9th Division (Australia)

The 9th Division was a division of the Australian Army that served during World War II. It was the fourth division raised for the Second Australian Imperial Force (2nd AIF). The distinctions of the division include it being:

During 1940, the component units of the 9th Division were sent to the UK to defend it against a possible German invasion. After serving during 1941–1942 in the North African campaign, at the Siege of Tobruk and both the First and Second Battles of El Alamein, the 9th Division returned to Australia. In 1943–1944, it served in the New Guinea campaign and, during 1945, in the Borneo campaign. It was disbanded, following the end of the war, in early 1946.

9th Australian Division
Australian 9th Div at Gaza in 1942 (AWM 050124)
Members of the 9th Division parade at Gaza Airport in late 1942
Active1940–1946
Country Australia
BranchSecond Australian Imperial Force
TypeInfantry
Size~16,000–18,000 personnel.[1]
Nickname(s)"The Rats of Tobruk";
"The Magnificent 9th"
EngagementsWorld War II
Commanders
Notable
commanders
Sir Leslie Morshead
George Wootten
Insignia
First pattern
9th aus inf div (1)
Second pattern
9th aus inf div (2)

History

Formation

The 9th Division was the fourth AIF division raised, being formed in the United Kingdom in late 1940. Initially it consisted of only two infantry brigades which had been formed in Australia and dispatched to Britain in order to defend against a possible invasion following the Fall of France—the 18th and 25th Brigades—under the command of Major General Henry Wynter.[4][5] Later, the 24th Brigade was also assigned to the division.[5]

In January 1941 Wynter became ill and was replaced as divisional commander by Leslie Morshead.[5] By February 1941, 9th Division headquarters had been relocated to the Middle East. Around this time the divisions of the AIF underwent a reorganisation as the decision was made to send the more established brigades to Greece; as a result both the 18th and 25th Brigades were transferred from the 9th to the 7th Division. They were replaced by the 20th and 26th Brigades, both of which were considered to be less experienced and therefore less ready for action.[6]

North Africa

Cyrenaica

After completing its initial training in Australia, Great Britain and Palestine, the units of the 9th Division were sent to Cyrenaica in Libya in early March 1941 to complete their training and equipping as part of the garrison of this region.[7] Short of equipment such as machine guns, mortars, anti-tank guns and carriers, most of the division's artillery and cavalry units did not accompany the infantry brigades to Cyrenaica at this time.[8] The 20th Brigade was the first unit from the division to move, departing on 27 February, although it was joined shortly by the other two brigades and it was during this time that the division suffered its first casualties when German bombers attacked the transport column in which the 2/13th Battalion was travelling, killing two Australians and wounding one other.[9] By 9 March the 20th Brigade relieved the 17th Brigade from the 6th Division, along the Cyrenaican frontier.[9]

Captured Italian tanks 005042
Australian troops using captured Italian tanks

By late March, it became clear that German-led Axis forces planned to launch an offensive in Cyrenaica and as a result, the 9th Division commander, Leslie Morshead, ordered the 20th Brigade to withdraw from the frontier, moving 160 miles (260 km) back towards Benghazi.[10] The offensive began on 24 March, quickly forcing the British units along the frontier back as it drove towards Benghazi. Two days later the 26th Brigade took up positions in the west near the coast to support the 20th Brigade which was holding the pass at Er Regima.[10] At this stage, the division's anti-tank troops were issued with captured Italian guns in order to make up the shortfall in British weapons.[10]

As the Axis advance continued with German victories at Marsa Brega and Agedabia which threatened to outflank the units cut off in Benghazi, the 9th Division ordered to fall back from their positions along the coast to the east to Derna.[11][12] Lacking their own transport, they had to rely on that provided by other units and thus the withdrawal had to be undertaken in stages. In order to achieve this, the 2/13th Battalion was used as a rear guard and late in the afternoon of 4 April it undertook the division's first action of the war when the Germans attacked their positions in the Er Regima Pass.[13] Supported by British artillery, the battalion, spread out across a 11 kilometres (6.8 mi) managed to delay a German force of about 3,000 personnel mounted in lorries and accompanied by armoured cars and tanks. Only lightly armed, however, they were unable to prevent the Germans from outflanking them and gradually they were forced to pull back before, at 2200 hours, their transport arrived and they were able to withdraw just as they were faced with encirclement. In this action the 2/13th Battalion suffered five killed and 93 wounded or captured.[12]

Two days after the action at Er Regima Pass, the 9th Division was ordered to fall back along the coast road towards Tobruk in what was later called the "Benghazi Handicap". Due to the speed of the Axis advance and the division's lack of transport, confusion reigned and part of the 2/15th Battalion, including most of its headquarters and its commanding officer, were captured.[13]

Siege of Tobruk

9 Div Tobruk(AWM 020779)
A patrol from the 2/13th Infantry Battalion at Tobruk (AWM 020779)

Covered by rear guard actions at Er Regima and Mechili, the 9th Division reached Tobruk on 9 April 1941.[14] The 7th Division's 18th Brigade had arrived two days earlier and together with a number of British artillery and armoured regiments and an Indian cavalry regiment, the 18th King Edward's Own Cavalry (now 18 Cavalry),[15] they were placed under the command of Major General John Lavarack and ordered to hold the port for at least two months while a relieving force from Egypt was organised.[12]

The first engagement came on 10 April when an Axis force approached the port from the west but was repelled. The following day, Tobruk was effectively placed under siege when German forces cut the supply road to its east, encircling the Allied garrison. On 13 April the first major attack came when the German commander, Erwin Rommel, launched an attack against the 20th Brigade west of the El Adem road.[14] This attack was beaten off, although that night a force of Germans with mortars and machine guns managed to break into the defences only to be counterattacked by a small group of Australians, including John Edmondson, armed with bayonets and grenades.[16] For his part in the attack Edmondson was posthumously awarded the Victoria Cross,[16] the first of seven which were bestowed upon members of the 9th Division during the war.[17]

Over the course of the next six months the 9th Division and the rest of the garrison repelled repeated attempts by Rommel's forces to capture the port.[18] The Australian defence of Tobruk was anchored on three factors: the use of the pre-existing Italian fortifications around the port, aggressive patrolling and raiding of Axis positions and the firepower of the garrison's artillery. Fighting from fixed positions, the Australian infantry successfully contained and defeated repeated German armoured and infantry attacks on the fortress.[19] After the failure of the British attempts to relieve the fortress in May and June 1941 the 9th Division was successful in gradually improving Tobruk's defences through aggressively raiding Axis positions.[20]

Upon the request of the Australian War Cabinet, the bulk of the 9th Division was withdrawn from Tobruk in September and October 1941, and handed over to the British 70th Division[18] with only the 2/13th Battalion remaining in the fortress at the time the garrison was finally relieved in December.[21] The defence of Tobruk cost the 9th Division 3,164 casualties including 650 killed, 1,597 wounded and 917 captured.[22]

El Alamein

Syrian interlude

After its withdrawal from Tobruk the 9th Division enjoyed only a brief period of rest in Palestine before being redeployed to northern Syria where, as part of the British Ninth Army, it was responsible for guarding the Turkish–Syrian frontier.[23] Here they were rejoined by the 9th Division Cavalry Regiment, which had been detached in June 1941 to take part in the Syria–Lebanon Campaign. This deployment was the first time all the elements of the division had been concentrated in one area, albeit an area that stretched 1,200 square miles (3,100 km2).[23] In addition to its garrison duties, the 9th Division also conducted some much needed training in mobile warfare during its stay in Syria.[24]

