A. E. Housman

Alfred Edward Housman (/ˈhaʊsmən/; 26 March 1859 – 30 April 1936), usually known as A. E. Housman, was an English classical scholar and poet, best known to the general public for his cycle of poems A Shropshire Lad. Lyrical and almost epigrammatic in form, the poems wistfully evoke the dooms and disappointments of youth in the English countryside.[1] Their beauty, simplicity and distinctive imagery appealed strongly to Edwardian taste, and to many early 20th-century English composers both before and after the First World War. Through their song-settings, the poems became closely associated with that era, and with Shropshire itself.

Housman was one of the foremost classicists of his age and has been ranked as one of the greatest scholars who ever lived.[2][3] He established his reputation publishing as a private scholar and, on the strength and quality of his work, was appointed Professor of Latin at University College London and then at the University of Cambridge. His editions of Juvenal, Manilius and Lucan are still considered authoritative.

A. E. Housman
Photo portrait by E. O. Hoppé, 1910
Photo portrait by E. O. Hoppé, 1910
BornAlfred Edward Housman
26 March 1859
Bromsgrove, Worcestershire, England
Died30 April 1936 (aged 77)
Cambridge, England
Pen nameA. E. Housman
OccupationClassicist and poet
Alma materSt John's College, Oxford
GenreLyric poetry
Notable worksA Shropshire Lad
RelativesClemence Housman, Laurence Housman


Birthplace of A.E. Housman
Valley House, the poet's birthplace
Fockbury House or The Clock House
The site of the 17th-century Fockbury House (later known as The Clock House). Home of A.E. Housman from 1873-1878
Perry Hall, Home of A.E. Housman
Home of A.E. Housman from 1860-1873 and again from 1878-1882. His younger brother Laurence was born here in 1865.

The eldest of seven children, Housman was born at Valley House in Fockbury, a hamlet on the outskirts of Bromsgrove in Worcestershire, to Sarah Jane (née Williams, married 17 June 1858 in Woodchester, Gloucester)[4] and Edward Housman (whose family came from Lancaster), and was baptised on 24 April 1859 at Christ Church, in Catshill.[5][6][7] His mother died on his twelfth birthday, and his father, a country solicitor, remarried, to an elder cousin, Lucy, in 1873. Two of his siblings became prominent writers, sister Clemence Housman and brother Laurence Housman.

Housman was educated at King Edward's School in Birmingham and later Bromsgrove School, where he revealed his academic promise and won prizes for his poems.[7][8] In 1877 he won an open scholarship to St John's College, Oxford and went there to study classics.[7] Although introverted by nature, Housman formed strong friendships with two roommates, Moses John Jackson (1858 – January 14, 1923) and A. W. Pollard. Though Housman obtained a first in classical Moderations in 1879, his dedication to textual analysis, particularly of Propertius, led him to neglect the ancient history and philosophy that formed part of the Greats curriculum. Accordingly, he failed his Finals and had to return humiliated in Michaelmas term to resit the exam and at least gain a lower-level pass degree.[9][7] Though some attribute Housman's unexpected performance in his exams directly to his unrequited feelings for Jackson,[10] most biographers adduce more obvious causes. Housman was indifferent to philosophy and overconfident in his exceptional gifts, and he spent too much time with his friends. He may also have been distracted by news of his father's desperate illness.[11][12][13]

Moses Jackson
Moses Jackson (1858-1923) while attending Oxford c. 1880

After Oxford, Jackson went to work as a clerk in the Patent Office in London and arranged a job there for Housman too.[7] The two shared a flat with Jackson's brother Adalbert until 1885, when Housman moved to lodgings of his own, probably after Jackson responded to a declaration of love by telling Housman that he could not reciprocate his feelings.[14] Two years later, Jackson moved to India, placing more distance between himself and Housman. When he returned briefly to England in 1889, to marry, Housman was not invited to the wedding and knew nothing about it until the couple had left the country. Adalbert Jackson died in 1892 and Housman commemorated him in a poem published as "XLII – A.J.J." of More Poems (1936).

Meanwhile, Housman pursued his classical studies independently, and published scholarly articles on such authors as Horace, Propertius, Ovid, Aeschylus, Euripides and Sophocles.[7] He gradually acquired such a high reputation that in 1892 he was offered and accepted the professorship of Latin at University College London (UCL).[7] When, during his tenure, an immensely rare Coverdale Bible of 1535 was discovered in the UCL library and presented to the Library Committee, Housman (who had become an atheist while still an undergraduate)[15] remarked that it would be better to sell it to "buy some really useful books with the proceeds".[16]

Although Housman's early work and his responsibilities as a professor included both Latin and Greek, he began to specialise in Latin poetry. When asked later why he had stopped writing about Greek verse, he responded, "I found that I could not attain to excellence in both."[17] In 1911 he took the Kennedy Professorship of Latin at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he remained for the rest of his life. G. P. Goold, Classics Professor at University College, wrote of Housman's accomplishments: "The legacy of Housman's scholarship is a thing of permanent value; and that value consists less in obvious results, the establishment of general propositions about Latin and the removal of scribal mistakes, than in the shining example he provides of a wonderful mind at work … He was and may remain the last great textual critic." [3] Between 1903 and 1930 Housman published his critical edition of Manilius's Astronomicon in five volumes. He also edited works by Juvenal (1905) and Lucan (1926).

