98th United States Congress

The Ninety-eighth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from January 3, 1983, to January 3, 1985, during the third and fourth years of Ronald Reagan's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the 1980 U.S. Census. The Republicans controlled the Senate, while the Democrats controlled the House of Representatives.

98th United States Congress
97th ←
→ 99th
USCapitol
January 3, 1983 – January 3, 1985
Senate PresidentGeorge H. W. Bush (R)
Senate President pro temStrom Thurmond (R)
House SpeakerTip O'Neill (D)
Members100 senators
435 members of the House
5 non-voting delegates
Senate MajorityRepublican
House MajorityDemocratic
Sessions
1st: January 3, 1983 – November 18, 1983
2nd: January 23, 1984 – October 12, 1984

Major events

Major legislation

Party summary

Senate

098senate
Party standings at the end of the 98th Congress
  45 Democratic Senators
  55 Republican Senators
Affiliation Members
Republican Party 54, then 55
Democratic Party 46, then 45
Total 100

House of Representatives

98 us house membership
House seats by party holding plurality in state
     80+% to 100% Democratic      80+% to 100% Republican
     60+% to 80% Democratic      60+% to 80% Republican
     50+% to 60% Democratic      50+% to 60% Republican
     striped: 50–50 split
Affiliation Members Voting
share
Democratic Party 272 62.5%
Republican Party 163 37.5%
Total 435

Leadership

Senate

Majority (Republican) leadership

Minority (Democratic) leadership

House of Representatives

Majority (Democratic) leadership

Minority (Republican) leadership

Caucuses

Members

This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed by class and Representatives are listed by district.

Senate

Senators are elected statewide every two years, with approximately one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress, In this Congress, Class 2 meant their term ended with this Congress, facing re-election in 1984; Class 3 meant their term began in the last Congress, facing re-election in 1986; and Class 1 meant their term began in this Congress, facing re-election in 1988.

Alabama

Alaska

Arizona

Arkansas

California

Colorado

Connecticut

Delaware

Florida

Georgia

Hawaii

Idaho

Illinois

Indiana

Iowa

Kansas

Kentucky

Louisiana

Maine

Maryland

Massachusetts

Michigan

Minnesota

Mississippi

Missouri

Montana

Nebraska

Nevada

New Hampshire

New Jersey

New Mexico

New York

North Carolina

North Dakota

Ohio

Oklahoma

Oregon

Pennsylvania

Rhode Island

South Carolina

South Dakota

Tennessee

Texas

Utah

Vermont

Virginia

Washington

West Virginia

Wisconsin

Wyoming

House of Representatives

Alabama

Alaska

Arizona

Arkansas

California

Colorado

(Jack Swigert was elected for the sixth district but died before taking his seat.)

Connecticut

Delaware

Florida

Georgia

Hawaii

Idaho

Illinois

Indiana

Iowa

Kansas

Kentucky

Louisiana

Maine

Maryland

Massachusetts

Michigan

Minnesota

Mississippi

Missouri

Montana

Nebraska

Nevada

New Hampshire

New Jersey

New Mexico

New York

North Carolina

North Dakota

Ohio

Oklahoma

Oregon

Pennsylvania

Rhode Island

South Carolina

South Dakota

Tennessee

Texas

Utah

Vermont

Virginia

Washington

West Virginia

Wisconsin

Wyoming

Non-voting members

Changes in membership

Senate

State
(class)
Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation
Washington
(1)
Henry M. "Scoop" Jackson (D) Died September 1, 1983. Evans was then appointed to the seat before winning the special election on November 3, 1983. Daniel J. Evans (R) September 12, 1983
Massachusetts
(2)
Paul Tsongas (D) Resigned January 2, 1985. Kerry was elected for next term but was installed early to fill vacancy. John Kerry (D) January 2, 1985

