A&E (TV channel)

A&E is an American cable television network. It is the flagship television property of A&E Networks, a joint venture between the Hearst Communications and Disney–ABC Television Group subsidiary of The Walt Disney Company. The network is headquartered in New York City and operates offices in Atlanta, Georgia; Chicago, Illinois; Detroit, Michigan; London, United Kingdom; Los Angeles, California and Stamford, Connecticut.[1][2][3][4]

The network was originally founded in 1984 as the Arts & Entertainment Network, initially focusing on fine arts, documentaries (including its then-flagship series Biography), and dramas (including imported series from the United Kingdom). In 1995, the network rebranded as A&E, in an effort to downplay the negative perceptions of arts programming and generally market the network as a "thought-provoking" alternative to other television channels. In 2002, A&E began to gradually focus more on reality series and docusoaps, as well as documentary miniseries and true crime programs, in an effort to attract younger viewers, at the expense of phasing out its arts programming.[5] By 2017, A&E had also phased out scripted programs.

As of July 2015, A&E is available to approximately 95,968,000 pay television households (82.4% of households with television) in the United States.[6] The U.S. version of the channel is being distributed in Canada while international versions were launched for Australia, Latin America, and Europe.

A&E
A&E Network logo
LaunchedFebruary 1, 1984
Owned byA&E Networks
Picture format1080i HDTV)
(480i letterboxed for SDTV feed)
SloganWe are A&E
CountryUnited States
Broadcast areaUnited States
Canada
HeadquartersNew York City, New York, United States
Formerly called
  • Arts & Entertainment Network (1984–1995)
  • A&E Network (1995–1997)
ReplacedAlpha Repertory Television Service
The Entertainment Channel
Sister channel(s)
Websiteaetv.com
Availability
Satellite
DirecTVChannel 265
Dish NetworkChannel 118
Channel 9419 (HD)
Bell TV (Canada)Channel 615 (SD)
Channel 1721 (HD)
Shaw Direct (Canada)Channel 520 (SD)
Channel 124 (HD)
Cable
Available on most cable providersChannel slots may vary on each operator
IPTV
Verizon FiOSChannel 181 (SD)
Channel 681 (HD)
Optik TV (Canada)Channel 300 (HD; east)
Channel 9300 (SD; West)
Bell Fibe TV (Canada)Channel 615 (SD)
Channel 1615 (HD)
Zazeen (Canada)Channel 86 (HD)
VMedia (Canada)Channel 270 (HD)
Streaming media
PhiloOTT Subscription
fuboTVOTT Subscription
Apple TVWatch A&E Application
RokuWatch A&E Application
Sling TVOTT Subscription
DirecTV NowOTT Subscription

History

Arts & Entertainment Network

A&E launched on February 1, 1984, initially available to 9.3 million cable television homes in the U.S. and Canada.[7] The network is a result of the 1984 merger of Hearst/ABC's Alpha Repertory Television Service (ARTS) and (pre–General Electric merger) RCA-owned The Entertainment Channel.[8]

When A&E debuted, the channel took over the satellite transponder timeslot that ARTS occupied from its launch in 1981. Children's television channel Nickelodeon signed off just before 9:00 p.m. Eastern Time, and A&E took over at 9:00 p.m. with a three-hour programming block, which was repeated at 9:00 p.m. Pacific Time.

In January 1985, A&E moved to its own dedicated transponder and began delivering its programming 24 hours a day, while Nickelodeon replaced the vacated A&E programming with a classic television block, Nick at Nite, on July 1 of that year. However, some cable providers continued to carry Nickelodeon and A&E on the same channel and would usually switch over to A&E at 8:00 p.m. Eastern. It was not until the early 1990s, when providers began installing advanced headend equipment that allowed for expanded channel capacity, that these companies allocated separate channels for both networks.

A&E was envisioned as a commercial counterpart to PBS, and in its early days focused on such PBS-style programming as the Leonard Bernstein Fidelio, filmed in 1978. In the 1990s, it began to add programming originally seen on commercial networks, such as reruns of Columbo, The Fugitive, Breaking Away, Mickey Spillane's Mike Hammer, The New Mike Hammer, The Cosby Mysteries, Quincy, The Equalizer, Law & Order, The Rockford Files, and Night Court. Highbrow British mysteries including Agatha Christie's Poirot, The Avengers, Cracker, Dalziel and Pascoe, Inspector Morse, Lovejoy, Midsomer Murders, Miss Marple, and Sherlock Holmes were also featured; several of these series were produced in association with A&E.

By 1990, A&E's original programming accounted for 35 to 40 percent of the network's program content.[9] The comedy series An Evening at the Improv built a young adult audience in the late 80s and continued through 1996. Also, Comedy On the Road won a CableACE Award (13th Annual Event).

A&E's signature show was Biography, a one-hour documentary series that A&E revived in 1987.[10] In 1994, airings of Biography went from weekly broadcasts to airing five nights a week, which helped boost A&E's ratings to record levels.[9] The nightly series became A&E's top-rated show and one of cable television's most notable successes.[10] Biography received Primetime Emmy Awards in 1999 and 2002.[11]

In its first decade, A&E had limited advertising, with fewer commercials at the time, mostly for A&E programs and its magazine. Beginning in the mid-1990s, advertising was increased substantially on the channel.