Many colleagues were unnerved by his scathing attacks on those he thought guilty of shoddy scholarship.[7] In his paper "The Application of Thought to Textual Criticism" (1921) Housman wrote: "A textual critic engaged upon his business is not at all like Newton investigating the motion of the planets: he is much more like a dog hunting for fleas." He declared many of his contemporary scholars to be stupid, lazy, vain, or all three, saying: "Knowledge is good, method is good, but one thing beyond all others is necessary; and that is to have a head, not a pumpkin, on your shoulders, and brains, not pudding, in your head." [3][18]

Housman Grave
Housman's grave at St Laurence's Church in Ludlow. A cherry tree was planted in his memory (see A Shropshire Lad II), and replaced by the Housman Society in 2003 with a new cherry tree nearby

His younger colleague A. S. F. Gow quoted examples of these attacks, noting that they "were often savage in the extreme".[19] Gow also related how Housman intimidated his students, sometimes reducing the women to tears. According to Gow, Housman (when teaching at University College London where, unlike Cambridge, he had students of both sexes) could never remember the names of his female students, maintaining that "had he burdened his memory by the distinction between Miss Jones and Miss Robinson, he might have forgotten that between the second and fourth declension". One of Housman's notable pupils at Cambridge was Enoch Powell.[20]

Housman Grave Clip2
Housman's grave marker.

In his private life Housman enjoyed gastronomy, flying in aeroplanes and making frequent visits to France, where he read "books which were banned in Britain as pornographic".[21] But he struck A. C. Benson, a fellow don, as being "descended from a long line of maiden aunts".[22] His feelings about his poetry were ambivalent and he certainly treated it as secondary to his scholarship. He did not speak in public about his poems until 1933, when he gave a lecture "The Name and Nature of Poetry", arguing there that poetry should appeal to emotions rather than to the intellect.

Housman died, aged 77, in Cambridge. His ashes are buried just outside St Laurence's Church, Ludlow, Shropshire.[7][23]


A Shropshire Lad

During his years in London, A. E. Housman completed A Shropshire Lad, a cycle of 63 poems. After one publisher had turned it down, he helped subsidise its publication in 1896. At first selling slowly, it rapidly became a lasting success. Its appeal to English musicians had helped to make it widely known before World War I, when its themes struck a powerful chord with English readers. The book has been in print continuously since May 1896.[24]

The poems are marked by pessimism and preoccupation with death, without religious consolation. Housman wrote many of them while living in Highgate, London, before ever visiting Shropshire, which he presented in an idealised pastoral light as his 'land of lost content'.[25] Housman himself acknowledged that "No doubt I have been unconsciously influenced by the Greeks and Latins, but [the] chief sources of which I am conscious are Shakespeare's songs, the Scottish Border ballads, and Heine."[26]

Later collections

Housman began writing a new set of poems after the First World War. He was an influence on many British poets who became famous by their writing about the war, and wrote several poems as occasional verse to commemorate the war dead. This included his Epitaph on an Army of Mercenaries, honouring the British Expeditionary Force, an elite but small force of professional soldiers, 'a rapier amongst scythes'[27] sent to Belgium at the start of the war. Fighting a well-equipped and much larger German army, they suffered heavy losses.

In the early 1920s, when Moses Jackson was dying in Canada, Housman wanted to assemble his best unpublished poems so that Jackson could read them before his death.[7] These later poems, mostly written before 1910, show a greater variety of subject and form than those in A Shropshire Lad but lack the consistency of his previously published work. He published them as Last Poems (1922), feeling that his inspiration was exhausted and that he should not publish more in his lifetime. After his death Housman's brother, Laurence, published further poems in More Poems (1936), A. E .H.: Some Poems, Some Letters and a Personal Memoir by his Brother (1937), and Collected Poems (1939). A. E. H. includes humorous verse such as a parody of Longfellow's poem Excelsior. Housman also wrote a parodic Fragment of a Greek Tragedy, in English, published posthumously with humorous poems under the title Unkind to Unicorns.[28]

John Sparrow quoted a letter written late in Housman's life that described the genesis of his poems:

Poetry was for him …'a morbid secretion', as the pearl is for the oyster. The desire, or the need, did not come upon him often, and it came usually when he was feeling ill or depressed; then whole lines and stanzas would present themselves to him without any effort, or any consciousness of composition on his part. Sometimes they wanted a little alteration, sometimes none; sometimes the lines needed in order to make a complete poem would come later, spontaneously or with 'a little coaxing'; sometimes he had to sit down and finish the poem with his head. That... was a long and laborious process.[29]

Sparrow himself adds, "How difficult it is to achieve a satisfactory analysis may be judged by considering the last poem in A Shropshire Lad. Of its four stanzas, Housman tells us that two were 'given' him ready made; one was coaxed forth from his subconsciousness an hour or two later; the remaining one took months of conscious composition. No one can tell for certain which was which."[29]

De Amicitia (Of Friendship)

In 1942 Laurence Housman also deposited an essay entitled "A. E. Housman's 'De Amicitia'" (there is a link to the text, below in this article, under "Further reading") in the British Library, with the proviso that it was not to be published for 25 years. The essay discussed A. E. Housman's homosexuality and his love for Moses Jackson.[30] Despite the conservative nature of the times and his own caution in public life, Housman was quite open in his poetry, and especially in A Shropshire Lad, about his deeper sympathies. Poem XXX of that sequence, for instance, speaks of how "Fear contended with desire": "Others, I am not the first, / Have willed more mischief than they durst". In More Poems, he buries his love for Moses Jackson in the very act of commemorating it, as his feelings of love are not reciprocated and must be carried unfulfilled to the grave:[31]

Because I liked you better
Than suits a man to say
It irked you, and I promised
To throw the thought away.

To put the world between us
We parted, stiff and dry;
Goodbye, said you, forget me.
I will, no fear, said I

If here, where clover whitens
The dead man's knoll, you pass,
And no tall flower to meet you
Starts in the trefoiled grass,

Halt by the headstone naming
The heart no longer stirred,
And say the lad that loved you
Was one that kept his word.[32]

His poem "Oh who is that young sinner with the handcuffs on his wrists?", written after the trial of Oscar Wilde, addressed more general attitudes towards homosexuals.[33] In the poem the prisoner is suffering "for the colour of his hair", a natural quality that, in a coded reference to homosexuality, is reviled as "nameless and abominable" (recalling the legal phrase peccatum illud horribile, inter Christianos non nominandum, "that horrible sin, not to be named amongst Christians").

Housman song settings

Housman's poetry, especially A Shropshire Lad, was set to music by many British, and in particular English, composers in the first half of the 20th century.[3] The national, pastoral and traditional elements of his style resonated with similar trends in English music. In 1904 the cycle A Shropshire Lad was set by Arthur Somervell, who had begun to develop the concept of the English song-cycle in his version of Tennyson's Maud a little previously. Ralph Vaughan Williams produced his well-known settings of six songs, the cycle On Wenlock Edge, for string quartet, tenor and piano in 1909. Between 1909 and 1911 George Butterworth produced settings in two collections, Six Songs from A Shropshire Lad and Bredon Hill and Other Songs. He also wrote the orchestral tone poem A Shropshire Lad, first performed at Leeds Festival in 1912.[34]

Ivor Gurney was another composer who made renowned settings of Housman's poems. Towards the end of World War 1 he was working on his cycle Ludlow and Teme, for voice and string quartet (published in 1919),[35] and went on to compose the eight-song cycle The Western Playland in 1921.[36] One more who set Housman songs at this period was John Ireland in the song cycle, The Land of Lost Content (1920–21). Even composers not directly associated with the 'pastoral' tradition, such as Arnold Bax, Lennox Berkeley and Arthur Bliss, were attracted to Housman's poetry. A 1976 catalogue listed 400 musical settings of Housman's poems.[37] As of 2016, Lieder Net Archive records 606 settings of 187 texts.[38]


The earliest commemoration of Housman was in the chapel of Trinity College in Cambridge, where there is a memorial brass on the south wall.[39] The Latin inscription was composed by his colleague there, A.S.F. Gow, who was also the author of a biographical and bibliographical sketch published immediately following his death.[40] Translated into English, the memorial reads:

This inscription commemorates Alfred Edward Housman, who was for twenty-five years Kennedy Professor of Latin and Fellow of the College. Following in Bentley's footsteps he corrected the transmitted text of the Latin poets with so keen an intelligence and so ample a stock of learning, and chastised the sloth of editors so sharply and wittily, that he takes his place as the virtual second founder of textual studies. He was also a poet whose slim volumes of verse assured him of a secure place on the British Helicon. He died on 30th April 1936 at the age of seventy-six.[41]