In early 1942 Australian I Corps, including the 6th and 7th Divisions, was withdrawn to Australia in response to Japan's entry into the war.[24] The Australian government, however, agreed to British requests to retain the 9th Division in the Middle East in exchange for an additional American division being sent to Australia.[25]

First Battle of El Alamein

During early 1942 the Axis forces advanced steadily through north west Egypt. It was decided that the British Eighth Army should make a stand just over 100 kilometres (62 mi) west of Alexandria, at the railway siding of El Alamein, where the coastal plain narrowed between the Mediterranean Sea and the inhospitable Qattara Depression.[26] On 26 June 1942 the 9th Division was ordered to begin moving from northern Syria to El Alamein.[27] On 1 July, Rommel's forces made a major attack, hoping to dislodge the Allies from the area, take Alexandria, and open the way to Cairo and the Suez Canal. However, the Eighth Army had regrouped sufficiently to repel the Axis forces and launch counterattacks. On 6 July, the lead elements of the 9th Division arrived at Tel el Shammama 22 miles (35 km) from the front,[28] from where they would be committed to the fighting in the northern sector.[29]

2-8 Field Regt
Guns of the 2/8th Field Regiment at El Alamein in July 1942 (AWM 024515)

Before dawn on 10 July, as Rommel focused his efforts on the southern flank of the battlefield, the 9th Division attacked the north flank of the enemy positions and captured the strategic high ground around Tel el Eisa. In the days following, Rommel redirected his forces against them, in a series of intense counterattacks, but was unable to dislodge the Australians.[30] On 22 July, the 24th and 26th Brigades attacked German positions on the ridges south of Tel el Esia, suffering heavy casualties taking positions on Tel el Eisa Ridge and Makh Khad Ridge.[31]

The final phase of the First Battle of El Alamein was a disaster for the Allies and the 2/28th Battalion in particular: an attempt to capture Sanyet el Miteiriya, known as "Ruin Ridge", on 27 July.[32] The operation was part of a complex series of night attacks. The 2/28th suffered significant casualties and vehicle losses in its advance, but achieved its objective. However, the battalion was soon surrounded by German infantry. A planned advance by British tanks failed and German tanks arrived. The 2/28th's positions came under a prolonged and methodical attack by the Axis forces. By the time they surrendered, 65 Australians had been killed.[33] Although the vast majority of the 2/28th had become prisoners of war, 93 members of the battalion remained behind Allied lines and it was subsequently rebuilt.[29]

Second Battle of El Alamein

Following the fighting in July, the 9th Division remained in front-line positions around El Alamein, but were engaged in mainly static defensive duties for the next three months.[34] Nevertheless, patrols were maintained and some raiding was undertaken, including a raid on 1 September undertaken by the 2/15th Battalion to seize a point 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) south-west of Tel el Eisa in which 150 Germans were killed and another 140 taken prisoner, against which the Australians lost 39 killed, 109 wounded and another 25 missing.[35]

El Alamein Aussie 9th edited
Memorial to the 9th Division at the Allied Cemetery at El Alamein

By late October 1942, the Eighth Army, now commanded by Lieutenant-General Bernard Montgomery, decided to launch his own offensive in the Western Desert, amassing a force of some 220,000 personnel supported by 1,100 tanks and 900 artillery pieces.[36] The 9th Division was positioned in the northern sector of the Eighth Army's front at El Alamein, nearest the coast, as part of British XXX Corps.[37] This sector was to effect the main thrust of the Allied attack. While XIII and most of XXX Corps failed to meet their objectives on 25 October, the 9th Division gained considerable momentum, attacking both frontally and executing a wide "left hook" from their original positions, in their sector, with one Axis outpost after another falling to them.[38] Together with the 51st (Highland) Division, and the 2nd New Zealand Division, they had mauled the Italian Trento Division and the German 164th Division. By the following day the 9th Division had managed to further slice through the German 164th Division and trap the greater part of it against the sea. This caused the Axis to rush reinforcements to their sector.[39]

As events unfolded, it was on the 9th that Montgomery, the Eighth Army commander, pinned his hopes on a breakthrough.[38] Before this breakthrough was attempted, however, the 9th Division was subjected to numerous counter-attacks by German forces and many of the division's units suffered so many casualties that they were described as "mere skeletons".[36] By the night of 31 October/1 November Morshead decided to relieve his forward brigade, the 26th Brigade, with the relatively fresh 24th Brigade, however, the following day two German divisions attacked the brigade.[40]

On 2 November, Operation Supercharge—as the breakout was named—began and the final phase of the battle began.[41] The British armoured formations suffered heavily in the initial stages, before on the second day the 51st Division managed to force a gap through the Axis lines, creating a gap of over 6 miles (9.7 km) through which the armour was redirected. The result of this was that the pressure was taken off the 9th Division as the focus of the fighting shifted to the south of Tel el Eisa. After this the 9th Division ceased offensive action,[41] although they continued patrolling operations until 4 November when Rommel ordered a general withdrawal.[42] The four months that the 9th Division had been involved in the fighting around El Alamein cost them 1,225 killed, 3,638 wounded and 946 captured, for a total of 5,809 casualties.[22]

South West Pacific

In October 1942 the Australian government requested that the 9th Division be released from service in the Middle East and returned to Australia to be utilised against the Japanese in the Pacific.[43] Although both the British prime minister, Winston Churchill and the American president Franklin Roosevelt advised against this, the Australian prime minister John Curtin insisted and by mid December the decision to bring the division back to Australia was confirmed.[43] In late December the division concentrated around Gaza, where a divisional parade was held[43] before preparations for embarkation began.[44]

The 9th Division began embarking for its return to Australia on 24 January 1943.[44] Transported on four troopships—the Queen Mary, Ile de France, Nieuw Amsterdam and Aquitania—as part of Operation Pamphlet the division arrived at Fremantle in Western Australia on 18 February whereupon all members of the division were granted three weeks leave.[45] Welcome-home parades were held in every Australian capital city, after which the 9th Division began reforming in April 1943 in the semi-tropical Atherton Tablelands region of Far North Queensland where it began re-organising and re-training for jungle warfare. As part of the conversion to a Jungle Division many of the division’s units were either separated from the division, reorganised into new roles or disbanded.[46] Of note, the division's cavalry unit, the 9th Division Cavalry Regiment, gave up its vehicles and was converted to the commando role, becoming the 2/9th Cavalry Commando Regiment.[46] After completing amphibious training near Cairns the 9th Division, now under Major General George Wootten who had taken command of the division in March,[47] departed for Milne Bay in New Guinea in late July and early August 1943.[48]

New Guinea

Lae
Australian 9th Division amphibious landing east of Lae September 1943 (AWM photo 042371)
The 9th Division makes its amphibious landing east of Lae, September 1943.
USS LST-452 4 September 1943 Lae New Guinea
Part of the 9th Australian Division, under the command of Major-General G.F. Wooten landing at Lae, New Guinea, 4 September 1943. LST-452 and other LSTs are unloading troops and equipment.