A&E

In May 1995, the channel's name officially changed to the A&E Network,[12] to reflect its declining focus on arts and entertainment.[13] By 1996, the network had branded itself as simply A&E, and was using the slogans "Time Well Spent" and "Escape the Ordinary." "The word 'arts,' in regard to television, has associations such as 'sometimes elitist,' 'sometimes boring,' 'sometimes overly refined' and 'doesn't translate well to TV,'" Whitney Goit, executive vice president for sales and marketing, stated. "Even the arts patron often finds arts on TV not as satisfying as it should be ... And the word 'entertainment' is too vague. Therefore, much like ESPN uses its letters rather than what they stand for – Entertainment Sports (Programming) Network – we decided to go to just A&E." Of the network's tagline, Goit said, "Intellectually, 'Time well spent' defines a comparison between those who view a lot of television as a wasteland, and their acknowledgment that there are good things on TV and that they'd like to watch more thought-provoking TV."[14]

A&E and Meridian Broadcasting commissioned Horatio Hornblower (1999), winner of two Primetime Emmy Awards, and the seven subsequent dramas in the series; Dash and Lilly (1999), which received nine Emmy nominations; and The Crossing (2000), which won the Peabody Award. The network created two original weekly drama series, Sidney Lumet's 100 Centre Street[5] and Nero Wolfe, both of which lasted from 2001 to 2002.[5]

2002–2013

In mid-2002, A&E underwent an overhaul in management which moved the network's focus toward reality television in order to attract a younger demographic[15] and cancelled the network's two original scripted series. In May 2003, A&E launched a marketing campaign with the network's new tagline, "The Art of Entertainment."[16] Between 2003 and 2007, the channel gradually retired several long-running series, moving its classic mysteries to The Biography Channel and cancelling Breakfast with the Arts, in favor of reality programming such as Dog the Bounty Hunter, Gene Simmons Family Jewels, Growing Up Gotti, Family Plots, Airline, Inked, King of Cars, and Criss Angel Mindfreak. In addition, A&E had garnered favorable notice for true-crime documentary series such as Cold Case Files, American Justice, City Confidential, Investigative Reports, and The First 48. The network also cut back on its broadcasts of Biography from originally twice daily to weekend mornings only.[17]

The changes were criticized as causing A&E to become an aberration of its original focus on fine arts programming. For example, Maury Chaykin reflected on the cancellation of the A&E original series A Nero Wolfe Mystery in a 2008 interview: "I'm a bit jaded and cynical about which shows succeed on television. I worked on a fantastic show once called Nero Wolfe, but at the time A&E was transforming from the premiere intellectual cable network in America to one that airs Dog the Bounty Hunter on repeat, so it was never promoted and eventually went off the air."[18]

The docudrama Flight 93, about the hijacking of the plane which crashed in Pennsylvania during the September 11, 2001 attacks was the most watched program on the network; it attracted 5.9 million viewers for its initial telecast on January 30, 2006. This was later surpassed by Duck Dynasty's third season premiere. The previous record-holder for the network was a World War II docudrama, Ike: Countdown to D-Day, starring Tom Selleck and broadcast in 2004, with 5.5 million viewers.[19] A&E later acquired rights to rerun the HBO series The Sopranos; its A&E premiere on January 10, 2007, averaged 3.86 million viewers, making it the most-watched premiere of a rerun off-network series in cable television history at the time.[20] The series has continued to perform well for A&E, and the network now regularly ranks in the top ten basic U.S. cable channels in prime time ratings.[21]

On May 26, 2008, in conjunction with the premiere of the original film The Andromeda Strain, A&E rebranded with a new logo and slogan, Real Life. Drama., representing its shift from an arts-focused network to a more contemporary network focused on scripted programming.[22][23] Additional shows in this major scripted push were drama series The Cleaner and The Beast, which both lasted two seasons.[5]

As part of its continuing efforts to include more scripted shows, A&E ordered several dramas for fall 2009. Among them were projects from Jerry Bruckheimer, Shawn Ryan and Lynda Obst, and a Western miniseries from Kevin Costner. Several unscripted series were also renewed or ordered for fall, including Intervention, The First 48, Gene Simmons Family Jewels, Dog the Bounty Hunter, Crime 360, Criss Angel Mindfreak, Paranormal State, Manhunters, Storage Wars, Parking Wars, and Shipping Wars.[24]

On December 11, 2013, A&E unveiled a new on-air brand identity built around the slogan "Be Original", emphasizing the network's lineup of original productions and positioning it as a "much lighter, more fun place to come and spend time".[23][25][26]

On December 19, 2013, A&E placed Phil Robertson from Duck Dynasty on indefinite hiatus following remarks on homosexuals in an interview with GQ.[27][28][29] A&E said in a statement, "We are extremely disappointed to have read Phil Robertson's comments in GQ, which are based on his own personal beliefs and are not reflected in the series Duck Dynasty. His personal views in no way reflect those of A+E Networks, who have always been strong supporters and champions of the LGBT community."[30][31][32] On December 27, 2013, A&E announced they would begin filming again with the entire Robertson family on the heels of large public outcry and discussions with the Robertson family and numerous advocacy groups.[33]

On February 20, 2014, A&E Networks UK announced a UK version of the channel to launch on Sky channel 168 on March 24, with a Virgin Media launch date planned for next year. In Spain and Portugal, the channel was launched on October 1, 2014, replacing The Biography Channel in that market.[34]

A&E was again involved with controversy when the network cancelled Longmire after three seasons; ending the series on a cliffhanger and angering fans. The network cited production costs and the fact that the show skewed an older audience as reason for its cancellation.[35][36] The series was later picked up by Netflix.[5] In 2015, A&E picked up the CBS drama Unforgettable for a fourth season as well as the second season of docuseries Married at First Sight, which will move from sister network FYI. The network also announced the revival of Intervention following its cancellation in 2013.[37][38]

On January 19, 2017, A&E announced a reboot of Cold Case Files, over a decade after its final season premiered in 2006.[39] As of April 2017 with the conclusion of Bates Motel, the network officially removed scripted series from its programming strategy and will focus exclusively on non-fiction programming. The Biography franchise returned to A&E on June 28, 2017, with The Notorious Life of Biggie Smalls Biography Movie.[5]

Programming

A&E primarily broadcasts non-fiction programs and reality docuseries; notable series broadcast in its current era have included The First 48, Duck Dynasty, Intervention, Storage Wars, and Wahlburgers.[40] In recent years, the network has also broadcast scripted series, such as Longmire, The Glades, and its most recent, Bates Motel.