House of Representatives

District Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation
New York's 7th Benjamin S. Rosenthal (D) Died January 4, 1983 Gary Ackerman (D) March 1, 1983
Texas's 6th Phil Gramm (D) Resigned January 5, 1983, after being removed from the House Budget Committee for supporting President Ronald Reagan's tax cuts, and then elected to fill his own vacancy Phil Gramm (R) February 12, 1983
California's 5th Phillip Burton (D) Died April 10, 1983 Sala Burton (D) June 21, 1983
Illinois's 1st Harold Washington (D) Resigned April 30, 1983, after being installed as Mayor of Chicago Charles Hayes (D) August 23, 1983
Georgia's 7th Larry McDonald (D) Died September 1, 1983 George Darden (D) November 8, 1983
Wisconsin's 4th Clement J. Zablocki (D) Died December 3, 1983 Jerry Kleczka (D) April 3, 1984
New Jersey's 13th Edwin B. Forsythe (R) Died March 29, 1984 Jim Saxton (R) November 6, 1984
Florida's 10th Andy Ireland (D) Changed party affiliation July 5, 1984 Andy Ireland (R) July 5, 1984
Kentucky's 7th Carl D. Perkins (D) Died August 3, 1984 Carl C. Perkins (D) November 6, 1984
Illinois's 14th Tom Corcoran (R) Resigned November 28, 1984 Vacant Not filled this term

Committees

Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members (House and Senate) of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link (1 link), in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate, House (Standing with Subcommittees, Select and Special) and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.

Senate

House of Representatives

  • Aging (Select) (Chair: Edward R. Roybal)
  • Agriculture (Chair: Kika de la Garza)
    • Cotton, Rice and Sugar
    • Livestock, Dairy and Poultry
    • Tobacco and Peanuts
    • Wheat, Soybeans and Feed Grains
    • Conservation Credit and Rural Development
    • Department Operations Research and Foreign Agriculture
    • Domestic Marketing, Consumer Relations and Nutrition
    • Forests, Family Farms and Energy
  • Appropriations (Chair: Jamie L. Whitten)
    • Agriculture, Rural Development and Related Agencies
    • Commerce, Justice, State and the Judiciary
    • Defense
    • District of Columbia
    • Energy and Water Development
    • Foreign Operations
    • HUD-Independent Agencies
    • Interior
    • Labor-Health and Human Services
    • Legislative
    • Military Construction
    • Transportation
    • Treasury, Postal Service and General Government
  • Armed Services (Chair: Charles Melvin Price)
    • Research and Development
    • Seapower, Strategic and Critical Materials
    • Procurement and Military Nuclear Systems
    • Investigations
    • Readiness
    • Military Personnel and Compensation
    • Military Installations and Facilities
  • Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs (Chair: Fernand St. Germain)
    • Financial Institutions Supervision, Regulation and Insurance
    • Housing and Community Development
    • General Oversight and Renegotiation
    • Consumer Affairs and Coinage
    • International Development Institutions and Finance
    • Domestic Monetary Policy
    • International Trade, Investment and Monetary Policy
    • Economic Stabilization
  • Budget (Chair: James R. Jones)
    • Capital Resources and Development
    • Energy and Technology
    • Budget Process
    • Education and Employment
    • Federalism/State-Local Relations
    • Economic Policy and Growth
    • Tax Policy
    • Entitlements, Uncontrollables and Indexing
    • International Finance and Trade
  • Children, Youth and Families (Select) (Chair: George Miller)
  • District of Columbia (Chair: Ron Dellums)
    • Fiscal Affairs and Health
    • Government Operations and Metropolitan Affairs
    • Judiciary and Education
  • Education and Labor (Chair: Carl D. Perkins, then Augustus F. Hawkins)
    • Elementary, Secondary and Vocational Education
    • Employment Opportunities
    • Labor-Management Relations
    • Health and Safety
    • Human Resources
    • Postsecondary Education
    • Labor Standards
    • Select Education
  • Energy and Commerce (Chair: John Dingell)
    • Oversight and Investigations
    • Energy Conservation and Power
    • Health and the Environment
    • Telecommunications, Consumer Protection and Finance
    • Fossil and Synthetic Fuels
    • Commerce, Transportation and Tourism
  • Foreign Affairs (Chair: Clement J. Zablocki, then Dante Fascell)
    • International Security and Scientific Affairs
    • International Operations
    • Europe and the Middle East
    • Human Rights and International Organizations
    • Asian and Pacific Affairs
    • International Economic Policy and Trade
    • Western Hemisphere Affairs
    • Africa
  • Government Operations (Chair: Jack Brooks)
    • Legislation and National Security
    • Government Activities and Transportation
    • Government Information and Individual Rights
    • Ingovernmental Relations and Human Resources
    • Environment, Energy and Natural Resources
    • Commerce, Consumer and Monetary Affairs
    • Manpower and Housing
  • House Administration (Chair: Augustus F. Hawkins, then Frank Annunzio)
    • Accounts
    • Contracts and Printing
    • Services
    • Office Systems
    • Personnel and Police
  • Insular Affairs (Chair: Mo Udall)
    • Energy and the Environment
    • Water and Power Resources
    • Public Lands and National Lands
    • Insular Affairs
    • Mining, Forest Management and Bonneville Power Administration
    • Oversight and Investigations
  • Judiciary (Chair: Peter W. Rodino)
    • Immigration
    • Courts
    • Monopolies
    • Administrative Law
    • Civil and Constitutional Rights
    • Crime
    • Criminal Justice
  • Merchant Marine and Fisheries (Chair: Walter B. Jones Sr.)
    • Merchant Marine
    • Fisheries, Wildlife Conservation and the Environment
    • Coast Guard and Navigation
    • Panama Canal and Outer Continental Stuff
    • Oceangraphy
  • Narcotics Abuse and Control (Select)
  • Post Office and Civil Service
    • Investigations
    • Postal Operations and Services
    • Civil Service
    • Census and Population
    • Postal Personnel and Modernization
    • Compensation and Employee Benefits
    • Human Resources
  • Public Works and Transportation (Chair: James J. Howard)
    • Aviation
    • Economic Development
    • Investigations and Oversight
    • Public Buildings and Grounds
    • Surface Transportation
    • Water Resources
  • Rules (Chair: Claude Pepper)
    • The Legislative Process
    • Rules of the House
  • Science and Technology (Chair: Don Fuqua)
    • Energy Development and Applications
    • Natural Resources, Agriculture Research and Environment
    • Energy Research and Production
    • Science, Research and Technology
    • Transportation, Aviation and Materials
    • Investigations and Oversight
    • Space Science and Applications
  • Small Business (Chair: Parren Mitchell)
    • SBA and SBIC Authority, Minority Enterprise and General Small Business Problems
    • General Oversight and the Economy
    • Antitrust and Restraint of Trade Activities affecting Small Business
    • Energy, Environment and Safety Issues affecting Small Business
    • Tax, Access to Equity Capital and Business Opportunities
    • Export Opportunities and Special Small Business Problems
  • Standards of Official Conduct (Chair: Louis Stokes)
  • Veterans' Affairs (Chair: Gillespie V. Montgomery)
    • Oversight and Investigations
    • Medical Facilities and Benefits
    • Education, Training and Employment
    • Compensation, Pension and Insurance
    • Housing and Memorial Affairs
  • Ways and Means (Chair: Dan Rostenkowski)
  • Whole

