Ağrı Province

The Ağrı Province (Turkish: Ağrı ili) is a province in eastern Turkey, bordering Iran to the east, Kars to the north, Erzurum to the northwest, Muş and Bitlis to the southwest, Van to the south, and Iğdır to the northeast. It has an area of 11,376 km² and a population of 542,022 (2010 est). A majority of the province's population is Kurdish.[2] The region also has got a sizeable Azerbaijani (Qarapapak) minority.[3][4][5][6][7][8]

The provincial capital is Ağrı, situated on a 1,650 m. high plateau.

Ağrı Province

Ağrı ili
Location of Ağrı Province in Turkey
Location of Ağrı Province in Turkey
CountryTurkey
RegionNortheast Anatolia
SubregionAğrı
Government
 • Electoral districtAğrı
Area
 • Total11,376 km2 (4,392 sq mi)
Population
 (2018)[1]
 • Total539,657
 • Density47/km2 (120/sq mi)
Area code(s)0472
Vehicle registration04

Districts

Ağrı districts
Districts of Ağrı Province

Ağrı province is divided into eight districts (capital district in bold):

Geography

Ağrı is named after the nearby majestic Mount Ararat, a 5,137 metres (16,854 ft) high stratovolcano, the highest mountain in Turkey and a national symbol to Armenians. It can be climbed from here and can be seen from parts of Azerbaijan, Iran, Georgia, and Armenia. The nearest town to the mountain is Doğubayazıt.

46% of the province is mountainous, 29% is plain, 18% is plateau, and 7% high meadow. As well as Ararat there are many other peaks over 3,000m, including Aladağlar and Tendürek. The plains are fertile, being covered in volcanic deposits, and are used for growing grains and grazing. Various tributaries of the Murat River (which later feeds the Euphrates) flow through the area and water these plains. The high meadows are used for grazing.

The weather here is very cold (temperatures as low as -10 °C (14 °F) in winter) and the mountainsides are mainly bare. There are a number of important passes and routes through the mountains.

History

The plateau of Ağrı was controlled by the Kingdom of Urartu until its transition to the Kingdom of Armenia. The area was coveted by many as a gateway between east and west. It was conquered numerous times by Assyrians, Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Arabs, Georgians, Mongols, Persians, and finally by the Seljuq and Ottoman Turks.

The first Muslims in the area were the Abbasids in 872. The Turkish tribes began to pass through in huge numbers following the defeat of the Byzantine armies at Malazgirt in 1071, sometimes pursued by Mongols. The land was brought into the Ottoman Empire by Sultan Selim I following the Battle of Chaldiran. The region retained a large Armenian population until the Armenian Genocide of 1915.

Recent events

On August 19, 2006, a Tabriz–Ankara gas pipeline exploded in the province. Turkish authorities suspect separatist PKK was behind the incident.[9]

Ağrı today

The economy is mainly agricultural. People also live by grazing animals. Ağrı also attracts tourists to the mountain, for climbing and trekking in summers, and skiing in winters. Places of interest include:

Coordinates: 39°40′N 43°10′E / 39.667°N 43.167°Efamous People

Adem Kılıççı Turkish Boxer of Qarapapak Heritage

Demographics

The population of Ağrı is stable around 550 thousand since 2000. Ağrı has the second highest total fertility rate in Turkey, with 3,69 children per woman (only Şanlıurfa province has a higher fertility rate). The crude birth rate is 28,3‰ in 2016, down from 31,1‰ in 2011. The crude death rate is 3,4‰, down from 4,7‰ in 2011. The natural growth rate is 24,9‰, down from 26,4‰ in 2011. Ağrı has a slightly higher infant mortality rate at 14,1‰ (compared to the Turkish average at 10,0‰), down from 22,0‰ in 2011. Many people leave the remote rural areas of the province Ağrı in search for a better life in the metropolitan areas (such as Istanbul and Ankara). That is the reason why the population growth is very minimal.

A majority of its population, approximately 315 thousand people, live in urban areas (59%) up from only 53 thousand people in 1965 (22% of its population). That means a sixfold increase of the urban population. The urbanisation rate is still increasing. However, Ağrı remains predominantly agricultural because a large minority lives in rural areas and works in agriculture. The rural population grew minimal from 193 thousand to 221 thousand in the period from 1965 to 2017. Three districts with the largest population have an urban majority, while in the other five districts with the smallest population have a rural majority.

District Total Urban Rural
Ağrı 149,581 117,431 32,150
Patnos 120,654 65,530 55,124
Doğubayazıt 120,320 79,349 40,971
Diyadin 42,340 20,387 21,953
Eleşkirt 33,940 16,042 17,898
Tutak 30,699 6,741 23,958
Taşlıçay 20,490 6,129 14,361
Hamur 18,261 3,198 15,063
Province 536,285 314,807 221,478

The suicide rate increased from 4,37 per hundred thousand inhabitants in 2011 to 5,32 per hundred thousand inhabitants in 2016.