As of April 2017 with the conclusion of Bates Motel, the network officially removed scripted series from its programming strategy and will focus exclusively on non-fiction programming (leaving scripted series to sister networks such as History and Lifetime). The network cited the strength of recent series such as 60 Days In, Live PD, as well as the documentary series Leah Remini: Scientology and the Aftermath, and its planned revival of Biography as a limited series of documentaries across A&E's channels.[5]

In its original format, the network had often shown programming from abroad, particularly BBC network productions from the United Kingdom.[8] Examples of British programming frequently broadcast on the channel included the documentary Freud.[8] Its fine arts programming was also phased out; Thursday nights once featured an anthology series called A&E Stage, hosted by Tammy Grimes and later John Mauceri, which featured telecasts of notable plays, concerts, full-length documentaries related to the arts, and complete operas, although shown with commercials. Such programs as Otto Schenk's 1978 production of Fidelio, with Leonard Bernstein conducting, were rebroadcast on this anthology, as well as an adaptation of Agatha Christie's Spider's Web, starring Penelope Keith, originally broadcast in the UK on December 26, 1982. The final fine arts-related show to air on the network, Breakfast with the Arts, once featured a higher quantity of classical music than in its final years, and fewer interviews. The show was cancelled in July 2007.[41]

Movies and miniseries

Notable movies and miniseries produced or co-produced by the A&E Network include the following:

High definition

The 1080i high definition simulcast feed of A&E launched on September 4, 2006; it was formerly in 720p before the merger with Lifetime Entertainment. The network is available in the format on most subscription systems.

References

  1. ^ "A&E Television Networks, LLC - Atlanta, Georgia (GA) - Company Profile". Manta Media Inc. Retrieved 2013-12-20.
  2. ^ "A+E Networks – Life is Entertaining". A+E Networks. Retrieved 2013-12-20.
  3. ^ "A&E Television Networks, LLC: Private Company Information". Businessweek. Retrieved 2013-12-20. A+ E Networks Appoints Denis Cantin as VP, Head of Content Sales, EMEA Dec 16 13 A+ E Networks has appointed Denis Cantin as VP, head of content sales, EMEA. He will assume the position in first quarter 2014. Cantin will manage A+E Networks' London-based EMEA content sales team, overseeing sales of A+E Network's catalogue throughout the region.
  4. ^ "A & E Television Network, Stamford, CT". Manta Media Inc. Retrieved 2013-12-20.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Andreeva, Nellie (April 27, 2017). "A&E Doubles Down On Nonfiction, Exits Scripted In Programming Strategy Shift". Deadline. Penske Business Media, LLC. Retrieved December 5, 2017.
  6. ^ "List of how many homes each cable network is in as of July 2015". TV by the Numbers. Zap2it. July 21, 2015. Retrieved July 21, 2015.
  7. ^ Parisi, Paula, "New look bows A&E's 2nd 10"; The Hollywood Reporter, December 29, 1993
  8. ^ a b c "Freud, Warts and All, Sits for the Camera". The New York Times. January 20, 1985. Retrieved April 24, 2008.
  9. ^ a b Hoover's Company Records, July 12, 2011
  10. ^ a b Gay, Verne (Newsday), "Biography: Top Show on Cable's A&E Network"; St. Louis Post-Dispatch, August 21, 1996
  11. ^ Awards for Biography, Internet Movie Database; accessed April 6, 2018.
  12. ^ Carmody, John, "The TV Column"; The Washington Post, May 2, 1995. "The Arts & Entertainment cable network has officially changed its name to A&E Network."
  13. ^ de Moraes, Lisa (May 9, 2008). "On TV". The Washington Post.
  14. ^ Ross, Chuck, "Cable Marketer of the Year: A&E"; Advertising Age, December 8, 1997
  15. ^ Salamon, Julie, "When Group Therapy Means Coming Clean on TV"; The New York Times, June 22, 2004. "Two years ago Nick Davatzes, president and chief executive of A&E Television Networks, called his executives to a retreat, to 'wallow in the mud,' as he described the exercise. From that wallowing emerged an overhaul in management and outlook, including the conclusion that reality television could not be ignored if the network wanted younger viewers."
  16. ^ Friedman, Wayne, "Strategy shift: A&E focuses on entertainment"; Advertising Age, May 5, 2003
  17. ^ "A&E: Biography". A&E Television Networks. Archived from the original on July 16, 2007. Retrieved August 1, 2007.
  18. ^ Farquharson, Vanessa, "Whole lot of Chaykin going on"; National Post, August 21, 2008. "After some initial advertising for the April second season premiere, A&E stopped publicizing the show," Scarlet Street magazine (No. 46, p. 20) reported in late 2002.
  19. ^ Steve Rosenbaum (February 1, 2006). ""Flight 93" Breaks A&E Records". Docu-Blog/Steve's POV. Archived from the original on 2006-10-18. Retrieved September 30, 2006.
  20. ^ Anthony Crupi (January 15, 2007). "Time to Collect: A&E's Sopranos Bet Pays Off". Mediaweek.com. Archived from the original on October 8, 2007. Retrieved February 13, 2007.
  21. ^ Fitzgerald, Toni (February 14, 2007). "True grit: Remaking the A&E network". MediaLifeMagazine. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved March 21, 2007.
  22. ^ "MediaPost Publications Home of MediaDailyNews, MEDIA and OMMA Magazines". Archived from the original on 2006-02-26. Retrieved 2008-05-10.
  23. ^ a b Rose, Lacey (October 9, 2013). "A&E Unveils New 'Be Original' Tagline as Part of Rebranding". The Hollywood Reporter.
  24. ^ "A&E Orders Bruckheimer Pilot; Renews Nine Shows". The Live Feed. May 12, 2009.
  25. ^ Kondolojy, Amanda (October 9, 2013). "A&E Network to Unveil New Network Identity Across All Platforms". TV by the Numbers.
  26. ^ "A&E Unveils New Logo, Tagline". Deadline Hollywood. October 9, 2013.
  27. ^ Goldberg, Lesley (December 18, 2013). "'Duck Dynasty's' Phil Robertson on Indefinite Hiatus Following Anti-Gay Remarks". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved December 20, 2013.
  28. ^ "'Duck Dynasty' patriarch Phil Robertson suspended over anti-gay comments". Chicago Tribune Company. December 18, 2013. Retrieved December 20, 2013.
  29. ^ Marechal, AJ (December 18, 2013). "'Duck Dynasty': Phil Robertson Suspended Indefinitely Following Anti-Gay Remarks". Variety. Retrieved December 20, 2013.
  30. ^ Hibberd, James (December 20, 2013). "'Duck Dynasty' star suspended for anti-gay comments". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved December 20, 2013.
  31. ^ Patrick Kevin Day (December 18, 2013). "A&E puts 'Duck Dynasty' star on hiatus following anti-gay comments". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 20, 2013.
  32. ^ Aaron Parsley; Mary Green (December 18, 2013). "A&E Suspends Duck Dynasty's Phil Robertson Following Anti-Gay Comments". People Magazine. Retrieved December 20, 2013.
  33. ^ "'Duck Dynasty' to resume filming with Phil Robertson after A&E lifts ban". Fox News. 2013-12-28. Retrieved 2014-02-02.
  34. ^ "A&E, el canal factual de televisión líder en EEUU, llega por primera vez a España".
  35. ^ "In the Wake of Longmire's Cancellation, What's Next for A&E?". Retrieved 2014-01-12.
  36. ^ "'Longmire' Series Cancellation: A&E Defends Decision To Drop Popular Crime Drama, Writer Tells Networks Not To 'Write Off' The Over 50 Crowd". Enstars. September 19, 2014. Retrieved December 1, 2014.
  37. ^ "'Unforgettable' To Be Resurrected Again With Season 4 Order At A&E". Retrieved February 6, 2015.
  38. ^ "A&E's Emmy-Award winning and critically-acclaimed docuseries, "Intervention", returns to the network..." A&E (Press release). January 13, 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-01-30. Retrieved January 17, 2015.
  39. ^ "A&E NETWORK'S "COLD CASE FILES" GETS A REBOOT FEBRUARY 27". A&E (Press release). January 19, 2017. Retrieved February 27, 2015.
  40. ^ "TV stokes desperate hunger for fame". CNN. November 30, 2009.
  41. ^ Becker, Anne, "A&E Slates New Music Show; Intimate 'Sessions' aimed at mainstream tastes"; Broadcasting and Cable, July 15, 2007