Refurbished A. E. Housman statue Sept 2015
Housman statue in Bromsgrove

From 1947, University College London's academic common room was dedicated to his memory as the Housman Room.[42] Blue plaques followed later elsewhere, the first being on Byron Cottage in Highgate in 1969, recording the fact that A Shropshire Lad was written there. More followed on his Worcestershire birthplace, his homes and school in Bromsgrove.[43] The latter were encouraged by the Housman Society, which was founded in the town in 1973.[44] Another initiative was the statue in Bromsgrove High Street, showing the poet striding with walking stick in hand. The work of local sculptor Kenneth Potts, it was unveiled on 22 March 1985.[45]

The blue plaques in Worcestershire were set up on the centenary of A Shropshire Lad in 1996. In September of the same year a memorial window lozenge was dedicated at Poets' Corner in Westminster Abbey[46] The following year saw the première of Tom Stoppard's play The Invention of Love, whose subject is the relationship between Housman and Moses Jackson.[47]

As the 150th anniversary of his birth approached, London University inaugurated its Housman lectures on classical subjects in 2005, initially given every second year then annually after 2011.[48] The anniversary itself in 2009 saw the launch of a new edition of A Shropshire Lad, including pictures from across Shropshire taken by local photographer Gareth Thomas.[49] Among other events, there were performances of Vaughan Williams' On Wenlock Edge and Gurney's Ludlow and Teme at St Laurence's Church in Ludlow.[50]


Poetry collections

  • A Shropshire Lad (1896)
  • Last Poems (1922, Henry Holt & Company)
  • A Shropshire Lad: Authorized Edition (1924, Henry Holt & Company)
  • More Poems (1936, Barclays)
  • Collected Poems (1940, Henry Holt & Company)
  • Collected Poems (1939); the poems included in this volume but not the three above are known as Additional Poems. The Penguin Edition of 1956 includes an Introduction by John Sparrow.
  • Manuscript Poems: Eight Hundred Lines of Hitherto Un-collected Verse from the Author's Notebooks, ed. Tom Burns Haber (1955)
  • Unkind to Unicorns: Selected Comic Verse, ed. J. Roy Birch (1995; 2nd ed. 1999)
  • The Poems of A.E. Housman, ed. Archie Burnett (1997)

Classical scholarship

  • P. Ovidi Nasonis Ibis (1894. In J.P. Postgate's "Corpus Poetarum Latinorum")
  • M. Manilii Astronomica (1903–1930; 2nd ed. 1937; 5 vols.)
  • D. Iunii Iuuenalis Saturae: editorum in usum edidit (1905; 2nd ed. 1931)
  • M. Annaei Lucani, Belli Ciuilis Libri Decem: editorum in usum edidit (1926; 2nd ed. 1927)
  • The Classical Papers of A. E. Housman, ed. J. Diggle and F. R. D. Goodyear (1972; 3 vols.)
  • William White, "Housman's Latin Inscriptions", CJ (1955) 159 – 166

Published lectures

These lectures are listed by date of delivery, with date of first publication given separately if different.

  • Introductory Lecture (1892)
  • "Swinburne" (1910; published 1969)
  • Cambridge Inaugural Lecture (1911; published 1969 as "The Confines of Criticism")
  • "The Application of Thought to Textual Criticism" (1921; published 1922)
  • "The Name and Nature of Poetry" (1933)

Prose collections

Selected Prose, edited by John Carter, Cambridge University Press, 1961

Collected letters

  • The Letters of A. E. Housman, ed. Henry Maas (1971)
  • The Letters of A. E. Housman, ed. Archie Burnett (2007)

