Cubs Park in Chicago to alleviate monetary stress.[22] Nevertheless, A. E. Staley's funding continued to drain, and the company ended the 1920 season having lost $14,406.36. In compensation, Gene Staley ordered the team to pay back the 2.5 hours of work that had been used to practice.[23]

Halas became A. E. Staley's athletic director in March 1921.[20] When the depression of 1920–21 hit, Gene Staley convinced Halas to move the team to Chicago for the 1921 APFA season, and gave him $5,000 to fund the team and promote the company in exchange for keeping the name Staleys.[24] Now known as the Chicago Staleys, the team won the championship with a 9–1–1 record.[25]

During the 1922 league meeting, debate flared over the Staleys' ownership status. Halas and partner Dutch Sternaman ran the team, but agent Bill Harley also sought to do the same. When the APFA contacted Staley, he responded the move to Chicago also included Halas inheriting full ownership of the team. In an 8–2 vote, league owners decided in favor of Halas/Sternaman. Halas later renamed the team to the Chicago Bears.[26] Although he no longer owned the team, Staley regularly attended Bears games and nicknamed them the "Transplants".[14]

In October 1956, to celebrate A. E. Staley's 50-year anniversary, Halas organized a "Staley Day" for the Bears–Baltimore Colts game at Wrigley Field. The Bears reserved 1,000 seats for company employees and allowed only them to purchase game tickets from September 3–10, while Wabash Railroad designated a special train from Dearborn Station to the stadium.[27] Halas invited surviving Staley teammates to the game and an evening dinner,[23] while Staley's son A. E. Staley Jr. and Decatur mayor Clarence A. Sablotny also attended the game. The Bears won 58–27, the most points scored by the Bears since 1940.[28]

Staley serves as the namesake of the Bears' mascot Staley Da Bear.[29]

Lake Decatur

In 1922, Gene Staley proposed a project to the city of Decatur that would create Lake Decatur, which is Illinois’ largest artificial body of water. Staley required the artificial lake in order to maintain his plant’s necessity of 19 million gallons of water a day to sustain production. Staley threatened to the Decatur City Council, if the city refused to allow the construction of the artificial lake, that he would close his plant and move it to Peoria, Illinois. Decatur allowed the company to go forward with the project, and in 1922, the construction of the 2,800 arches and a 30-mile shoreline of the artificial lake started.[30]

See also

Further reading

  • Steven K. Ashby and C. J. Hawking. Staley: The Fight For A New American Labor Movement. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 9780252076404.
  • Willis, Chris (August 19, 2010). The Man Who Built the National Football League: Joe F. Carr. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0810876701.