External links

A

A (named , plural As, A's, as, a's or aes) is the first letter and the first vowel of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. It is similar to the Ancient Greek letter alpha, from which it derives. The uppercase version consists of the two slanting sides of a triangle, crossed in the middle by a horizontal bar. The lowercase version can be written in two forms: the double-storey a and single-storey ɑ. The latter is commonly used in handwriting and fonts based on it, especially fonts intended to be read by children, and is also found in italic type.

In English grammar, "a", and its variant "an", is an indefinite article.

A.S. Roma

Associazione Sportiva Roma (BIT: ASR, LSE: 0MT1; Rome Sport Association), commonly referred to as simply Roma [ˈroːma], is a professional Italian football club based in Rome. Founded by a merger in 1927, Roma have participated in the top-tier of Italian football for all of their existence except for 1951–52.

Roma have won Serie A three times, in 1941–42, 1982–83 and 2000–01, as well as winning nine Coppa Italia titles and two Supercoppa Italiana titles. In European competitions, Roma won the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup in 1960–61 and were runners-up in the 1983–84 European Cup and the 1990–91 UEFA Cup.

Fifteen players have won the FIFA World Cup while playing at Roma: Ferraris, Guaita and Masetti (1934); Donati, Monzeglio and Serantoni (1938); Bruno Conti (1982); Rudi Voller and Berthold (1990); Aldair (1994); Candela (1998); Cafu (2002); Daniele De Rossi, Simone Perrotta and Francesco Totti (2006).

Since 1953, Roma have played their home matches at the Stadio Olimpico, a venue they share with city rivals Lazio. With a capacity of over 72,000, it is the second-largest of its kind in Italy, with only the San Siro able to seat more. The club plan to move to a new stadium, though this is yet to start construction.

The club's home colours are Tyrian purple and gold, which gives Roma their nickname "I Giallorossi" ("The Yellow and Reds"). Their club badge features a she-wolf, an allusion to the founding myth of Rome.

A. R. Rahman

Allahrakka Rahman (pronunciation ; born A. S. Dileep Kumar) known professionally as A. R. Rahman, is an Indian Tamil music director, composer, musician, singer and music producer. A. R. Rahman's works are noted for integrating Indian classical music with electronic music, world music and traditional orchestral arrangements. Among his awards are six National Film Awards, two Academy Awards, two Grammy Awards, a BAFTA Award, a Golden Globe Award, fifteen Filmfare Awards and seventeen Filmfare Awards South. He has been awarded the Padma Bhushan, the third highest civilian award, in 2010 by the Government of India.

In 2009, Rahman was included on the Time 100 list of the world's most influential people. The UK-based world-music magazine Songlines named him one of "Tomorrow's World Music Icons" in August 2011. South Indian fans of Rahman refer him with the nickname of "The Mozart of Madras", and "Isai Puyal" (English: the Musical Storm). “Jai Ho”, a 90-minute documentary tracing the journey of music maestro A.R. Rahman premiered on October 26 on Discovery channel.Award winning director Umesh Aggarwal interviewed Aamir Khan, Danny Boyle, Mani Ratnam,Andrew Lloyd Webber and other associates of Rahman for this documentary.[1]

With an in-house studio (Panchathan Record Inn in Chennai), Rahman's film-scoring career began during the early 1990s with the Tamil film Roja. Working in India's film industries, international cinema, and theatre, Rahman is one of the best-selling recording artists, with an estimated 200 million units sold worldwide. Rahman has also become a notable humanitarian and philanthropist, donating and raising money for a number of causes and charities.