See also


  1. ^ A E Housman, The Poetry Archive
  2. ^ 'a man who turned out to be not only the great English classical scholar of his time but also one of the few real and great scholars anywhere at any time'. Charles Oscar Brink, English Classical Scholarship: Historical reflections on Bentley, Porson and Housman, James Clarke & Co, Oxford, Oxford University Press, New York, 1986 p.149
  3. ^ a b c d Poetry Foundation profile
  4. ^ "England Marriages, 1538–1973 for Edward Housman", Baptism record via Family Search.org
  5. ^ "England Births and Christenings, 1538–1975 for Alfred Edward Housman", Baptism record via Family Search.org
  6. ^ Christ Church Catshill
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Profile at Poets.org
  8. ^ "Housman's 150th birthday". BBC. Retrieved 12 January 2017.
  9. ^ P. G. Naiditch. "A.E. Housman at University College, London: The Election of 1892". Retrieved 31 December 2017.
  10. ^ Cunningham (2000) p.981.
  11. ^ Norman Page, Macmillan, London (1983) A. E. Housman: A Critical Biography pp. 43–46
  12. ^ Richard Perceval Graves, A. E. Housman: The Scholar-Poet Charles Scribners, New York (1979) pp. 52–55.
  13. ^ Charles Oscar Brink, English Classical Scholarship pp.152
  14. ^ Summers (1995) p. 371
  15. ^ Blocksidge, Martin. A.E. Housman: A Single Life. N.p.: n.p., 2016. Print. "Housman became an atheist whilst at Oxford..."
  16. ^ Ricks, Christopher (1989). A. E. Housman. Collected Poems and Selected Prose. Harmondsworth: Penguin. p. 18.
  17. ^ Gow (Cambridge 1936) p5
  18. ^ "The Application of Thought to Textual Criticism," (1921) Housman
  19. ^ Gow (Cambridge 1936) p. 24
  20. ^ Gow (Cambridge 1936) p. 18
  21. ^ Graves (1979) p155.
  22. ^ Critchley (1988).
  23. ^ Wilson, Scott. Resting Places: The Burial Sites of More Than 14,000 Famous Persons, 3d ed.: 2 (Kindle Location 22231). McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. Kindle Edition
  24. ^ Peter Parker, Housman Country, London 2016, Chapter 1
  25. ^ A. E. Housman, A Shropshire Lad, XL
  26. ^ Richard Stokes, The Penguin Book of English Song, 2016, p.li
  27. ^ Liddell Harte, B. H. (1930). The Real War, 1914–1918, p.42. Republished by Wildside Press, LLC, 2012. ISBN 978-1479412150
  28. ^ J. Roy Birch and Norman Page, ed. (1995). Unkind to Unicorns. Cambridge: Silent Books.
  29. ^ a b Collected Poems Penguin, Harmondsworth (1956), preface by John Sparrow.
  30. ^ Summers ed. 1995, 371.
  31. ^ Summers (1995) p372.
  32. ^ A. E. Housman, More Poems, Jonathan Cape, London 1936 p.48
  33. ^ Housman (1937) p213.
  34. ^ Arthur Eaglefield Hull, A Dictionary of Modern Music and Musicians Dent, London (1924), 73.
  35. ^ Kate Kennedy, "Ambivalent Englishness: Ivor Gurney's song cycle Ludlow and Teme", First World War Studies, Volume 2, 2011, - Issue 1: Literature and Music of the First World War
  36. ^ Lieder Net archive
  37. ^ Palmer and Banfield 2001.
  38. ^ LNA, list of authors
  39. ^ Trinity College chapel
  40. ^ A.E.Housman, Classical Scholar, Bloomsbury 2009, N. Hopkinson, "Housman and J.P. Postgate"
  42. ^ "History of the ASCR". UCL.
  43. ^ Open Plaques
  44. ^ Housman Society Newsletter 38, "Early history of the Society", pp.7–8
  45. ^ Public Monuments and Sculpture Association
  46. ^ Westminster Abbey.
  47. ^ Guardian article"Hades and gentlemen" 5 October 1997
  48. ^ UCL
  49. ^ Merlin Unwin
  50. ^ "A.E. Housman: 150th birth anniversary", Shropshire Life, 21 April 2007


  • Critchley, Julian, 'Homage to a lonely lad', Weekend Telegraph (UK), 23 April 1988.
  • Cunningham, Valentine ed., The Victorians: An Anthology of Poetry and Poetics (Oxford: Blackwell, 2000)
  • Gow, A. S. F., A. E. Housman: A Sketch Together with a List of his Writings and Indexes to his Classical Papers (Cambridge 1936)
  • Graves, Richard Perceval, A.E. Housman: The Scholar-Poet (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979), p. 155
  • Housman, Laurence, A. E .H.: Some Poems, Some Letters and a Personal Memoir by his Brother (London: Jonathan Cape, 1937)
  • Page, Norman, 'Housman, Alfred Edward (1859–1936)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004)
  • Palmer, Christopher and Stephen Banfield, 'A. E. Housman', The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (London: Macmillan, 2001)
  • Richardson, Donna, 'The Can Of Ail: A. E. Housman's Moral Irony,' Victorian Poetry, Volume 48, Number 2, Summer 2010 (267–285)
  • Shaw, Robin, "Housman's Places" (The Housman Society, 1995)
  • Summers, Claude J. ed., The Gay and Lesbian Literary Heritage (New York: Henry Holt and Co., 1995)

Further reading

  • Blocksidge, Martin. A.E. Housman : A Single Life (Sussex Academic Press, 2016) ISBN 978-1-84519-844-2
  • Brink, C. O. Lutterworth.com, English Classical Scholarship: Historical Reflections on Bentley, Porson and Housman, James Clarke & Co (2009), ISBN 978-0-227-17299-5
  • Efrati, C. The road of danger, guilt, and shame: the lonely way of A. E. Housman (Associated University Presse, 2002) ISBN 0-8386-3906-2
  • Gardner, Philip, ed. A. E. Housman: The Critical Heritage, a collection of reviews and essays on Housman's poetry (London: Routledge 1992)
  • Holden, A. W. and Birch, J. R. A. E Housman – A Reassessment (Palgrave Macmillan, London, 1999)
  • Housman, Laurence. [1], De Amicitia with annotation by John Carter. Encounter (October 1967, pp. 33–40).
  • Parker, Peter. Housman country : into the heart of England (Little, Brown, 2016) ISBN 978-1-4087-0613-8

External links


1896 in poetry

— closing lines of Rudyard Kipling's If—, first published this year

Nationality words link to articles with information on the nation's poetry or literature (for instance, Irish or France).