The 9th Division's first task in New Guinea was to liberate the town of Lae in a joint operation with the 7th Division.[49] The 9th Division would carry out an amphibious landing to the east of the town at Malahang—the first large scale seaborne landing by an Australian formation since the Gallipoli campaign in 1915—while the 7th Division would be flown into the recently secured Nadzab airfield, to the west of Lae.[50] The 20th Brigade, now under Brigadier Victor Windeyer, was chosen as the lead assault unit and on 1 September it began embarking at Milne Bay. Departing the following day, they were transported to the Buna–Morobe area where it linked up with the 57 landing craft that had been assigned to the operation.[51] On the night of 3/4 September they began the 80 miles (130 km) run to the landing beaches, arriving just before dawn.[51]

At 0630 hours on 4 September the 20th Brigade launched the initial assault under the cover of naval bombardment. Two battalions were landed on the main beach, codenamed Red Beach, while one more was landed 3 miles (4.8 km) west at Yellow Beach. Experiencing no opposition on the beaches, patrols were sent out to effect a link up along the beachhead. 35 minutes later as the 26th Brigade came ashore, they were attacked by nine Japanese aircraft which inflicted a number of casualties on the Australians in the LCIs, with eight personnel being killed, including the commanding officer of the 2/23rd Battalion, while another 20 were wounded.[52] The following day, the 26th Brigade passed through the perimeter that had been set up by the 20th Brigade and began to advance along the coast towards Lae, crossing the Buso river before nightfall on 5 September. That night, the 24th Brigade, which had been held back as the divisional reserve, landed at the beachhead.[53]

After establishing their supply bases the two Australian divisions raced each other to Lae. The 7th Division entered the town several hours ahead of the 9th Division on 16 September.[54] The 9th Division's advance had been held up by Japanese resistance and difficulties with crossing the rivers between the landing beaches and Lae.[55]

Huon Peninsula campaign

The capture of Lae ahead of schedule meant that the focus of Allied operations could then be shifted upon an advance up the Huon Peninsula, which was strategically important to the Allies as it would allow them to establish air and naval bases for future operations.[54] On 22 September 1943, only six days after the fall of Lae, the 20th Brigade made an amphibious landing at Scarlet Beach, 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) north of Finschhafen.[54] Because of the haste with which the operation had been put together, there had been no time for rehearsals and this, coupled with faulty maps and the fact that the landing took place in darkness, resulted in the majority of the brigade being landed on the wrong beach.[56] Allied intelligence estimates of Japanese strength around Finschhafen were also faulty, with an expected force of between 500 and 2,100, although the Japanese really had around 5,000 personnel in the area.[57]

Nevertheless, after a week of heavy fighting against well-entrenched Japanese troops, the Australians captured the town and airfield of Finschhafen, declaring it liberated on 2 October.[58]

However, most of the Japanese that had been around Finschhafen managed to retreat to a 1,000-metre-high (3,300 ft) mountain around Sattelberg. On 16 October they launched a counterattack from there.[58] In response to this, the 26th Brigade was brought up to relieve the 20th, and by 25 October the Japanese counterattack was beaten off. The 9th Division then went on the offensive against Sattelberg on 7 November. With intermittent and sometimes heavy air support, the Australian troops worked to uproot the Japanese from the strategically important peak. It fell to the 9th Division on 25 November 1943, after the 2/48th Battalion reached the summit.[59] It was during this final assault that Sergeant Tom Derrick carried out the actions that led to him receiving the Victoria Cross.[60]

Borneo

Tarakan 1945 AWM 090932
Infantry from the 2/23rd Infantry Battalion advancing through wrecked oil storage tanks at Tank Hill, Tarakan. (AWM 090932)

In January 1944 the 9th Division was relieved by the 5th Division around Sio[61] and progressively over the following two months they were brought back to Australia.[62] After a period of leave the division once again re-formed on the Atherton Tablelands. Due to high personnel turnover in this period as personnel were discharged or transferred to other units, many of the division's units had to be virtually rebuilt from scratch.[62] Indeed, in order to bring the division's infantry units an entire Militia battalion—nearly 400 personnel—from the 62nd Battalion was broken up to provide reinforcements.[62]

Due to rapid developments in the war and strategic uncertainty over the role of Australian forces in the Pacific, the 9th Division remained in Australia for over a year before seeing action once more. While the Australian I Corps (of which the 9th Division was part) had originally been intended to participate in the liberation of the Philippines,[63] these plans were dropped, and the Corps was instead tasked with the liberation of Borneo.[64] This would be the division's final involvement in the war and its participation in the campaign was broken up into two primary operations: a landing on Tarakan and another on Brunei and Labuan.[65]

Tarakan

The 26th Brigade group was assigned the task of capturing Tarakan Island and destroying the Japanese garrison.[66] Japanese forces on the island were estimated at around 2,000 personnel along with around 250 civilians working in the oil plants.[67] On 30 April 1945 a small force of commandos from the 2/4th Commando Squadron landed along with battery of 25-pounder field guns from the 2/7th Field Regiment was landed on Sadau Island off the coast of Tarakan, from where they would provide indirect fire support during the landing.[68] The following day, 1 May, at 0640 the battery on Sadau opened the preliminary bombardment along with two cruisers and six destroyers stationed offshore. At 0656 hours the main assault began as the LCIs carrying the two battalions that would lead the attack—the 2/23rd and 2/48th—crossed the line of departure and headed towards the landing beach at Lingkas.[69]

Although initially Japanese opposition to the landing was light, as the Australians advanced inland from the landing beach, the resistance grew in its intensity and it was mid June by the time that the main Japanese force was broken up and mopping up operations began.[70] These operations continued throughout July until starvation forced the majority of those remaining to surrender.[70] The Australians lost 250 killed and 670 wounded in this operation, while the Japanese lost around 1,500 personnel killed and another 250 captured trying to defend the island.[70][71]

Brunei and Labuan

The remainder of the 9th Division landed in the Labuan and Brunei area on 10 June 1945.[72] Tasked with securing Brunei Bay in order to establish a naval base and secure vital oil and rubber production facilities, 14,079 personnel from the division took part, just under half of a total of 30,000 that were assigned to the operation.[73] Following a preliminary naval and aerial bombardment, the 24th Brigade landed at the southern end of Labuan island, which situated as it was at the entrance of Brunei Bay, commanded the approach to northern Borneo. At the same time, the 20th Brigade landed near Brooketon, on a small peninsula in the southern end of the bay.[74] A third, albeit smaller, landing was made by one of the 20th Brigade's battalions—the 2/15th—on the small island of Muara. The island had not been garrisoned by the Japanese and all the Australian landings went in unopposed.[74]

The 20th Brigade rapidly secured Brunei town against relatively light opposition, suffering only 40 casualties in this campaign.[75] The 24th Brigade, however, encountered greater opposition in taking the island of Labuan,[75] where the defenders withdrew to an inland stronghold where they held out along dense jungle covered ridges and muddy swamps.[74] In order to subdue the Japanese resistance an intense naval and artillery bombardment was laid down over the course of a week before an assault was put in by two companies of infantry supported by tanks and flamethrowers.[74]

After securing Labuan, the 24th Brigade was landed on the northern shore of Brunei Bay on 16 June, while the 20th Brigade continued to consolidate the southern lodgement by advanced south-west along the coast towards Kuching and securing the hinterland as well.[76] The 2/32nd Battalion landed at Padas Bay and seized the town of Weston, before sending out patrols towards Beaufort, 23 kilometres (14 mi) inland. Held by 800–1,000 Japanese, on 27 June an attack was carried out there by the 2/43rd Battalion.[76] Amid a torrential downpour and encountering difficult terrain, the 2/32nd Battalion secured the south bank of the Padas River, while one company from the 2/43rd was sent to take the town and another marched to the flanks, to take up ambush positions along the route that the Japanese were expected to withdraw along. The 2/28th Battalion secured the lines of communication north of the river.[77] On the night of 27/28 June the Japanese launched six counterattacks which devolved into hand-to-hand combat. Amid appalling conditions, one company became isolated and the next morning another was sent to its aid to attack the Japanese from the rear. Fighting its way through numerous Japanese positions, the company killed at least 100 Japanese and one of its members, Private Tom Starcevich, was later awarded the Victoria Cross for his efforts.[78]