In 2017, Rahman made his debut as a director and writer for the film Le Musk. His fans call themselves 'Rahmaniac'.

A Midsummer Night's Dream

A Midsummer Night's Dream is a comedy written by William Shakespeare in 1595/96. It portrays the events surrounding the marriage of Theseus, the Duke of Athens, to Hippolyta (the former queen of the Amazons). These include the adventures of four young Athenian lovers and a group of six amateur actors (the mechanicals) who are controlled and manipulated by the fairies who inhabit the forest in which most of the play is set. The play is one of Shakespeare's most popular works for the stage and is widely performed across the world.

A Song of Ice and Fire

A Song of Ice and Fire is a series of epic fantasy novels by the American novelist and screenwriter George R. R. Martin. He began the first volume of the series, A Game of Thrones, in 1991, and it was published in 1996. Martin, who initially envisioned the series as a trilogy, has published five out of a planned seven volumes. The fifth and most recent volume of the series published in 2011, A Dance with Dragons, took Martin six years to write. He is currently writing the sixth novel, The Winds of Winter.

A Song of Ice and Fire takes place on the fictional continents Westeros and Essos. The point of view of each chapter in the story is a limited perspective of a range of characters growing from nine, in the first novel, to 31 characters by the fifth novel. Three main stories interweave: a dynastic war among several families for control of Westeros, the rising threat of the supernatural Others in the northernmost reaches of Westeros, and the ambition of Daenerys Targaryen, the deposed king's exiled daughter, to assume the Iron Throne.

Martin's inspirations included the Wars of the Roses and the French historical novels The Accursed Kings by Maurice Druon. A Song of Ice and Fire received praise for its diverse portrayal of women and religion, as well as its realism. An assortment of disparate and subjective points of view confronts the reader, and the success or survival of point of view characters is never assured. Within the often morally ambiguous world of A Song of Ice and Fire, questions concerning loyalty, pride, human sexuality, piety, and the morality of violence frequently arise.

As of August 2016, the books have sold more than 70 million copies worldwide and, as of January 2017, have been translated into 47 languages. The fourth and fifth volumes reached the top of The New York Times Best Seller lists upon their releases. Among the many derived works are several prequel novellas, a TV series, a comic book adaptation, and several card, board, and video games.

Bachelor of Arts

A Bachelor of Arts (BA or AB—often styled B.A.; from the Latin baccalaureus artium or artium baccalaureus) is a bachelor's degree awarded for an undergraduate course or program in either the liberal arts, sciences, or both. Bachelor of Arts programs generally take three to four years depending on the country, institution, and specific specializations, majors, or minors. The word baccalaureus (from the Latin bacca, a berry, and laureus, "of the bay laurel") should not be confused with baccalaureatus (translatable as "gold-plated scepter" by using the Latina bacum and aureatus), which refers to the one- to two-year postgraduate Bachelor of Arts with Honors degree (Baccalaureatus in Artibus Cum Honore) in some countries.

Diplomas generally give the name of the institution, signatures of officials of the institution (generally the president or rector of the university as well as the secretary or dean of the component college), type of degree conferred, conferring authority, and location at which the degree is conferred. Diplomas generally are printed on high-quality paper or parchment; individual institutions set the preferred abbreviation for their degrees.

The Bachelor of Arts is usually attained in four years in Afghanistan, Lebanon, Armenia, Kenya, Canada, Greece, Bangladesh, Azerbaijan, Egypt, Iran, Japan, Kazakhstan, Lithuania, Nigeria, Serbia, Spain, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand, Russia, Ireland, South Korea, Iraq, Kuwait, Turkey, Hong Kong, the United States, and most of the Americas.

Degree attainment generally takes three years in nearly all of the European Union and Albania, Australia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, India, Israel, New Zealand, Iceland, Norway, Singapore, the Caribbean, South Africa, Switzerland, and the Canadian province of Quebec. In Pakistan, the Bachelor of Arts can also be attained within two years as an external degree.

Badminton

Badminton is a racquet sport played using racquets to hit a shuttlecock across a net. Although it may be played with larger teams, the most common forms of the game are "singles" (with one player per side) and "doubles" (with two players per side). Badminton is often played as a casual outdoor activity in a yard or on a beach; formal games are played on a rectangular indoor court. Points are scored by striking the shuttlecock with the racquet and landing it within the opposing side's half of the court.

Each side may only strike the shuttlecock once before it passes over the net. Play ends once the shuttlecock has struck the floor or if a fault has been called by the umpire, service judge, or (in their absence) the opposing side.The shuttlecock is a feathered or (in informal matches) plastic projectile which flies differently from the balls used in many other sports. In particular, the feathers create much higher drag, causing the shuttlecock to decelerate more rapidly. Shuttlecocks also have a high top speed compared to the balls in other racquet sports. The flight of the shuttlecock gives the sport its distinctive nature.

The game developed in British India from the earlier game of battledore and shuttlecock. European play came to be dominated by Denmark but the game has become very popular in Asia, with recent competitions dominated by China. Since 1992, badminton has been a Summer Olympic sport with four events: men's singles, women's singles, men's doubles, and women's doubles, with mixed doubles added four years later. At high levels of play, the sport demands excellent fitness: players require aerobic stamina, agility, strength, speed, and precision. It is also a technical sport, requiring good motor coordination and the development of sophisticated racquet movements.

Brand

A brand is an overall experience of a customer that distinguishes an organization or product from its rivals in the eyes of the customer. Brands are used in business, marketing, and advertising. Name brands are sometimes distinguished from generic or store brands.

The practice of branding is thought to have begun with the ancient Egyptians, who were known to have engaged in livestock branding as early as 2,700 BCE. Branding was used to differentiate one person’s cattle from another's by means of a distinctive symbol burned into the animal’s skin with a hot branding iron. If a person stole any of the cattle, anyone else who saw the symbol could deduce the actual owner. However, the term has been extended to mean a strategic personality for a product or company, so that ‘brand’ now suggests the values and promises that a consumer may perceive and buy into. Over time, the practice of branding objects extended to a broader range of packaging and goods offered for sale including oil, wine, cosmetics and fish sauce. Branding in terms of painting a cow with symbols or colours at flea markets was considered to be one of the oldest forms of the practice.