A Shropshire Lad

A Shropshire Lad is a collection of sixty-three poems by the English poet Alfred Edward Housman, published in 1896. After a slow beginning, it rapidly grew in popularity, particularly among young readers. Composers began setting the poems to music less than ten years after their first appearance. Many parodies have also been written that satirise Housman's themes and stylistic characteristics.

Against the Fall of Night

Against the Fall of Night is a science fiction novel by British writer Arthur C. Clarke. Originally appearing as a novella in the November, 1948 issue of the magazine Startling Stories, it was revised and expanded in 1951 and published in book form in 1953 by Gnome Press. It was later expanded and revised again and published in 1956 as The City and the Stars. A later edition includes another of Clarke's early works and is titled The Lion of Comarre and Against the Fall of Night. In 1990, with Clarke's approval, Gregory Benford wrote a sequel titled Beyond the Fall of Night, which continues the story arc of the 1953 novel. It is generally printed with the original novel as a single volume.

The title is from the poem "Smooth Between Sea And Land" by A. E. Housman, published in More Poems. Clarke explains: "I was also to discover the lines of A. E. Housman that not only described the locale perfectly, but also gave me the title of my first novel: 'Here on the level sand, between the sea and land, what shall I do or write against the fall of night?'".

Alexander William Hall

Alexander William Hall (20 June 1838 – 29 April 1919) was an English Conservative politician.

Hall was the son of Henry Hall and his wife Catherine Louisa Wood, daughter of Lord Bridport. He was educated at Exeter College, Oxford. In 1862 he inherited the estate of Barton Abbey Steeple Aston. He was J.P., Deputy Lieutenant and High Sheriff of Oxfordshire in 1867.Hall was elected Member of Parliament for Oxford in 1874. He lost the seat in 1880, but stood again at a by-election later that year. The election was hard-fought and his candidature enthusiastically supported by A. E. Housman but there were irregularities in the conduct of the election. Hall was unseated and the seat was left vacant until 1885. In 1885 Hall won the seat again and held it until 1892.

Hall married Emma Gertrude Jowett and had several children.


The amphisbaena (, plural: amphisbaenae; Ancient Greek: ἀμφίσβαινα) is a mythological, ant-eating serpent with a head at each end. The creature is alternatively called the amphisbaina, amphisbene, amphisboena, amphisbona, amphista, amfivena, amphivena, or anphivena (the last two being feminine), and is also known as the "Mother of Ants". Its name comes from the Greek words amphis, meaning "both ways", and bainein, meaning "to go". According to Greek mythology, the amphisbaena was spawned from the blood that dripped from the Gorgon Medusa's head as Perseus flew over the Libyan Desert with her in his hand, after which Cato's army then encountered it along with other serpents on the march. Amphisbaena fed off of the corpses left behind. The amphisbaena has been referred to by various poets such as Nicander, John Milton, Alexander Pope, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Aimé Césaire, A. E. Housman and Allen Mandelbaum; as a mythological and legendary creature, it has been referenced by Lucan, Pliny the Elder, Isidore of Seville, and Thomas Browne, the last of whom debunked its existence.

Another Time (book)

Another Time is a book of poems by W. H. Auden, published in 1940.

This book contains Auden's shorter poems written between 1936 and 1939, except for those already published in Letters from Iceland and Journey to a War. These poems are among the best-known of his entire career.

The book is divided into three parts, "People and Places", "Lighter Poems", and "Occasional Poems".

"People and Places" includes "Law, say the gardeners, is the sun", "Oxford", "A. E. Housman", "Edward Lear", "Herman Melville", "The Capital", "Voltaire at Ferney", "Orpheus", "Musée des Beaux Arts", "Gare du Midi", "Dover", and many other poems.

"Lighter Poems" includes "Miss Gee", "O tell me the truth about love", "Funeral Blues", "Calypso", "Roman Wall Blues", "The Unknown Citizen", "Refugee Blues", and other poems.

"Occasional Poems" includes "Spain 1937", "In Memory of W. B. Yeats", "September 1, 1939", "In Memory of Sigmund Freud", and other poems.

The book is dedicated to Chester Kallman.