References

  1. ^ A. E. Staley Manufacturing Company (1922 - 1980s): Work with Soy
  2. ^ Business Policies & Decision Making - Google Books
  3. ^ Ashby, Steven (2009). Staley The Fight For A New American Labor Movement. University Of Illinois Press. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-252-07640-4.
  4. ^ Augustus Eugene Staley - Tate & Lyle Archived January 7, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ Ashby, Steven (2009). Staley The Fight For A New American Labor Movement. University of Illinois Press. pp. 20–21. ISBN 978-0252-07640-4.
  6. ^ "Purex Industries Inc". United Press International. 26 October 1981. Retrieved 2 December 2018.
  7. ^ [1] Nordlund: man behind Staley-CFS Continental deal - Donald Nordlund Nation's Restaurant News, Nov 5, 1984 by Don Jeffrey Retrieved February 9, 2011
  8. ^ Siler, Julia Flynn (14 May 1988). "Staley accepts offer by Tate & Lyle". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 December 2018.
  9. ^ TATE & LYLE TO SELL CFS TO SYSCO CORP.; [NATIONAL, C Edition]Liz Sly. Chicago Tribune. Chicago, Ill.: Jun 7, 1988. pg. 1 Retrieved 8 February 2011.
  10. ^ a b Uchitelle, Louis (June 29, 1993). "COMPANY NEWS; 800 Workers Locked Out By Staley". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
  11. ^ Ashby 2009.
  12. ^ Cloud, Diana (May 2005). "Fighting Words: Labor and the Limits of Communication at Staley, 1993 to 1996". Management Communication Quarterly. 18 (5): 509. doi:10.1177/0893318904273688. ISSN 0893-3189.
  13. ^ Moberg, David (November 11, 1994). "Labor Intensive Illinois Town Becomes A Rallying Point For Striking Workers And Their Backers". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
  14. ^ a b Ashby 2009, p. 9.
  15. ^ Peterson, Robert (1997). Pigskin: The Early Years of Pro Football. Oxford University Press. p. 68. ISBN 0195353307.
  16. ^ Sorensen, Mark W. "History of the Decatur Staleys / Chicago Bears". Staley Museum. Retrieved March 10, 2018.
  17. ^ "1919 Decatur Staleys". Pro Football Archives. Retrieved March 10, 2018.
  18. ^ Halas, George; Gwen Morgan; Arthur Veysey (1979). Halas By Halas. McGraw Hill. pp. 53–54.
  19. ^ Willis 2010, p. 121–122.
  20. ^ a b Sorensen, Mark W. "George Stanley Halas". Staley Museum. Retrieved March 10, 2018.
  21. ^ "1920 Decatur Staleys Statistics & Players". Pro-Football-Reference.com. Retrieved March 10, 2018.
  22. ^ Willis 2010, p. 131.
  23. ^ a b "Staleys, Shades of Early Bears, to Meet". Chicago Tribune. October 17, 1956. Retrieved March 10, 2018 – via Newspapers.com.
  24. ^ Willis 2010, p. 141–142.
  25. ^ "1921 Chicago Staleys Statistics & Players". Pro-Football-Reference.com. Retrieved March 10, 2018.
  26. ^ Willis 2010, p. 148.
  27. ^ "Halas Plans Staley Day As Tribute". The Decatur Review. August 31, 1956. Retrieved March 10, 2018 – via Newspapers.com.
  28. ^ "Fans Go to Chicago Bears Game to Help Honor Old-Time Staley Players". The Decatur Review. October 28, 1956. Retrieved March 10, 2018 – via Newspapers.com.
  29. ^ "Staley Da Bear's Bio". Chicago Bears. February 13, 2013. Retrieved March 10, 2018.
  30. ^ Mathew, Jan. "Evolution of the Lake". Decatur Magazine. Archived from the original on 22 October 2013. Retrieved 20 October 2013.
1919 Decatur Staleys season

The 1919 Decatur Staleys season was the first in the team's long existence. It was also the only season in which the Staleys-Bears team was amateur, not a member of the National Football League or managed by George Halas. The team was industrial team, which was made up purely of regular A. E. Staley Manufacturing Company employees, and posted a 6–1 record to win the Central Illinois Championship.

1921 Chicago Staleys season

The 1921 Chicago Staleys season was their second regular season completed in the young American Professional Football Association. The club posted a 9–1–1 record under head coach/player George Halas earning them a first-place finish in the team standings and their first league championship. The beginning of the season saw A.E. Staley turn over the team to Halas and Dutch Sternaman, who moved the team to Chicago. The team name was changed from the Decatur Staleys to the Chicago Staleys due to a contract between Staley and Halas. The Staleys were quite dominant, but all of Chicago's games were played at home (including one game in Decatur). Two games were against the Buffalo All-Americans; the first, played on Thanksgiving, was won by Buffalo 7–6, giving the Staleys their only loss of the season.

Ed "Dutch" Sternaman and George Halas starred again, with newcomer Gaylord Stinchcomb also contributing. Sternaman scored 32 points, most by kicking, and threw one touchdown pass. Halas had 3 TD receptions while Stinchcomb led the team with 4 touchdown runs.