Joint committees

Employees and legislative agency directors

Legislative branch agency directors

Senate

House of Representatives

See also

References

  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1982). The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.

External links

1982 United States House of Representatives election in the District of Columbia

The 1982 congressional election for the Delegate from the District of Columbia was held on November 2, 1982. The winner of the race was Walter E. Fauntroy (D), who won his sixth re-election. All elected members would serve in 98th United States Congress.

The non-voting delegate to the United States House of Representatives from the District of Columbia is elected for two-year terms.

1983 State of the Union Address

The 1983 State of the Union address was given by President Ronald Reagan to a joint session of the 98th United States Congress on Tuesday, January 25, 1983. The speech was the second State of the Union address of President Reagan's first term.

The speech lasted approximately 46 minutes and contained 5554 words. The address was broadcast live on radio and television.

The Democratic Party response was delivered by Senator Robert Byrd (WV), Senator Paul Tsongas (MA), Senator Bill Bradley (NJ), Senator Joe Biden (DE), Rep. Tom Daschle (SD), Rep. Barbara Kennelly (CT), House Speaker Thomas P. O'Neill III (MA), Rep. George Miller (CA), Rep. Les AuCoin (OR), Rep. Paul Simon (IL), Rep. Timothy Wirth (CO), and Rep. Bill Hefner (NC).

1983 United States Senate special election in Washington

The 1983 United States Senate special election in Washington, was a special election to fill the seat which had been held by longtime Senator Henry Jackson, who unexpectedly died on September 1. Three-term former governor Dan Evans was appointed by Governor John Spellman on September 8, and he won the special election over congressman Mike Lowry on November 8. Jackson had won a sixth term the previous year, so more than five years remained in the term.

The legislature ordered a primary election on October 11; it featured 33 candidates (19 Democrats, 13 Republicans, and one Socialist Labor), setting the modern record for number of candidates in a Washington U.S. Senate election.

1984 State of the Union Address

The 1984 State of the Union address was given by President Ronald Reagan to a joint session of the 98th United States Congress on January 25, 1984. The speech was the third State of the Union address of President Reagan's first term.

The speech lasted 43 minutes and 2 seconds and contained 4931 words. The address was broadcast live on radio and television.