Following this, the Japanese began to withdraw from Beaufort and the Australians began a slow, cautious advance using indirect fire to limit casualties. By 12 July they occupied Papar,[79] and from there sent out patrols to the north and along the river until the cessation of hostilities.[80] By August the fighting came to an end. The division's total casualties in this operation were 114 killed and 221 wounded, while the Japanese lost at least 1,234 personnel.[76][81]

Disbandment

Following the end of the war the 9th Division remained in Borneo and performed emergency relief and occupation duties until the arrival of Indian troops in January 1946. The 9th Division began gradually demobilising on 1 October 1945 with soldiers with dependants or long service being the first to be discharged. The division's headquarters was disbanded on 10 February 1946 and the last unit of the division was disbanded in May 1946. While the majority of the division's personnel returned civilian life after the war, some continued to serve with the British Commonwealth Occupation Force in Japan,[82] joining the 66th Infantry Battalion.[83]

Casualties

Derrick grave (AWM 108261)
Men of the 2/48th Battalion gather around the grave of Lieutenant T.C. Derrick VC DCM on Tarakan (AWM 108261)

The 9th Division suffered a total of 2,732 killed in action, 7,501 wounded and 1,863 captured. These 12,096 casualties represent approximately one quarter of the personnel who served with the division.[22]

Decorations

The 9th Division was the most highly decorated of the four AIF divisions raised during the war.[2] Seven of its members received the Victoria Cross,[17] the nation's highest award for gallantry, these were (in alphabetical order by surname):

Military decorations awarded to members of the 9th Division include:

Structure

The 9th Division's structure was as follows:[84]

Commanders

Quotes

Notes

Footnotes
  1. ^ Derrick's VC was not awarded posthumously, although he was killed later in the war.
Citations
  1. ^ Johnston (2002), p. xi.
  2. ^ a b c Johnston (2002), p. ix.
  3. ^ Miller (1986) passim
  4. ^ a b "9th Division". Second World War, 1939–1945 units. Australian War Memorial. Archived from the original on 3 January 2010. Retrieved 15 January 2010.
  5. ^ a b c Johnston (2002), p. 2.
  6. ^ Johnston (2002), pp. 2–3.
  7. ^ Johnston (2002), p. 12.
  8. ^ Johnston (2002), pp. 12–13.
  9. ^ a b Johnston (2002), p. 13.
  10. ^ a b c Johnston (2002), p. 14.
  11. ^ Johnston (2002), p. 16.
  12. ^ a b c Coulthard-Clark (1998), p. 182.
  13. ^ a b Johnston (2002), p. 17.
  14. ^ a b Coulthard-Clark (1998), p. 183.
  15. ^ Johnston (2002), p. 18.
  16. ^ a b Johnston (2002), p. 26.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i Johnston (2002), p. 253.
  18. ^ a b Coulthard-Clark (1998), p. 185.
  19. ^ Miller (1986), passim.
  20. ^ Coulthard-Clark (1998), p. 184.
  21. ^ Coulthard-Clark (1998), p. 186.
  22. ^ a b c Johnston (2002), p. 251.
  23. ^ a b Johnston (2002), p. 65.
  24. ^ a b Johnston (2002), p. 67.
  25. ^ Maughan (1966), pp. 537–538.
  26. ^ Maughan (1966), p. 542.
  27. ^ Johnston (2002), p. 72.
  28. ^ Johnston (2002), p. 73.
  29. ^ a b "2/28th Battalion". Second World War, 1939–1945 units. Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 15 January 2010.
  30. ^ Maughan (1966), pp. 558–562.
  31. ^ Johnston (2002), p. 87.
  32. ^ Coulthard-Clark (1998), p. 221.
  33. ^ Coulthard-Clark (1998), p. 222.
  34. ^ Johnston (2002), p. 92.
  35. ^ Coulthard-Clark (1998), p. 229.
  36. ^ a b Coulthard-Clark (1998), p. 230.
  37. ^ Bierman & Smith (2002), p.254 & 262.
  38. ^ a b Bierman & Smith (2002), p.312.
  39. ^ Bierman & Smith (2002), p.319.
  40. ^ Coulthard-Clark (1998), p. 231.
  41. ^ a b Coulthard-Clark (1998), p. 232.
  42. ^ Johnston (2002), p. 131.
  43. ^ a b c Johnston (2002), p. 135.
  44. ^ a b Johnston (2002), p. 138.
  45. ^ Johnston (2002), p. 140.
  46. ^ a b Johnston (2002), p. 143.
  47. ^ Keogh 1965, p. 304.
  48. ^ Johnston (2002), p. 146.
  49. ^ Keogh (1965), p. 305.
  50. ^ Johnston (2002), p. 147.
  51. ^ a b Keogh (1965), p. 306.
  52. ^ Johnston (2002), p. 148.
  53. ^ Keogh (1965), p. 307.
  54. ^ a b c Johnston (2002), p. 153.
  55. ^ Keogh (1965), pp. 310–311.
  56. ^ Johnston (2002), p. 154.
  57. ^ Keogh (1965), p. 315.
  58. ^ a b Johnston (2002), p. 159.
  59. ^ Johnston (2002), p. 180.
  60. ^ Johnston (2002), p. 181.
  61. ^ Johnston (2002), p. 184.
  62. ^ a b c Johnston (2002), p. 186.
  63. ^ Keogh (1965), pp. 395–396.
  64. ^ Keogh (1965), p. 431.
  65. ^ Keogh (1965), pp. 432–433.
  66. ^ Long (1963), p. 406.
  67. ^ Keong (1965), p. 436.
  68. ^ Johnston (2002), p. 194.
  69. ^ Keogh (1965), p. 441.
  70. ^ a b c Keogh (1965), p. 443.
  71. ^ Johnston (2002), p. 219.
  72. ^ Johnston (2002), p. 220.
  73. ^ Johnston (2002), p. 221.
  74. ^ a b c d Coulthard-Clark (1998), p. 252.
  75. ^ a b Johnston (2002), p. 228.
  76. ^ a b c Coulthard-Clark (1998), p. 253.
  77. ^ Keogh (1965), p. 454.
  78. ^ Johnston (2002), pp. 235–236.
  79. ^ Johnston (2002), p. 237.
  80. ^ Keogh (1965), p. 455.
  81. ^ Johnston (2002), p. 238.
  82. ^ Johnston (2002), p. 243.
  83. ^ Chinn 2008, p. 5.
  84. ^ Johnston (2002), p. xiii.
  85. ^ Miller (1986), p. 3.
  86. ^ Neave & Smith (2009), p. 276.
  87. ^ Johnston (2007), p. 50.