Branding is a set of marketing and communication methods that help to distinguish a company or products from competitors, aiming to create a lasting impression in the minds of customers. The key components that form a brand's toolbox include a brand’s identity, brand communication (such as by logos and trademarks), brand awareness, brand loyalty, and various branding (brand management) strategies. Many companies believe that there is often little to differentiate between several types of products in the 21st century, and therefore branding is one of a few remaining forms of product differentiation.Brand equity is the measurable totality of a brand's worth and is validated by assessing the effectiveness of these branding components. As markets become increasingly dynamic and fluctuating, brand equity is a marketing technique to increase customer satisfaction and customer loyalty, with side effects like reduced price sensitivity. A brand is, in essence, a promise to its customers of what they can expect from products and may include emotional as well as functional benefits. When a customer is familiar with a brand, or favours it incomparably to its competitors, this is when a corporation has reached a high level of brand equity. Special accounting standards have been devised to assess brand equity. In accounting, a brand defined as an intangible asset, is often the most valuable asset on a corporation’s balance sheet. Brand owners manage their brands carefully to create shareholder value, and brand valuation is an important management technique that ascribes a monetary value to a brand, and allows marketing investment to be managed (e.g.: prioritized across a portfolio of brands) to maximize shareholder value. Although only acquired brands appear on a company's balance sheet, the notion of putting a value on a brand forces marketing leaders to be focused on long term stewardship of the brand and managing for value.

The word ‘brand’ is often used as a metonym referring to the company that is strongly identified with a brand. Marque or make are often used to denote a brand of motor vehicle, which may be distinguished from a car model. A concept brand is a brand that is associated with an abstract concept, like breast cancer awareness or environmentalism, rather than a specific product, service, or business. A commodity brand is a brand associated with a commodity.

Drum kit

A drum kit — also called a drum set, trap set (a term using a contraction of the word, "contraption"), or simply drums — is a collection of drums and other percussion instruments, typically cymbals, which are set up on stands to be played by a single player, with drumsticks held in both hands, and the feet operating pedals that control the hi-hat cymbal and the beater for the bass drum. A drum kit consists of a mix of drums (categorized classically as membranophones, Hornbostel-Sachs high-level classification 2) and idiophones – most significantly cymbals, but can also include the woodblock and cowbell (classified as Hornbostel-Sachs high-level classification 1). In the 2000s, some kits also include electronic instruments (Hornbostel-Sachs classification 53). Also, both hybrid (mixing acoustic instruments and electronic drums) and entirely electronic kits are used.

A standard modern kit (for a right-handed player), as used in popular music and taught in music schools, contains:

A snare drum, mounted on a stand, placed between the player's knees and played with drum sticks (which may include rutes or brushes)

A bass drum, played by a pedal operated by the right foot, which moves a felt-covered beater

One or more toms, played with sticks or brushes (usually three toms: rack tom 1 and 2, and floor tom)

A hi-hat (two cymbals mounted on a stand), played with the sticks, opened and closed with left foot pedal (it can also produce sound with the foot alone)

One or more cymbals, mounted on stands, played with the sticksAll of these are classified as non-pitched percussion, allowing the music to be scored using percussion notation, for which a loose semi-standardized form exists for both the drum kit and electronic drums. The drum kit is usually played while seated on a stool known as a throne. While many instruments like the guitar or piano are capable of performing melodies and chords, most drum kits are unable to achieve this as they produce sounds of indeterminate pitch. The drum kit is a part of the standard rhythm section, used in many types of popular and traditional music styles, ranging from rock and pop to blues and jazz. Other standard instruments used in the rhythm section include the piano, electric guitar, electric bass, and keyboards.

Many drummers extend their kits from this basic configuration, adding more drums, more cymbals, and many other instruments including pitched percussion. In some styles of music, particular extensions are normal. For example, rock and heavy metal drummers make use of double bass drums, which can be achieved with either a second bass drum or a remote double foot pedal. Some progressive drummers may include orchestral percussion such as gongs and tubular bells in their rig. Some performers, such as some rockabilly drummers, play small kits that omit elements from the basic setup. Some drum kit players may have other roles in the band, such as providing backup vocals, or less commonly, lead vocals.

Glossary of professional wrestling terms

Professional wrestling has accrued a considerable nomenclature throughout its existence. Much of it stems from the industry's origins in the days of carnivals and circuses. In the past, professional wrestlers used such terms in the presence of fans so as not to reveal the worked nature of the business. In recent years, widespread discussion on the Internet has popularized these terms. Many of the terms refer to the financial aspects of professional wrestling in addition to in-ring terms.

Home

A home, or domicile, is a living space used as a permanent or semi-permanent residence for an individual, family, household or several families in a tribe. It is often a house, apartment, or other building, or alternatively a mobile home, houseboat, yurt or any other portable shelter. A principle of constitutional law in many countries, related to the right to privacy enshrined in article 12 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is the inviolability of the home as an individual's place of shelter and refuge.

Homes typically provide areas and facilities for sleeping, preparing food, eating and hygiene. Larger groups may live in a nursing home, children's home, convent or any similar institution. A homestead also includes agricultural land and facilities for domesticated animals. Where more secure dwellings are not available, people may live in the informal and sometimes illegal shacks found in slums and shanty towns. More generally, "home" may be considered to be a geographic area, such as a town, village, suburb, city, or country.

House

A house is a building that functions as a home. They can range from simple dwellings such as rudimentary huts of nomadic tribes and the improvised shacks in shantytowns to complex, fixed structures of wood, brick, concrete or other materials containing plumbing, ventilation, and electrical systems. Houses use a range of different roofing systems to keep precipitation such as rain from getting into the dwelling space. Houses may have doors or locks to secure the dwelling space and protect its inhabitants and contents from burglars or other trespassers. Most conventional modern houses in Western cultures will contain one or more bedrooms and bathrooms, a kitchen or cooking area, and a living room. A house may have a separate dining room, or the eating area may be integrated into another room. Some large houses in North America have a recreation room. In traditional agriculture-oriented societies, domestic animals such as chickens or larger livestock (like cattle) may share part of the house with humans. The social unit that lives in a house is known as a household.