EMD NW3

The EMD NW3 was a 1,000 hp (750 kW) road switcher diesel-electric locomotive built by General Motors Electro-Motive Division of La Grange, Illinois between November 1939 and March 1942. A total of seven were built for the Great Northern Railway, the sole original purchaser; they were originally numbered #5400-5406 and later renumbered #175-181.

The locomotive fundamentally consists of an NW2 hood, prime mover (a V12 EMD 567 diesel engine) and main generator on a long frame with road trucks (Blomberg Bs). The extra length was used for a large cab and an additional, full-width hood section, which contained a steam generator for passenger service. The boiler's exhaust was in the front center of the cab, between the front windows and exiting at the middle of the roof front.

The locomotives were delivered in GN's black diesel paint scheme of the time, but were later repainted in the bright, orange and green "Empire Builder" scheme. The short exhaust stacks as delivered were at some point replaced by standard conical EMD switcher stacks.

The first four locomotives were traded in by GN to EMD on new locomotives in 1965. The remaining three locomotives were sold to other railroads: #179 was sold to A.E. Staley Co. of Morrisville, Pennsylvania, keeping the same number; then locomotive #179 was purchased by Locomotive Trouble Shooters,from Fairless Hills, PA 19030 and the engine was replaced, #180 was sold to the Clinchfield Railroad as their #361; #181 went to Anaconda Aluminium as their #100. The Clinchfield locomotive was scrapped; the Anaconda Aluminum unit is on display at the Whitefish, Montana depot in its GN "Empire Builder" colors, locomotive #179 was still in service in Morrisville, Pennsylvania as of 2018.

The January 2019 issue of Railfan & Railroad magazine featured a picture of No. 179 on page 26 with accompanying text stating the locomotive was scrapped on November 30, 2018. Additional text on page 15 stated "Though the final owner, Tate & Lyle, made some effort to find a buyer, there were no takers. The high cost of trucking the oversized unit from the site was an inhibiting factor for many museums and historical societies." This leaves the restored GN 181 on static display near the Amtrak station in Whitefish, MT, as the sole surviving EMD NW3.

List of Chicago Bears in the Pro Football Hall of Fame

The Chicago Bears are a professional American football team based in Chicago, Illinois. They are currently members of the North Division of the National Football Conference (NFC) in the National Football League (NFL), and are one of two remaining charter members of NFL. Founded in 1919 by the A.E. Staley Company as the Decatur Staleys and based in Chicago since 1922, the Bears organization has become one of the most successful professional football teams, having won a total of nine professional American football championships—eight NFL Championships and one Super Bowl—second most in the NFL, behind the Green Bay Packers. The franchise has recorded 18 NFL divisional titles, four NFL conference championships, and the most regular season victories of any NFL franchise. In 1963, the Pro Football Hall of Fame was created to honor the history of professional American football and the individuals who have greatly influenced it. Since the charter induction class of 1963, 32 individuals who have played, coached, or held an administrative position for the Bears have been inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame. The Bears hold the record for the most individuals enshrined in the Pro Football Hall of Fame.Of the 35 inductees, 28 made their primary contribution to football with the Bears, while the other 7 contributed only a minor portion of their career with the Bears. Of the original 17 individuals inducted in 1963, three spent a majority of their careers with the Chicago Bears. This includes the founder, long time owner, and head coach George Halas, long time halfback and two-way player Bronko Nagurski, and the "Galloping Ghost" Red Grange. The first few years of the Hall of Fame's existence saw 14 Bear players enshrined. Jim Finks was enshrined due to his contributions to the team as a general manager, not a player. Mike Ditka was inducted into the Hall of Fame while serving as the team's head coach. The most recent Bear to be inducted was Brian Urlacher in 2018.