References

  • Bierman, John; Smith, Colin (2002). Alemein: War Without Hate. London: Viking. ISBN 978-0-670-91109-7.
  • Chinn, David (2008). "Raising a Regular Infantry Force". In Horner, David; Bou, Jean (eds.). Duty First: A History of the Royal Australian Regiment (2nd ed.). Crows Nest, New South Wales: Allen & Unwin. pp. 1–18. ISBN 978-1-74175-374-5.
  • Coulthard-Clark, Chris (1998). The Encyclopaedia of Australia's Battles. Sydney, New South Wales: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 978-1-86448-611-7.
  • Johnston, Mark (2002). That Magnificent 9th: An Illustrated History of the 9th Australian Division 1940–46. Sydney, New South Wales: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 978-1-86508-654-5.
  • Johnston, Mark (2007). The Australian Army in World War II. Elite. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84603-123-6.
  • Keogh, Eustace (1965). The South West Pacific 1941–45. Melbourne, Victoria: Grayflower Productions. OCLC 7185705.
  • Latimer, Jon (2002). Alamein. London: John Murray. ISBN 978-0-674-01016-1.
  • Long, Gavin (1963). The Final Campaigns. Australia in the War of 1939–1945, Series 1—Army. Volume VII (1st ed.). Canberra, Australian Capital Territory: Australian War Memorial. OCLC 1297619.
  • Maughan, Barton (1966). Tobruk to El Alamein. Australia in the War of 1939–1945, Series 1—Army. Volume III (1st ed.). Canberra, Australian Capital Territory: Australian War Memorial. OCLC 954993.
  • Miller, Ward (1986). The 9th Australian Division Versus the Africa Corps: An Infantry Division Against Tanks—Tobruk, Libya, 1941. Fort Leavenworth, Kansas: US Army Command and Staff College. OCLC 14129655. Archived from the original on 28 December 2009. Retrieved 9 January 2006.
  • Neave, Denny; Smith, Craig (2009). Aussie Soldier Prisoners of War. Newport, New South Wales: Big Sky Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9803251-5-7.

External links

Gordon Watson (squash player)

For other people named Gordon Watson, see Gordon Watson.

Gordon John Watson (1916-1992) was a squash player from Australia. He held the Australian Professional Championship and Australian Open Championship titles from 1939 undefeated until 1949. His impressive record in championship competition and his peerless coaching record have resulted in Gordon being widely considered the doyen of the sport in Australia, as both player and coach, for 48 years from 1931 to 1979.

Index of World War II articles (0–9)

1 Alpine Division Taurinense

1st Alpini Regiment

1 Cent WWII (Dutch coin)

1st Mountain Artillery Regiment (Italy)

1 vs 40 (Zipang manga)

1. Jagd-Division

1.1"/75 caliber gun

10 cm K 17

10.5 cm FlaK 38

10.5 cm leFH 16

10.5 cm leFH 18/40

10.5 cm leFH 18

10.5 cm leFH 18M

10.5 cm Leichtgeschütz 40

10.5 cm Leichtgeschütz 42

10.5 cm schwere Kanone 18

100 mm field gun M1944 (BS-3)

100th Division (United States)

100th Guards Rifle Division

100th Light Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

101st Airborne Division (United States)

101st Infantry Division (France)

101st Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

101st SS Heavy Panzer Detachment

102nd Fortress Division (France)

102nd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

102nd Infantry Division (United States)

103rd Infantry Division (United States)

104th Division (United States)

105 mm Howitzer M3

106th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

106th Infantry Division (United States)

107 mm divisional gun M1940 (M-60)

107 mm gun M1910/30

1077th Anti-Aircraft Regiment (Soviet Union)

10H64

10th Armored Division (United States)

10th Armoured Cavalry Brigade (Poland)

10th Armoured Division (United Kingdom)

10th Army (Soviet Union)

10th Canadian Infantry Brigade

10th Division (Australia)

10th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

10th Indian Infantry Division

10th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

10th Infantry Division (Poland)

10th Marine Regiment (United States)

10th Motorized Cavalry Brigade (Poland)

10th Mountain Division (United States)

10th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

10th Reconnaissance Group (United States)

10th SS Panzer Division Frundsberg

10TP

110th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

110th Rifle Division

112 Gripes about the French

114th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

116th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

118th General Hospital US Army

11th (East Africa) Division

11th Airborne Division (United States)

11th Armored Division (United States)

11th Armoured Division (United Kingdom)

11th Army (Soviet Union)

11th Army Group

11th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

11th Guards Army

11th Indian Infantry Division

11th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

11th SS Panzer Army

11th SS Volunteer Panzergrenadier Division Nordland

11th/28th Battalion, Royal Western Australia Regiment

12th Alpini Regiment

12.8 cm FlaK 40

12.8 cm PaK 44

120 mm M1 gun

121st Engineer Battalion (United States)

122 mm gun M1931/37 (A-19)

122 mm howitzer M1909/37

122 mm howitzer M1910/30

122 mm howitzer M1938 (M-30)

12th (Eastern) Division

12th Armored Division (United States)

12th Army (Soviet Union)

12th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

12th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

12th Infantry Regiment (United States)

12th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

12th SS Panzer Division Hitlerjugend

13 JG 52

13 Rue Madeleine

13. Unterseebootsflottille

13.2 mm Hotchkiss machine gun

138mm/40 Modèle 1927 gun

13th Airborne Division (United States)

13th Armored Division (United States)

13th Army (Soviet Union)

13th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

13th Foreign Legion Demi-Brigade

13th Guards Rifle Division

13th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

13th Waffen Mountain Division of the SS Handschar (1st Croatian)

140th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

141st Reserve Division (Germany)

142nd Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

143rd Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

148th Reserve Division (Germany)

14th Armored Division (United States)

14th Army (Soviet Union)

14th Army involvement in Transnistria

14th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

14th Indian Infantry Division

14th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

14th Infantry Division (Poland)

14th Mixed Brigade (Imperial Japanese Army)

14th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

14th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS Galicia (1st Ukrainian)

15 cm Kanone 18

15 cm sFH 13

15 cm sFH 18

15 cm sIG 33

150th Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom)

150th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

151st Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom)

152 mm gun M1910/30

152 mm gun M1910/34

152 mm gun M1935 (Br-2)

152 mm howitzer-gun M1937 (ML-20)

152 mm howitzer M1909/30

152 mm howitzer M1910/37

152 mm howitzer M1938 (M-10)

152 mm howitzer M1943 (D-1)

152 mm mortar M1931 (NM)

152nd Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom)

153rd Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom)

153rd Rifle Division

154th Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom)

155 mm Long Tom

15th (Scottish) Division

15th Airborne Corps

15th Army Group

15th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

15th Infantry Division (Poland)

15th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Latvian)

16 inch Coast Gun M1919

16"/50 caliber Mark 7 gun

161st Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

163rd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

164th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

164th Infantry Regiment (United States)

169th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

16th Armored Division (United States)

16th Battalion, Royal Western Australia Regiment

16th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

16th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

16th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

16th SS Panzergrenadier Division Reichsführer-SS

17 cm Kanone 18

176th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

17th Airborne Division (United States)

17th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

17th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

17th Infantry Division (India)

17th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

17th SS Panzergrenadier Division Götz von Berlichingen

183rd Volksgrenadier Division (Germany)

184th Rifle Division

18th Army (Soviet Union)

18th Army Group

18th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

18th Infantry Division (France)

18th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

18th Infantry Division (Poland)

18th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

1938 Changsha Fire

1939-40 Winter Offensive

1939 Tarnow rail station bomb attack

193rd Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

1940-1944 insurgency in Chechnya

1941 (film)

1941 Iraqi coup d'état

1941 Odessa massacre

1942 (video game)

1942 Luxembourgian general strike

1942: Joint Strike

1942: The Pacific Air War

1943 Naples post office bombing

1943 steel cent

1943: The Battle of Midway

1944-1945 killings in Bačka

1944 in France

1944: The Loop Master

1945 (Conroy novel)

1945 (Gingrich and Forstchen novel)

1945 Prime Minister's Resignation Honours

19th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

19th Infantry Division (India)

19th Infantry Division Gavninana

19th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

19th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (2nd Latvian)

1st (African) Division

1st Air Fleet of the Imperial Japanese Navy

1st Armored Division (France)

1st Armored Division (United States)

1st Armoured Brigade (Poland)

1st Armoured Brigade (United Kingdom)

1st Armoured Division (Australia)

1st Armoured Division (Poland)

1st Armoured Division (United Kingdom)

1st Armoured Reconnaissance Brigade (United Kingdom)