References

  1. ^ "Population of provinces by years - 2000-2018". Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  2. ^ Watts, Nicole F. (2010). Activists in Office: Kurdish Politics and Protest in Turkey (Studies in Modernity and National Identity). Seattle: University of Washington Press. p. 167. ISBN 978-0-295-99050-7.
  3. ^ "Azerbaijani in agri".
  4. ^ "AZERI in agri".
  5. ^ "Karapapak in ağri".
  6. ^ "Ağri,karapapak".
  7. ^ "Ağrı'da 'Şah Bezeme' Geleneği Yüz Yıllardır Devam Ediyor". m.haberler.com.
  8. ^ https://www.sondakika.com/. "Ağrı'da 'Şah Bezeme' Geleneği Yüz Yıllardır Devam Ediyor". m.sondakika.com.
  9. ^ "Gas pipeline explodes in Turkish rebel region". CNN. 2006-08-19. Archived from the original on 2006-08-24. Retrieved 2008-04-04.

External links

Ayrarat

Ayrarat (Armenian: Այրարատ) was a province of the ancient kingdom Armenia. The main city was Oshakan. It is believed that the name Ayrarat is the Armenian equivalent of the toponym Urartu (Armenian: Արարատ, Ararat).

Ağrı

For the place in Azerbaijan, see Ağrı, Azerbaijan; for Mount Ağrı (Ağrı Dağı), see Mount Ararat.Ağrı, formerly known as Karaköse (Kurdish: Qerekose‎) from the early Turkish republican period until 1946, and before that as Karakilise (Ottoman Turkish: قره‌کلیسا‎, romanized: Karakilisa), is the capital of Ağrı Province at the eastern end of Turkey, near the border with Iran.

Ağrı (electoral district)

Ağrı is an electoral district of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey. It elects four members of parliament (deputies) to represent the province of the same name for a four-year term by the D'Hondt method, a party-list proportional representation system.

Ağrı Airport

Ağrı Ahmed-i Hani Airport (IATA: AJI, ICAO: LTCO) is an airport in Ağrı, in eastern Turkey. The airport is situated about 8 km (5.0 mi) south of Ağrı's city center.

Battle of Kara Killisse (1915)

The Battle of Kara Killisse (Lit. Black church, Turkish: Karakilise Muharebesi), also known as the Battle of Malazgirt, was a battle on the Caucasus front in July 1915 after the Battle of Manzikert. In Russian historical literature, this engagement is considered as a part of "Alashkert defensive operation" (9 July-3 August).

Previously in the summer of 1915 the Russians attacked Turkish positions northeast of lake Van but they underestimated the size of their enemy. They were defeated at the Battle of Manzikert. This success encouraged the Turks under Abdul Kerim Pasha to advance towards the Russians in the Eleşkirt valley while the Turks were pursuing the remnants of Oganovki's army across the Ağrı mountains they spread out and Russian general Yudenich took the opportunity to counterattack from the west with some 20.000 reinforcements mostly Cossack units to encircle them. in the following battles between 5–8 August the Turks retreated south but the Russians succeeded only partially. The Turks lost some guns, large provisions and 10.000 killed and wounded and 6.000 became prisoners. Due to difficulties the Russians could not gain total advantage and retreated from the town of Van and Turks occupied it on 3 August.

Başköy Dam

Başköy Dam is a dam in Ağrı Province, Turkey, built between 1998 and 2003.

Diyadin

Diyadin (Armenian: Տատէոն (Latin transliteration: Tatēon); Kurdish: Giyadîn‎) is a district of Ağrı Province of Turkey, at the foot of Mount Tendürek, a high peak in the Aladağlar range that stands between Ağrı and the north shore of Lake Van. The mayor is Hazal Aras (BDP).

Doğubayazıt

Doğubayazıt is a district of Ağrı Province of Turkey, and it is the easternmost district of Turkey, bordering Iran. Its elevation is 1625m and its area is 2,383 km². Doğubayazıt's population in 2010 was 115,354 (up from 73,794 in 1980) of which 69,447 live in the town of Doğubayazıt, the remainder in the surrounding countryside.

The town of Doğubayazıt is a settlement with a long history. It lies 15 km southwest of Mount Ararat, 93 km east of the city of Ağrı and 35 km from the Iranian border. The town stands on a plain surrounded by some of Turkey's highest peaks including: Ararat (5,137m), Little Ararat (3,896m), Tendürek Dağı (3,533m), Kaletepe (3,196m) Arıdağı (2,934m) and Göllertepe (2,643m).

The climate on the plain is hot and dry in summer, cold and dry in winter.

Eleşkirt

Eleşkirt is a town and district of Ağrı Province in Turkey. Its name is a transference from Alashkert (Armenian: Ալաշկերտ Alaškert), the valley's former administrative centre but now a village known as Toprakkale.