Bredon Hill and Other Songs

Bredon Hill and Other Songs is a song cycle for baritone and piano composed by George Butterworth (1885–1916) in 1912. It sets five poems from A. E. Housman's 1896 collection A Shropshire Lad.

Butterworth set another six poems from A Shropshire Lad in Six Songs from A Shropshire Lad (1911). Nine of the eleven songs were premiered at Oxford on 16 May 1911, by James Campbell McInnes (baritone) and the composer (piano).A performance typically takes 15 minutes. The songs are as follows, with Roman numerals from A Shropshire Lad:

XXI "Bredon Hill"

XX "Oh Fair Enough Are Sky and Plain"

VI "When the Lad for Longing Sighs"

XXXV "On the Idle Hill of Summer"

LIV "With Rue My Heart Is Laden"

Forewords and Afterwords

Forewords and Afterwords is a prose book by W. H. Auden published in 1973.

The book contains 46 essays by Auden on literary, historical, and religious subjects, written between 1943 and 1972 and slightly revised for this volume.

The essays include Auden's introduction to The Portable Greek Reader (retitled "The Greeks and Us" in this volume), his introduction to the anthology The Protestant Mystics, his introduction to an edition of Shakespeare's Sonnets, reviews and introductions on Goethe, Sydney Smith, Kierkegaard, Edgar Allan Poe, Tennyson, Wagner, Lewis Carroll, A. E. Housman, Cavafy, Kipling, Thomas Mann, Dag Hammarskjöld, and others, and a partly autobiographical essay, "As It Seemed To Us".

The contents were selected by Edward Mendelson and the book is dedicated to Hannah Arendt.

Henry Van der Weyde

Henry Van der Weyde (1838–1924) was a Dutch-born English painter and photographer, best known for his photographic portraits of the late 19th century. His is considered a photographic pioneer in the use of electric light in photography. Amongst his portraits are architect William Burges (c.1880), Alexandra, Princess of Wales,A. E. Housman, actresses Mary Anderson (1887) and Dorothy Dene (1880s), Sir Edwin Arnold, bodybuilder Eugen Sandow (1889) and explorer Fridtjof Nansen (1897).

Is My Team Ploughing

"Is My Team Ploughing" is a poem by A. E. Housman, published as number XXVII in his 1896 collection A Shropshire Lad. It is a conversation between a dead man and his still living friend. Towards the end of the poem it is implied that the friend is now with the girl he left behind when he died. In writing the poem, Housman borrows from the simple style of traditional folk ballads, featuring a question-and-answer format in a conversation.

The text, along with other poems from A Shropshire Lad, has been famously set to music by several English composers, including George Butterworth (Six Songs from A Shropshire Lad), Ralph Vaughan Williams (On Wenlock Edge) and Ivor Gurney. Vaughan Williams omitted the third and fourth verses, to Housman's annoyance, writing years later that he felt “a composer has a perfect right artistically to set any portion of a poem he chooses provided he does not actually alter the sense” of it. “I also feel,” he added, “that a poet should be grateful to anyone who fails to perpetuate such lines as: “‘The goal stands up, the Keeper / Stands up to keep the Goal.’”

Keith Jebb

Keith Jebb is a contemporary English poet and critic. He attended St Catharine's College, Cambridge, and is the current Head Lecturer of Creative Writing at the University of Bedfordshire, Luton. He is also the author of A. E. Housman (Seren Press), a work commended by Harold Bloom in the introduction to his A. E. Housman.

Last Poems

Last Poems (1922) was the last of the two volumes of poems which A. E. Housman published during his lifetime. Of the 42 poems there, seventeen were given titles, a greater proportion than in his previous collection, A Shropshire Lad (1896). Although it was not quite so popular with composers, the majority of the poems there have been set to music.

On Wenlock Edge (song cycle)

On Wenlock Edge is a song cycle composed in 1909 by Ralph Vaughan Williams for tenor, piano and string quartet. The cycle comprises settings of six poems from A. E. Housman's 1896 collection A Shropshire Lad. A typical performance lasts around 22 minutes. It was premiered by Gervase Elwes, Frederick Kiddle and the Schwiller Quartet on 15 November 1909 in the Aeolian Hall, London. It was later orchestrated by the composer in a version first performed on 24 January, 1924.The cycle was recorded by Elwes, Kiddle and the London String Quartet in 1917.

The Roman numerals in this list of the songs are taken from A Shropshire Lad:

XXXI "On Wenlock Edge"

XXXII "From Far, from Eve and Morning"

XXVII "Is My Team Ploughing"

XVIII "Oh, When I Was in Love with You"

XXI "Bredon Hill" (first line: "In summertime on Bredon")

L "Clun" (Housman's title, and the first line: "Clunton and Clunbury")An earlier version of "Is My Team Ploughing?", for voice and piano, had been performed on 26 January 1909 in a concert sponsored by Gervase Elwes and James Friskin.