List of United States Supreme Court cases, volume 324

This is a list of all the United States Supreme Court cases from volume 324 of the United States Reports:

Choate v. Commissioner, 324 U.S. 1 (1945)

Herget v. Central Nat. Bank & Trust Co., 324 U.S. 4 (1945)

Regal Knitwear Co. v. NLRB, 324 U.S. 9 (1945)

Fondren v. Commissioner, 324 U.S. 18 (1945)

Republic of Mexico v. Hoffman, 324 U.S. 30 (1945)

House v. Mayo, 324 U.S. 42 (1945) (per curiam)

Muschany v. United States, 324 U.S. 49 (1945)

Barr v. United States, 324 U.S. 83 (1945)

Price v. Gurney, 324 U.S. 100 (1945)

Fidelity-Philadelphia Trust Co. v. Rothensies, 324 U.S. 108 (1945)

Commissioner v. Estate of Field, 324 U.S. 113 (1945)

Herb v. Pitcairn, 324 U.S. 117 (1945)

Central States Elec. Co. v. Muscatine, 324 U.S. 138 (1945)

State Farm Mut. Automobile Ins. Co. v. Duel, 324 U.S. 154 (1945)

Webre Steib Co. v. Commissioner, 324 U.S. 164 (1945)

Commissioner v. Smith, 324 U.S. 177 (1945)

Charleston Fed. Sav. & Loan Assn. v. Alderson, 324 U.S. 182 (1945)

United States v. Beach, 324 U.S. 193 (1945) (per curiam)

Garber v. Crews, 324 U.S. 200 (1945)

Young v. Higbee Co., 324 U.S. 204 (1945)

Canadian Aviator, Ltd. v. United States, 324 U.S. 215 (1945)

Catlin v. United States, 324 U.S. 229 (1945)

Gemsco, Inc. v. Walling, 324 U.S. 244 (1945)

Robinson v. United States, 324 U.S. 282 (1945)

United States v. Frankfort Distilleries, Inc., 324 U.S. 293 (1945)

Commissioner v. Wemyss, 324 U.S. 303 (1945)

Merrill v. Fahs, 324 U.S. 308 (1945)

Drummond v. United States, 324 U.S. 316 (1945)

Dow Chemical Co. v. Halliburton Oil Well Cementing Co., 324 U.S. 320 (1945)

Commissioner v. Court Holding Co., 324 U.S. 331 (1945)

Northwestern Bands of Shoshone Indians v. United States, 324 U.S. 335 (1945)

Special Equipment Co. v. Coe, 324 U.S. 370 (1945)

United States v. Commodore Park, Inc., 324 U.S. 386 (1945)

Estate of Putnam v. Commissioner, 324 U.S. 393 (1945)

Malinski v. New York, 324 U.S. 401 (1945)

Georgia v. Pennsylvania R. Co., 324 U.S. 439 (1945)

A. H. Phillips, Inc. v. Walling, 324 U.S. 490 (1945)

United States v. Willow River Power Co., 324 U.S. 499 (1945)

Connecticut Light & Power Co. v. FPC, 324 U.S. 515 (1945)

Commissioner v. Wheeler, 324 U.S. 542 (1945)

Market Street R. Co. v. Railroad Comm'n of Cal., 324 U.S. 548 (1945)

Hartford-Empire Co. v. United States, 324 U.S. 570 (1945)

Colorado Interstate Gas Co. v. FPC, 324 U.S. 581 (1945)

Colorado-Wyoming Gas Co. v. FPC, 324 U.S. 626 (1945)

Panhandle Eastern Pipe Line Co. v. FPC, 324 U.S. 635 (1945)

Hooven & Allison Co. v. Evatt, 324 U.S. 652 (1945)

Commissioner v. Smith, 324 U.S. 695 (1945)

Brooklyn Savings Bank v. O'Neil, 324 U.S. 697 (1945)

J. F. Fitzgerald Constr. Co. v. Pedersen, 324 U.S. 720 (1945)

Corn Products Refining Co. v. FTC, 324 U.S. 726 (1945)

FTC v. A. E. Staley Mfg. Co., 324 U.S. 746 (1945)

White v. Ragen, 324 U.S. 760 (1945) (per curiam)

United States v. Beuttas, 324 U.S. 768 (1945)