Most commonly, a household is a family unit of some kind, although households may also be other social groups, such as roommates or, in a rooming house, unconnected individuals. Some houses only have a dwelling space for one family or similar-sized group; larger houses called townhouses or row houses may contain numerous family dwellings in the same structure. A house may be accompanied by outbuildings, such as a garage for vehicles or a shed for gardening equipment and tools. A house may have a backyard or frontyard, which serve as additional areas where inhabitants can relax or eat.

List of sovereign states

The following is a list providing an overview of sovereign states around the world, with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty.

The 206 listed states can be divided into three categories based on membership within the United Nations system: 193 member states, two observer states and 11 other states. The sovereignty dispute column indicates states whose sovereignty is undisputed (190 states) and states whose sovereignty is disputed (16 states, of which there are six member states, one observer state and nine other states).

Compiling a list such as this can be a difficult and controversial process, as there is no definition that is binding on all the members of the community of nations concerning the criteria for statehood. For more information on the criteria used to determine the contents of this list, please see the criteria for inclusion section below. The list is intended to include entities that have been recognised as having de facto status as sovereign states, and inclusion should not be seen as an endorsement of any specific claim to statehood in legal terms.

M*A*S*H (TV series)

M*A*S*H (an acronym for Mobile Army Surgical Hospital) is an American war comedy-drama television series that aired on CBS from 1972 to 1983. It was developed by Larry Gelbart, adapted from the 1970 feature film M*A*S*H, which, in turn, was based on Richard Hooker's 1968 novel MASH: A Novel About Three Army Doctors. The series, which was produced with 20th Century Fox Television for CBS, follows a team of doctors and support staff stationed at the "4077th Mobile Army Surgical Hospital" in Uijeongbu, South Korea, during the Korean War (1950–53). The show's title sequence features an instrumental-only version of "Suicide Is Painless," the original film's theme song. The show was created after an attempt to film the original book's sequel, M*A*S*H Goes to Maine, failed. The television series is the best-known of the M*A*S*H works, and one of the highest-rated shows in U.S. television history.

Once Upon a Time (TV series)

Once Upon a Time is an American fantasy drama television series on ABC which debuted on October 23, 2011, and concluded on May 18, 2018. The first six seasons are largely set in the fictitious seaside town of Storybrooke, Maine, with the characters of Emma Swan and Regina Mills serving as the leads, while the seventh and final season takes place in a Seattle, Washington neighborhood called Hyperion Heights, with a new main narrative led by Mills, and Swan and Mills son, Henry Mills. The show borrows elements and characters from the Disney universe and popular Western literature, folklore, and fairy tales.

Once Upon a Time was created by Lost and Tron: Legacy writers Edward Kitsis and Adam Horowitz. A spin-off series, Once Upon a Time in Wonderland, consisting of 13 episodes which followed the titular character from Alice in Wonderland, premiered on October 10, 2013 and concluded on April 3, 2014.

Portmanteau

A portmanteau ( (listen), ) or portmanteau word is a linguistic blend of words, in which parts of multiple words or their phones (sounds) are combined into a new word,

as in smog, coined by blending smoke and fog, or motel, from motor and hotel. In linguistics, a portmanteau is defined as a single morph that represents two or more morphemes.The definition overlaps with the grammatical term contraction, but contractions are formed from words that would otherwise appear together in sequence, such as do and not to make don't, whereas a portmanteau word is formed by combining two or more existing words that all relate to a singular concept. A portmanteau also differs from a compound, which does not involve the truncation of parts of the stems of the blended words. For instance, starfish is a compound, not a portmanteau, of star and fish; whereas a hypothetical portmanteau of star and fish might be stish.

Serie A

Serie A (Italian pronunciation: [ˈsɛːrje ˈa]), also called Serie A TIM due to sponsorship by TIM, is a professional league competition for football clubs located at the top of the Italian football league system and the winner is awarded the Coppa Campioni d'Italia. It has been operating for over eighty years since the 1929–30 season. It had been organized by Lega Calcio until 2010, when the Lega Serie A was created for the 2010–11 season.

Serie A is regarded as one of the best football leagues in the world and it is often depicted as the most tactical national league. Serie A was the world's second-strongest national league in 2014 according to IFFHSand has produced the highest number of European Cup finalists: Italian clubs have reached the final of the competition on 27 occasions, winning the title 12 times. Serie A is ranked third among European leagues according to UEFA's league coefficient, behind La Liga, Premier League, and ahead of Bundesliga and Ligue 1, which is based on the performance of Italian clubs in the Champions League and the Europa League during the last five years. Serie A led the UEFA ranking from 1986 to 1988 and from 1990 to 1999.In its current format, the Italian Football Championship was revised from having regional and interregional rounds, to a single-tier league from the 1929–30 season onwards. The championship titles won prior to 1929 are officially recognised by FIGC with the same weighting as titles that were subsequently awarded. However, the 1945–46 season, when the league was played over two geographical groups due to the ravages of WWII, is not statistically considered, even if its title is fully official. All the winning teams are recognised with the title of Campione d'Italia ("Champion of Italy"), which is ratified by the Lega Serie A before the start of the next edition of the championship.