At the time of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878 approximately half of the population consisted of Armenians and the rest of Kurds and Turks.The mayor is Sebahattin Sarı (AKP).

Erzurum Eyalet

The Erzurum Eyalet (Ottoman Turkish: ایالت ارضروم; Eyālet-i Erżurūm‎) was an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire. It was established after the conquest of Western Armenia by the Ottoman Empire. Its reported area in the 19th century was 11,463 square miles (29,690 km2).

Governor of Ağrı

The Governor of Ağrı (Turkish: Ağrı Valiliği) is the bureaucratic state official responsible for both national government and state affairs in the Province of Ağrı. Similar to the Governors of the 80 other Provinces of Turkey, the Governor of Ağrı is appointed by the Government of Turkey and is responsible for the implementation of government legislation within Ağrı. The Governor is also the most senior commander of both the Ağrı provincial police force and the Ağrı Gendarmerie.

Ishak Pasha Palace

Ishak Pasha Palace (Turkish: İshak Paşa Sarayı) is a semi-ruined palace and administrative complex located in the Doğubeyazıt district of Ağrı province of eastern Turkey.

The Ishak Pasha palace is an Ottoman-period palace whose construction was started in 1685 by Colak Abdi Pasha of the Cildirogullari, the bey of Beyazit province. Construction was continued by his son İshak Pasha and completed by his grandson Mehmet Pasha. According to the inscription on its door, the Harem Section of the palace was completed by his grandson Ishak (Isaac) Pasha in 1784.The Ishak Pasha Palace is one of the few examples of surviving historical Turkish palaces.The palace was depicted on the reverse of the Turkish 100 new lira banknote of 2005-2009.

Lake Balık

Lake Balık (Turkish: Balık Gölü,) is a lava-dammed freshwater lake in Ağrı Province, eastern Turkey. "Balık" is the Turkish word for "fish". It is one of the country's lakes with the highest elevation.

List of populated places in Ağrı Province

Below is the list of populated places in Ağrı Province, Turkey, by the districts. There are 8 districts connected to Ağrı, 4 towns and 567 villages connected to these districts.

Little Ararat

Little Ararat, also known as Mount Sis or Lesser Ararat (Armenian: Փոքր Արարատ, romanized: Pok’r Ararat or Սիս, Sis, Azerbaijani: Küçük Ağrı, Turkish: Küçük Ağrı, Kurdish: Agiriyê biçûk‎), is the sixth tallest peak in Turkey. It is a large satellite cone located on the eastern flank of the massive Mount Ararat, less than five miles west of Turkey's border with Iran. Despite being dwarfed by its higher and far more famous neighbor, Little Ararat is a significant volcano of its own with an almost perfectly symmetrical, conical form and smooth constructional slopes. It rises about 1,200 m (4,000 ft) above the saddle connecting it with the main peak.

On 8 November [O.S. 27 October] 1829, Baltic German explorer Friedrich Parrot and Armenian writer Khachatur Abovian climbed Little Ararat. Its peak and eastern flank were on the Iranian side of the border until the 1930s. During the Kurdish Ararat rebellion, the Kurdish rebels used the area "as a haven against the state in their uprising." Turkey crossed the border and militarily occupied the region, which Iran eventually agreed to cede to Ankara in a territorial exchange.

Patnos

Patnos (Armenian: Բադնոց, Latin transliteration: Badnoc‘ or Patnoc‘, Kurdish: Panos) was a historically important Armenian city, is now a district of Ağrı Province of Turkey on a plain surrounded by high mountains including Süphan, watered by tributaries of the Murat River. 82 km south of the city of Ağrı on the road to Van. The mayor is Cem Afşin Akbay (AKP).

The plain has been settled since at least 1300BC and this was a centre of the Urartu civilisation. The city has many historical ruins from Urartian period. There are a number of places of historical interest around Patnos, including the castle of Aznavur Tepe, an impressive Urartu building.

Today Patnos is a small town in an impoverished rural area.

Patnos Dam

Patnos Dam is a dam in Turkey. The development was backed by the Turkish State Hydraulic Works.

Earth body filler type, the dam body volume of 1.3 million m3, stream bed height 38.00 m., normal water volume of the Lake at 33,40 hm3, normal water is Lake area at 4.35 km2. The dam provides irrigation Service 5.973 hectares.

State road D.100 (Turkey)

D.100 is a west to east state road in Turkey. It starts at Kapıkule, the Bulgarian border check point, and ends in Gürbulak, the Iranian border check point. Since it runs all the way from west to east it crosses most of the north to south state roads including D.650, D.750, D.850 and D.950 .

Yazıcı Dam

Yazıcı Dam (Turkish: Yazıcı Barajı), also known as Ağrı Yazıcı Dam, is a dam in Ağrı Province, Eastern Anatolia, Turkey. The construction works began in 1995 and the dam went in service in 2009. The development was backed by the Turkish State Hydraulic Works.

Ağrı Province of Turkey
Districts

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