United States v. Hancock Truck Lines, Inc., 324 U.S. 774 (1945)

Copperweld Steel Co. v. Industrial Comm'n of Ohio, 324 U.S. 780 (1945)

Rice v. Olson, 324 U.S. 786 (1945)

Republic Aviation Corp. v. NLRB, 324 U.S. 793 (1945)

Precision Instrument Mfg. Co. v. Automotive Maintenance Machinery Co., 324 U.S. 806 (1945)

Staley Da Bear

Staley Da Bear is the official mascot of the Chicago Bears of the National Football League. He is an anthropomorphic bear with a customized team jersey. Staley's name is eponymous to A. E. Staley, who founded the Bears’ franchise in 1919.

He debuted during the 2003 Chicago Bears season to entertain fans at Soldier Field. He has since participated in many charity events, parties, Chicago Rush games, and other Bears-related events. Staley has also made numerous cameos on television, especially during the team's Super Bowl run in 2006. Through 2007, Staley's winning percentage with the Bears is .537. Staley was named a three-time Pro Bowl mascot in 2004, 2006 and 2007. At halftime, Staley and his "furballs" (NFL mascots and various other mascots) would take on a group of youth players from Naperville. Staley also frequently attends annual holiday parties hosted by the Bears. Staley has also appeared in the Elmhurst St. Patrick's Day Parade. Staley and other NFL mascots have also participated in Halloween events. Staley also visits area schools to promote and participate in anti-bullying assemblies and programs.

Staley Field

Staley Field in Decatur, Illinois, United states, was the home of the Decatur Staleys club of the American Professional Football Association in 1920, coached and managed by the young George Halas.

The team was owned by the A. E. Staley Manufacturing Company, for which Staley Field was the company athletic field. According to Michael Benson's Ballparks of North America, the field was located at Eldorado and 22nd Streets. In fact, the Staley company's own address is 2200 East Eldorado Street, so presumably Staley Field occupied a piece of the company's grounds. It was also used by the Decatur entry in the Three-I League in 1915 and 1922–23.Although the Staley football team was popular in 1920, it struggled financially, partly due to Staley Field's 1,500 seating capacity. Fans were charged $1 to attend games and company employees received a 50 percent discount, which was not economically feasible for the Staleys and prompted Halas to move games to Cubs Park (now Wrigley Field) in Chicago.The Staley company sold the team to Halas and his partners, who transferred the team to Wrigley Field in Chicago in 1921. As part of the deal, they operated under the "Staley" name for one more season. They proceeded to win the APFA championship that season. For 1922, they renamed themselves the Chicago Bears in order to associate themselves with their landlords.

Tate

Tate is an institution that houses, in a network of four art museums, the United Kingdom's national collection of British art, and international modern and contemporary art. It is not a government institution, but its main sponsor is the UK Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport.The name "Tate" is used also as the operating name for the corporate body, which was established by the Museums and Galleries Act 1992 as "The Board of Trustees of the Tate Gallery".

The gallery was founded in 1897, as the National Gallery of British Art. When its role was changed to include the national collection of modern art as well as the national collection of British art, in 1932, it was renamed the Tate Gallery after sugar magnate Henry Tate of Tate & Lyle, who had laid the foundations for the collection. The Tate Gallery was housed in the current building occupied by Tate Britain, which is situated in Millbank, London. In 2000, the Tate Gallery transformed itself into the current-day Tate, which consists of a network of four museums: Tate Britain, which displays the collection of British art from 1500 to the present day; Tate Modern, also in London, which houses the Tate's collection of British and international modern and contemporary art from 1900 to the present day; Tate Liverpool (founded in 1988), which has the same purpose as Tate Modern but on a smaller scale; and Tate St Ives in Cornwall (founded in 1993), which displays modern and contemporary art by artists who have connections with the area. All four museums share the Tate Collection. One of the Tate's most publicised art events is the awarding of the annual Turner Prize, which takes place at Tate Britain.

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