To Housman's annoyance, Vaughan Williams omitted the third and fourth verses of "Is My Team Ploughing". The composer remarked in 1927 or later that he felt “that the composer has a perfect right artistically to set any portion of a poem he chooses provided he does not actually alter the sense”.

Six Songs from A Shropshire Lad

Six Songs from A Shropshire Lad is a song cycle for baritone and piano composed in 1911 by George Butterworth (1885–1916). It consists of settings of six poems from A. E. Housman's 1896 collection A Shropshire Lad.

Butterworth set another five poems from A Shropshire Lad in Bredon Hill and Other Songs (1912). Nine of the eleven songs were premiered at Oxford on 16 May 1911, by James Campbell McInnes (baritone) and the composer (piano). The following month, the six songs which make up the present cycle were performed in London, with McInnes as singer and Hamilton Harty as accompanist.A performance typically takes 14 minutes. The songs are as follows; the Roman numerals are from A Shropshire Lad:

II "Loveliest of Trees"

XIII "When I Was One-and-Twenty"

XV "Look Not In My eyes"

XLIX "Think No More, Lad"

XXIII "The Lads in Their Hundreds"

XXVII "Is My Team Ploughing?"According to the music historian A. V. Butcher, Butterworth "was intimately concerned with the collecting and editing of folksongs, and he found a traditional tune in the Dorian mode which could be happily wedded to 'When I was one-and-twenty'." No such tune has, however, been identified.

The Invention of Love

The Invention of Love is a 1997 play by Tom Stoppard portraying the life of poet A. E. Housman, focusing specifically on his personal life and love for a college classmate. The play is written from the viewpoint of Housman, dealing with his memories at the end of his life, and contains many classical allusions. The Invention of Love won both the Evening Standard Award (U.K.) and the New York Drama Critics Circle Award (U.S.)

Considered by many to be Stoppard's finest play, it has been called "esoteric". In fact, to demystify the play's many historical and academic references, the New York production team provided the audiences with a 30-page booklet on the political and artistic history of the late-Victorian period. Harold Bloom, a scholar of Walter Pater, contends that the character of Housman and those in his circle are fabulated for dramatic effect, and the play's difficulties are not historical but its own. This clarified, he cited it in 2003 as Stoppard's "masterpiece to date".

The Yale Review

The Yale Review is the self-proclaimed oldest literary quarterly in the United States. It is published by Yale University.

It was founded in 1819 as The Christian Spectator to support Evangelicalism. Over time it began to publish more on history and economics and was renamed The New Englander in 1843. In 1885 it was renamed The New Englander and Yale Review until 1892, when it took its current name The Yale Review. At the same time, editor Henry Wolcott Farnam gave the periodical a focus on American and international politics, economics, and history.

The modern history of the journal starts in 1911 under the editorship of Wilbur Cross. Cross remained the editor for thirty years, throughout the magazine's heyday. Contributors during this period, according to the Review's website, included Thomas Mann, Henry Adams, Virginia Woolf, George Santayana, Robert Frost, José Ortega y Gasset, Eugene O'Neill, Leon Trotsky, H. G. Wells, Thomas Wolfe, John Maynard Keynes, H. L. Mencken, A. E. Housman, Ford Madox Ford, and Wallace Stevens.The current editor is Harold Augenbraum, writer, translator, and former Executive Director of the National Book Foundation. On July 1, 2019, coinciding with the 200th anniversary of its founding, Meghan O'Rourke will take over as editor of The Yale Review.

We'll to the Woods No More (John Ireland)

We'll to the Woods No More is a song cycle for voice and piano composed in 1928 by John Ireland. It consists of settings of two poems by A. E. Housman (1859–1936) and a concluding piece for solo piano named after a third.A performance takes about 8 minutes. The poems are:

"We'll to the Woods No More" (Last Poems (1922), unnumbered preface)

"In Boyhood" ("When I would muse in boyhood"; Last Poems, No. XXXII)

"Spring Will Not Wait" ("'Tis time, I think, by Wenlock town"; A Shropshire Lad (1896), No. XXXIX)John France has written, "The mood of this cycle is typically a deep sense of the fragility of life, love and friendship that so influenced both men." Rob Barnett has written of the piano piece "Spring Will Not Wait" that, "It is in Ireland’s typically elusive, wanderingly ambivalent tonal palette."

When I Was One-and-Twenty

When I Was One-and-Twenty is the first line of the untitled Poem XIII from A. E. Housman’s A Shropshire Lad (1896). It is often anthologised and given musical settings under that title. The piece is simply worded but contains references to the now superseded coins, guineas and crowns.

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