1st Baltic Front

1st Belgrade Special Combat detachment

1st Belorussian Front

1st Canadian Armoured Brigade

1st Canadian Infantry Division

1st Canadian Tank Brigade

1st Cavalry Army (Soviet Union)

1st Cavalry Division (United States)

1st Colonial Infantry Division (France)

1st Cossack Division

1st Czechoslovak Armoured Brigade

1st Division (Australia)

1st Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

1st Far East Front

1st Free French Division

1st Grenadiers Division (Poland)

1st Guards Army (Soviet Union)

1st Guards Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

1st Guards Special Rifle Corps

1st Guards Tank Army (Soviet Union)

1st Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

1st Infantry Division (Slovak Republic)

1st Infantry Division (South Africa)

1st Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

1st Infantry Division (United States)

1st Legions Infantry Division (Poland)

1st Light Cavalry Division (France)

1st Light Division (Germany)

1st Light Mechanized Division (France)

1st Marine Division (United States)

1st Marine Infantry Parachute Regiment

1st Moroccan Infantry Division

1st Motor Machine Gun Brigade

1st Mountain Division (Wehrmacht)

1st Naval Infantry Division (Germany)

1st Operations Group

1st Panzer Army

1st Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

1st Parachute Army (Germany)

1st Parachute Battalion (Australia)

1st Parachute Division (Germany)

1st Photo Squadron (Detachment C)

1st Red Banner Army

1st Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

1st Shock Army

1st Ski Division (Germany)

1st Special Service Brigade (United kingdom)

1st SS Division Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler

1st Tank Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

1st Ukrainian Front

2-inch mortar

2 Alpine Division Tridentina

2nd Engineer Regiment (Italy)

2 cm FlaK 30

2 cm KwK 30

2nd Mountain Artillery Regiment (Italy)

2 or 3 Things I Know About Him

2. Jagd-Division

2.8 cm sPzB 41

2/11th Australian Infantry Battalion

2/12th Field Ambulance (Australia)

2/18th Australian Infantry Battalion

2/1st Australian Infantry Battalion

2/25th Australian Infantry Battalion

2/2nd Australian Infantry Battalion

2/3rd Australian Infantry Battalion

2/4th Australian Infantry Battalion

2/5th Australian Infantry Battalion

2/6th Australian Infantry Battalion

2/6th Cavalry Commando Regiment (Australia)

2/7th Australian Infantry Battalion

2/8th Australian Infantry Battalion

20 mm AA Machine Cannon Carrier Truck

20 mm Anti-Aircraft Tank "Ta-Se"

200th Division (National Revolutionary Army)

201st Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

202nd Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

203 mm howitzer M1931 (B-4)

203mm/50 Modèle 1924 gun

203mm/55 Modèle 1931 gun

205th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

206th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

207th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

208th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

208th Rifle Division

20th Armored Division (United States)

20th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

20th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

20th Infantry Division (India)

20th Infantry Division (Poland)

20th Mountain Army (Wehrmacht)

20th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

20th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Estonian)

21 cm Mörser 18

210 mm gun M1939 (Br-17)

210th Coastal Defense Division (Germany)

210th Independent Infantry Brigade (Home)

212th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

214th Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom)

216th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

218th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

21st Army (Wehrmacht)

21st Army Group

21st Infantry Division (France)

21st Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

21st Mountain Infantry Division (Poland)

21st Norwegian Army (Germany)

21st Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

21st Waffen Mountain Division of the SS Skanderbeg (1st Albanian)

223rd Independent Infantry Brigade (Home)

22nd Air Landing Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

22nd Army (Soviet Union)

22nd Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

22nd Infantry Division (France)

22nd Mountain Infantry Division (Poland)

22nd Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

22nd SS Volunteer Cavalry Division Maria Theresia

230th Coastal Defense Division (Germany)

23rd (Northumbrian) Division

23rd Army (Soviet Union)

23rd Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

23rd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

23rd Infantry Division (India)

23rd Infantry Division (Poland)

23rd Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

23rd Waffen Mountain Division of the SS Kama

240 mm howitzer M1

240mm/50 Modèle 1902 gun

243rd Static Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

246th Volksgrenadier Division (Wehrmacht)

24th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

24th Infantry Division (United States)

24th Mixed Brigade (Imperial Japanese Army)

24th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

24th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

25 Cent WWII (Dutch coin)

25 mm automatic air defense gun M1940 (72-K)

25 mm Hotchkiss anti-aircraft gun

25 mm Hotchkiss anti-tank gun

25. Unterseebootsflottille

25th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

25th Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom)

25th Infantry Division (India)

25th Infantry Division (United States)

25th Motorized Division (France)

25th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

25th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

25th SS Grenadier Division Hunyadi (1st Hungarian)

25th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS Hunyadi (1st Hungarian)

25th/49th Battalion, Royal Queensland Regiment

26th Armoured Brigade (United Kingdom)

26th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

26th Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom)

26th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

26th Infantry Division (United States)

26th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (2nd Hungarian)

270th Rifle Division

273rd Reserve Panzer Division

275th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

277th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

27th Armoured Brigade

27th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

27th Guards Rifle Division

27th Home Army Infantry Division (Poland)

27th Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom)

27th Infantry Division (Poland)

27th Infantry Division (Sila)

27th Infantry Division (United States)

27th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

27th Truck-Moveable Division (Brescia)

281st Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

286th Security Division (Germany)

289th Military Police Company

28th Armoured Brigade (United Kingdom)

28th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

28th Infantry Division (Poland)

28th Infantry Division (United States)

28th Jäger Division (Wehrmacht)

292nd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

299th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

29th Armoured Brigade (United Kingdom)

29th Army (Soviet Union)

29th Flight Training Wing

29th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

29th Infantry Division (United States)

29th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Italian)

2nd (African) Division

2nd Armored Division (France)

2nd Armored Division (United States)

2nd Armoured Division (Australia)

2nd Armoured Division (United Kingdom)

2nd Armoured Regiment (Poland)

2nd Belorussian Front

2nd Canadian Armoured Brigade

2nd Canadian Infantry Division

2nd Cavalry Division (United States)

2nd Division (Australia)

2nd Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

2nd Division (Norway)

2nd Far Eastern Front

2nd Guards Army (Soviet Union)

2nd Guards Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

2nd Guards Mixed Brigade (Japan)

2nd Guards Tank Army (Soviet Union)

2nd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

2nd Infantry Division (India)

2nd Infantry Division (South Africa)

2nd Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

2nd Infantry Division (United States)

2nd Infantry Regiment (United States)

2nd Light Cavalry Division (France)

2nd Light Division (Germany)

2nd Light Mechanized Division (France)

2nd London Infantry Division

2nd Marine Division (United States)

2nd Marine Regiment (United States)

2nd Mountain Division (Wehrmacht)

2nd Naval Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

2nd North African Infantry Division

2nd Panzer Army

2nd Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

2nd Panzer Group

2nd Parachute Division (Germany)

2nd Red Banner Army

2nd Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

2nd Shock Army

2nd SS Division Das Reich

2nd Tank Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

3 Alpine Division Julia

3rd Alpini Regiment

3 inch Gun M5

3rd Mountain Artillery Regiment (Italy)

3"/50 caliber gun

3.7 cm FlaK 43

3.7 cm KwK 36

3.7 cm PaK 36

3.7 inch Mountain Howitzer

301 Military Hospital

301st Air Refueling Wing

302nd Static Infantry Division (Germany)

305 mm howitzer M1939 (Br-18)

305mm/45 Modèle 1906 gun

305th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

308th Armament Systems Wing

30th Armoured Brigade

30th Infantry Division (United States)

30th Mechanized Brigade (Ukraine)

30th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Belarussian)