The league hosts three of the world's most famous clubs as Juventus, Milan and Internazionale, all founding members of the G-14, a group which represented the largest and most prestigious European football clubs from 2000 to 2008, being the first two cited also founding members of its successive organisation, European Club Association (ECA). More players have won the coveted Ballon d'Or award while playing at a Serie A club than any league in the world other than Spain's La Liga. – although Spain's La Liga has the highest total number of Ballon d'Or winners. Juventus, Italy's most successful club of the 20th century and the most successful Italian team, is tied for fourth in Europe and eighth in the world with the most official international titles. The club is also the only one in the world to have won all possible official confederation competitions. Milan is joint third club for official international titles won in the world, with 18. Internazionale, following their achievements in the 2009–10 season, became the first Italian team to have achieved a treble. Inter are also the only team in Italian football history to have never been relegated. Juventus, Milan and Inter, along with Roma, Fiorentina, Lazio and Napoli, are known as the Seven Sisters of Italian football.Serie A is one of the most storied football leagues in the world. Of the 100 greatest footballers in history chosen by FourFourTwo magazine in 2017, 42 players have played in Serie A, more than any other league in the world. Juventus is the team that has produced the most World Cup champions (25), with Inter (19), Roma (15) and Milan (10), being respectively third, fourth and ninth in that ranking.

To Kill a Mockingbird

To Kill a Mockingbird is a novel by Harper Lee published in 1960. It was immediately successful, winning the Pulitzer Prize, and has become a classic of modern American literature. The plot and characters are loosely based on Lee's observations of her family, her neighbors and an event that occurred near her hometown of Monroeville, Alabama, in 1936, when she was 10 years old.

The novel is renowned for its warmth and humor, despite dealing with the serious issues of rape and racial inequality. The narrator's father, Atticus Finch, has served as a moral hero for many readers and as a model of integrity for lawyers. Historian, J Crespino explains, "In the twentieth century, To Kill a Mockingbird is probably the most widely read book dealing with race in America, and its protagonist, Atticus Finch, the most enduring fictional image of racial heroism."As a Southern Gothic and Bildungsroman novel, the primary themes of To Kill a Mockingbird involve racial injustice and the destruction of innocence. Scholars have noted that Lee also addresses issues of class, courage, compassion, and gender roles in the American Deep South. The book is widely taught in schools in the United States with lessons that emphasize tolerance and decry prejudice. Despite its themes, To Kill a Mockingbird has been subject to campaigns for removal from public classrooms, often challenged for its use of racial epithets.

Reaction to the novel varied widely upon publication. Despite the number of copies sold and its widespread use in education, literary analysis of it is sparse. Author Mary McDonough Murphy, who collected individual impressions of To Kill a Mockingbird by several authors and public figures, calls the book "an astonishing phenomenon". In 2006, British librarians ranked the book ahead of the Bible as one "every adult should read before they die". It was adapted into an Academy Award-winning film in 1962 by director Robert Mulligan, with a screenplay by Horton Foote. Since 1990, a play based on the novel has been performed annually in Harper Lee's hometown.

To Kill a Mockingbird was Lee's only published book until Go Set a Watchman, an earlier draft of To Kill a Mockingbird, was published on July 14, 2015. Lee continued to respond to her work's impact until her death in February 2016, although she had refused any personal publicity for herself or the novel since 1964.

Two and a Half Men

Two and a Half Men is an American television sitcom that originally aired on CBS for twelve seasons from September 22, 2003, to February 19, 2015. Originally starring Charlie Sheen, Jon Cryer, and Angus T. Jones, the series was about a hedonistic jingle writer, Charlie Harper, his uptight brother, Alan, and Alan's troublesome son, Jake. After Alan divorces, he and Jake move into Charlie's beachfront Malibu house and complicate Charlie's freewheeling life.

In 2010, CBS and Warner Bros. Television reached a multiyear broadcasting agreement for the series, renewing it through at least the 2011–12 season. In February 2011, however, CBS and Warner Bros. decided to end production for the rest of the eighth season after Sheen entered drug rehabilitation and made "disparaging comments" about the series' creator and executive producer Chuck Lorre. Sheen's contract was terminated the following month and he was confirmed not to be returning to the series. Ashton Kutcher was hired to replace him the following season as Walden Schmidt, a billionaire who buys Charlie's house after his death.

In April 2013, CBS renewed the series for an eleventh season after closing one-year deals with Kutcher and Cryer. Jones, who was attending college, was relegated to recurring status for season 11 but did not make an appearance until the series finale. He was replaced by Jenny (Amber Tamblyn), Charlie's previously unknown daughter. In March 2014, CBS renewed the series for a twelfth season, which was later announced to be the series' last. The season began airing in October 2014 and concluded in February 2015 with the 40-minute series finale "Of Course He's Dead". The success of the series led to it being the fourth-highest revenue-generating program for 2012, earning $3.24 million an episode.

Website

A website is a collection of related web resources, such as web pages, multimedia content, which are typically identified with a common domain name, and published on at least one web server. Notable examples are wikipedia.org, google.com, and amazon.com.

A website may be accessible via a public Internet Protocol (IP) network, such as the Internet, or a private local area network (LAN), by referencing a uniform resource locator (URL) that identifies the site.

Websites can have many functions and can be used in various fashions; a website can be a personal website, a corporate website for a company, a government website, an organization website, etc. Websites are typically dedicated to a particular topic or purpose, ranging from entertainment and social networking to providing news and education. All publicly accessible websites collectively constitute the World Wide Web, while private websites, such as a company's website for its employees, are typically a part of an intranet.

Web pages, which are the building blocks of websites, are documents, typically composed in plain text interspersed with formatting instructions of Hypertext Markup Language (HTML, XHTML). They may incorporate elements from other websites with suitable markup anchors. Web pages are accessed and transported with the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), which may optionally employ encryption (HTTP Secure, HTTPS) to provide security and privacy for the user. The user's application, often a web browser, renders the page content according to its HTML markup instructions onto a display terminal.

Hyperlinking between web pages conveys to the reader the site structure and guides the navigation of the site, which often starts with a home page containing a directory of the site web content. Some websites require user registration or subscription to access content. Examples of subscription websites include many business sites, news websites, academic journal websites, gaming websites, file-sharing websites, message boards, web-based email, social networking websites, websites providing real-time stock market data, as well as sites providing various other services. End users can access websites on a range of devices, including desktop and laptop computers, tablet computers, smartphones and smart TVs.

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