30th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (2nd Russian)

318th Fighter Group

31st Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

31st Guards Rifle Division

31st Infantry Division (United States)

322nd Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

323d Flying Training Wing

324th Fighter Group

324th Rifle Division

326th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

32nd Infantry Division (France)

32nd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

32nd Infantry Division (United States)

32nd Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

33/5

330mm/50 Modèle 1931 gun

331st Bombardment Group

332d Fighter Group

332nd Static Infantry Division (Germany)

333d Bombardment Group

334th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

336th Training Group

33rd Army (Soviet Union)

33rd Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

33rd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

33rd Infantry Division (United States)

33rd Mixed Brigade (Imperial Japanese Army)

33rd Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS Charlemagne (1st French)

340mm/45 Modèle 1912 gun

340th Bombardment Group

345th Bomb Group

346th Bombardment Group

349th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

349th Squadron (Belgium)

34th Brigade (Australia)

34th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

34th Infantry Division (United States)

350th Squadron (Belgium)

351st Bomb Group

352d Fighter Group

352nd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

357th Fighter Group

359th Fighter Group

35th Army (Soviet Union)

35th Infantry Division (United States)

35th SS and Police Grenadier Division

36 Hours (1965 film)

361st Fighter Group

365th Fighter Group

369th (Croatian) Reinforced Infantry Regiment

369th (Croatian) Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

36th Battalion (Australia)

36th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

36th Infantry Division (United States)

36th Infantry Regiment (Poland)

37 mm anti-tank gun M1930 (1-K)

37 mm automatic air defense gun M1939 (61-K)

37 mm Gun M3

37mm Gun M1

37th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

37th Infantry Division (United States)

37th SS Volunteer Cavalry Division Lützow

373rd (Croatian) Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

38 cm SKC 34 naval gun

380mm/45 Modèle 1935 gun

380th Bomb Group

381st Training Group

382d Bombardment Group

383d Bombardment Group

383rd Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

385th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

38th (Irish) Infantry Brigade (United Kingdom)

38th (Welsh) Division

38th Infantry Division (United States)

391st Bombardment Group

392nd (Croatian) Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

392nd Strategic Missile Wing

393d Bombardment Group

394th Bombardment Group

396th Bombardment Group

397th Bombardment Wing

399th Bombardment Group

39M Csaba

39th Battalion (Australia)

39th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

39th Infantry Division (India)

39th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

3d Armored Cavalry Regiment (United States)

3d Combat Cargo Group

3d United States Infantry Regiment (The Old Guard)

3M-54 Klub

3rd Algerian Infantry Division

3rd Armored Division (France)

3rd Armored Division (United States)

3rd Armoured Division (Australia)

3rd Army (Soviet Union)

3rd Battalion 3rd Marines

3rd Belorussian Front

3rd Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division (United States)

3rd Canadian Infantry Division

3rd Division (Australia)

3rd Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

3rd Division (New Zealand)

3rd Guards Army (Soviet Union)

3rd Guards Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

3rd Guards Tank Army (Soviet Union)

3rd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

3rd Infantry Division (South Africa)

3rd Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

3rd Infantry Division (United States)

3rd Light Division (Germany)

3rd Light Mechanized Division (France)

3rd Marine Division (United States)

3rd Motor Rifle Division

3rd Mountain Division (Wehrmacht)

3rd North African Infantry Division

3rd Panzer Army

3rd Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

3rd Panzer Group

3rd Polish Infantry Brigade

3rd Shock Army (Soviet Union)

3rd SS Division Totenkopf

3rd Tank Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

3rd/4th County of London Yeomanry (Sharpshooters)

4 Alpine Division Cuneense

4th Alpini Regiment

4th Mountain Artillery Regiment (Italy)

4"/50 caliber gun

4.2 cm PaK 41

4.5 inch Gun M1

40 cm/45 Type 94

40 M Turan I

400th Bombardment Group

405th Fighter Group

409th Bombardment Group

40th Air Expeditionary Wing

40th Army (Soviet Union)

40th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

40th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

40th Infantry Division (United States)

413th Fighter Group

414th Fighter Group

41st Infantry Division (France)

41st Infantry Division (United States)

42nd (East Lancashire) Division

42nd Armoured Division (United Kingdom)

42nd Infantry Division (United States)

43rd (Wessex) Infantry Division

43rd Infantry Division (United States)

441st Troop Carrier Group

443d Troop Carrier Group

444th Bombardment Group

449th Bombardment Wing

44th (Home Counties) Infantry Division

44th Airborne Division (India)

44th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

44th Infantry Division (United States)

45 mm anti-tank gun M1937 (53-K)

45 mm anti-tank gun M1942 (M-42)

453rd Bombardment Group

454th Bombardment Wing

456th Bomb Group

458th Bombardment Group

45th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

45th Infantry Division (United States)

45th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

460th Parachute Field Artillery Battalion (United States)

461st Bombardment Wing

462d Bombardment Group

463d Airlift Group

464th Tactical Airlift Wing

465th Bombardment Wing

466th Bombardment Group

467th Bombardment Group

468th Bombardment Group

46th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

46th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

47 mm APX anti-tank gun

470th Bombardment Group

477th Fighter Group

483d Composite Wing

489th Bombardment Group

48th (South Midland) Division

48th Armored Medical Battalion

490th Bombardment Group

491st Bombardment Group

493d Bombardment Group

494th Bombardment Group

49th (West Riding) Infantry Division

49th Hutsul Rifle Regiment

49th Parallel

4th Armored Division (United States)

4th Army (Soviet Union)

4th Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division (United States)

4th Canadian (Armoured) Division

4th Canadian Armoured Brigade

4th Canadian Infantry Brigade

4th Cavalry Regiment (United States)

4th Combat Cargo Group

4th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

4th Fighter Group

4th Guards Army (Soviet Union)

4th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

4th Infantry Division (India)

4th Infantry Division (Poland)

4th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

4th Infantry Division (United States)

4th Infantry Regiment (United States)

4th Light Cavalry Division (France)

4th Luftwaffe Field Division (Germany)

4th Marine Division (United States)

4th Mixed Brigade (Imperial Japanese Army)

4th Mountain Division (Wehrmacht)

4th North African Infantry Division

4th Panzer Army

4th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

4th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

4th SS Polizei Division

4th SS Volunteer Panzergrenadier Brigade Netherlands

4th Tank Army (Soviet Union)

4th Tank Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

4th Territorial Army Corps (Romania)

4th Ukrainian Front

5 Alpine Division Pusteria

5th Alpini Regiment

5 cm KwK 38

5 cm KwK 39

5 cm PaK 38

5th Mountain Artillery Regiment (Italy)

5"/25 caliber gun

5"/38 caliber gun

5"/51 caliber gun

500th SS Parachute Battalion

501st Parachute Infantry Regiment (United States)

502d Bombardment Group

502nd Heavy Tank Battalion (Germany)

503rd heavy tank battalion (Germany)

504th Bombardment Group

509th heavy tank battalion (Germany)

509th Operations Group

50th (Northumbrian) Infantry Division

51st (Highland) Infantry Division (World War II)

51st Army (Soviet Union)

52nd (Lowland) Division

53rd (Welsh) Division

53rd Infantry Division (France)

5535 Annefrank

55th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

55th Infantry Division (France)

55th Infantry Division (Poland)

55th Operations Group

562nd Grenadier Division (Germany)

56th (London) Division

56th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

56th Field Artillery Command

56th Fighter Group

56th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

57 mm anti-tank gun M1943 (ZiS-2)

57th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

58th Army (Soviet Union)

58th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

596th Parachute Combat Engineer Company (United States)

59th Guards Rifle Division

5th Armored Division (France)

5th Armored Division (United States)

5th Army (Wehrmacht)

5th Army (Soviet Union)

5th Canadian (Armoured) Division

5th Canadian Division

5th Canadian Infantry Brigade

5th Cavalry Brigade (United Kingdom)

5th Division (Australia)

5th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

5th Guards Tank Army (Soviet Union)

5th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

5th Infantry Division (India)

5th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

5th Infantry Division (United States)

5th Light Cavalry Division (France)

5th Marine Division (United States)

5th Motorized Division (France)

5th Mountain Division (Wehrmacht)

5th North African Infantry Division

5th Panzer Army

5th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

5th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

5th SS Panzergrenadier Division Wiking

5th SS Volunteer Sturmbrigade Wallonien

6 Alpine Division Alpi Graie

6th Alpini Regiment

6 inch 26 cwt howitzer

6th Mountain Artillery Regiment (Italy)

60 pounder

60th Infantry Division (France)

60th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

61st Infantry Division (France)

61st Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

61st Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

62nd Army (Soviet Union)

62nd Battalion (Australia)

633 Squadron

63rd Army (Soviet Union)

63rd Infantry Division (United States)

64 Baker Street

65th Infantry Division (United States)

66th (East Lancashire) Infantry Division

66th Infantry Division (United States)

68th Infantry Division (France)

68th Observation Group

69th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

69th Infantry Division (United States)

6th Airlanding Brigade (United Kingdom)

6th Armored Division (United States)

6th Armoured Division (South Africa)

6th Armoured Division (United Kingdom)

6th Army (Soviet Union)

6th Canadian Infantry Brigade

6th Canadian Infantry Division

6th Cavalry Regiment (United States)

6th Division (Australia)

6th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

6th Guards Tank Army

6th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

6th Infantry Division (Poland)

6th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

6th Infantry Division (United States)

6th Infantry Regiment (United States)

6th Luftwaffe Field Division (Germany)

6th Marine Division (United States)

6th Marine Division on Okinawa

6th Mountain Division (Wehrmacht)

6th Panzer Army

6th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

6th Parachute Division (Germany)

6th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

6th SS Mountain Division Nord

6th SS Volunteer Sturmbrigade Langemarck

7th Alpini Regiment

7 cm Mountain Gun

7.5 cm FK 16 nA

7.5 cm FK 18

7.5 cm FK 38

7.5 cm FK 7M85

7.5 cm Infanteriegeschütz 37

7.5 cm Infanteriegeschütz 42

7.5 cm KwK 37

7.5 cm KwK 40

7.5 cm KwK 42

7.5 cm L/45 M/16 anti aircraft gun

7.5 cm L/45 M/32 anti aircraft gun

7.5 cm leichtes Infanteriegeschütz 18

7.5 cm Leichtgeschütz 40

7.5 cm PaK 39

7.5 cm PaK 40

7.5 cm PaK 41

7.5 cm PaK 97/38

7.62 cm PaK 36(r)

7.92 mm DS

700 Naval Air Squadron

709th Static Infantry Division (Germany)

70th Armor Regiment (United States)

70th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

70th Infantry Division (United States)

715th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

716th Static Infantry Division (Germany)

719th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

71st Infantry Division (France)

71st Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

71st Infantry Division (United States)

71st Infantry Regiment (New York)

72nd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

72nd Mechanized Brigade (Ukraine)

73rd Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

74th Infantry Regiment (Poland)

75 mm gun (US)

75 mm Schneider-Danglis 06/09

758th Tank Battalion (United States)

75th Guards Rifle Division

75th Infantry Division (United States)

76 mm air defense gun M1938

76 mm divisional gun M1902/30

76 mm divisional gun M1936 (F-22)

76 mm divisional gun M1939 (USV)

76 mm divisional gun M1942 (ZiS-3)

76 mm gun M1

76 mm mountain gun M1938

76 mm regimental gun M1927

76 mm regimental gun M1943

761st Tank Battalion (United States)

76th Division (United States)

76th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

76th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

76th Reconnaissance Group

76th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

77th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

77th Infantry Division (United States)

78th Division (United States)

78th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

78th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

78th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

79th Armoured Division (United Kingdom)

79th Fighter Group

79th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

79th Infantry Division (United States)

79th Light Anti-Aircraft Battery

7th Armored Division (United States)

7th Armoured Division (United Kingdom)

7th Army (Wehrmacht)

7th Army (Soviet Union)

7th Canadian Infantry Brigade

7th Canadian Infantry Division

7th Cavalry Regiment (United States)

7th Division (Australia)

7th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

7th Field Artillery Regiment (United States)

7th Guards Army

7th Indian Infantry Division

7th Infantry Division (United States)

7th Marine Regiment (United States)

7th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

7th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

7th SS Volunteer Mountain Division Prinz Eugen

7TP

8th Alpini Regiment

8 cm FK M. 17

8 cm PAW 600

8 cm sGrW 34

8 inch Gun M1

8.8 cm KwK 36

8.8 cm KwK 43

8.8 cm PaK 43

805th Engineer Aviation Battalion (United States)

80th Division (United States)

80th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

80th Rifle Division

81st (West Africa) Division

81st Infantry Division (United States)

82-PM-37

82nd (West Africa) Division

82nd Airborne Division (United States)

83rd Infantry Division (Germany)

83rd Infantry Division (United States)

84 Avenue Foch

84th Division (United States)

85 mm air defense gun M1939 (52-K)

85th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

86th Infantry Division (United States)

87th Division (United States)

87th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

88 mm gun

88th Division (National Revolutionary Army)

88th Infantry Division (United States)

89th "Tamanyan" Rifle Division

89th Division (United States)

8th Armored Division (United States)

8th Armoured Division (United Kingdom)

8th Army (Soviet Union)

8th Division (Australia)

8th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

8th Guards Army (Soviet Union)

8th Infantry Division (France)

8th Infantry Division (India)

8th Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

8th Infantry Division (United States)

8th Marine Regiment (United States)

8th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

8th SS Cavalry Division Florian Geyer

9th Alpini Regiment

9 Parachute Squadron RE

90 mm gun

904 Expeditionary Air Wing (United Kingdom)

90th Infantry Division (United States)

90th Light Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

914th Grenadier Regiment

916th Grenadier Regiment (Germany)

91st Bomb Group

91st Division (United States)

91st Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

92nd Infantry Division (United States)

93rd Infantry Division (United States)

94th Infantry Division (United States)

95th Bomb Group

95th Infantry Division (United States)

96th Infantry Division (United States)

97th Infantry Division (United States)

97th Mechanized Brigade (Ukraine)

98th Division (United States)

98th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

999th Light Afrika Division (Germany)

99th Infantry Division (United States)

99th Light Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)

99th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)

9th (Highland) Infantry Division

9th Armored Division (United States)

9th Armoured Division (United Kingdom)

9th Army (Soviet Union)

9th Division (Australia)

9th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

9th Infantry Division (India)

9th Infantry Division (Poland) (interwar)

9th Infantry Division (Soviet Union)

9th Infantry Division (United States)

9th Luftwaffe Field Division (Germany)

9th Motorized Division (France)

9th Mountain Division (Wehrmacht)

9th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht)

9th Parachute Division (Germany)

9th SS Panzer Division Hohenstaufen

Ithaca Creek State School

Ithaca Creek State School is a heritage-listed state school and war memorial at 49 Lugg Street, Bardon, City of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. It was designed by Queensland Department of Public Work (involving Andrew Baxter Leven, Nigel Laman Thomas, and Harold James Parr) and built from 1930 to 1939. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 5 February 2016.

Militia
Australian Imperial Force

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