The Democratic Party response was delivered by Senator Joe Biden (DE), Sen. David Boren (OK), Senator Carl M. Levin (MI), Senator Max S. Baucus (MT), Senator Robert Byrd (WV), Senator Claiborne Pell (RI), Senator Walter Huddleston (KY), Rep. Dante B. Fascell (FL), Rep. Tom Harkin (IA), Rep. William Gray (PA), House Speaker Thomas O’Neill (MA), and Rep. Barbara Boxer (CA).Samuel Pierce, the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, served as the designated survivor.

Aviation Drug-Trafficking Control Act of 1984

Aviation Drug-Trafficking Control Act of 1984 is a United States Federal law amending the Federal Aviation Act of 1958. The statutory law authorized criminal penalties for the unlawful aerial transportation of controlled substances. The Act of Congress mandated the revocation of aircraft registrations and airman certificates by the Federal Aviation Administration whereas an aircraft aviator knowingly engages in the transit of illicitly used drugs. The Act established authority and a statute of limitations for the reissuance of airman certificates by the United States Secretary of Transportation.

The S. 1146 legislation was passed by the 98th U.S. Congressional session and enacted into law by the 40th President of the United States Ronald Reagan on October 19, 1984.

Baby Doe Law

The Baby Doe Law or Baby Doe Amendment is an amendment to the Child Abuse Law passed in 1984 in the United States that sets forth specific criteria and guidelines for the treatment of seriously ill and/or disabled newborns, regardless of the wishes of the parents.

Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act of 1983

Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act of 1983 (CBERA) — P.L. 98-67 (August 5,

1983), Title II, authorized unilateral preferential trade and tax benefits for eligible Caribbean countries, including duty-free treatment of eligible products. Often referred to as the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI). Amended several times, the last substantive revisions were made in the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Expansion Act of 1990 (P.L. 101-382, Title II, August 20, 1990). This made trade benefits permanent (repealing the September 30, 1995 termination date). The law gives preferential trade and tax benefits for eligible Caribbean countries, including duty-free entry of eligible products. To be eligible, an article must be a product of a beneficiary country and imported directly from it, and at least 35% of its import value must have originated in one or more CBERA beneficiaries. Slightly different import value rules apply to articles entering from Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. The duty-free import of sugar and beef products is subject to a special eligibility requirement intended to ensure that increased production of sugar and beef will not adversely affect overall food production. Preferential tariff treatment does not extend to imports of: textiles and apparel subject to textile agreements, specified footwear, canned tuna, petroleum and its products, and watches or watch parts containing any material originating in countries denied normal trade relations (most-favored-nation) trade status. Special criteria applied to the duty-free import of ethanol through FY2000. Import-sensitive products, not accorded duty-free tariff treatment, are eligible to enter at lower than normal trade relations tariff rates. These products include handbags, luggage, flat goods (such as wallets, change purses, and key and eyeglass cases), work gloves, and certain leather wearing apparel.

== References ==

This article incorporates public domain material from the Congressional Research Service document "Report for Congress: Agriculture: A Glossary of Terms, Programs, and Laws, 2005 Edition" by Jasper Womach.

Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act

The Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act was first authorized by the federal government in 1984 and reauthorized in 1998, 2006 and 2018. Named for Carl D. Perkins, the act aims to increase the quality of technical education within the United States in order to help the economy.On July 26, 2018, President Donald Trump signed into law the re-authorization of the Act of 2006. The new law, the Strengthening Career and Technical Education for the 21st Century (Perkins V) Act, was passed almost unanimously by Congress in late July, 2018.

The new law includes three major areas of revision:

1) Using the term "career and technical education" instead of "vocational education"

2) Maintaining the Tech Prep program as a separate federal funding stream within the legislation

3) Maintaining state administrative funding at 5 percent of a state’s allocationThe new law also includes new requirements for “programs of study” that link academic and technical content across secondary and post-secondary education, and strengthened local accountability provisions that will ensure continuous program improvement.

The Perkins Act provides $1.2 billion in federal support for career and technical education programs in all 50 States, including support for integrated career pathways programs. The law was extended through 2012. It is currently awaiting further extension, and is being lobbied by technology companies like IBM.

Commercial Space Launch Act of 1984

Commercial Space Launch Act of 1984 is a United States federal law authored to facilitate the private enterprise of the commercialization of space and space technology. The Act of Congress set forth the quest to acquire innovative equipment and services offered by entrepreneurial ventures from the information technology services, remote sensing technology, and telecommunications industries. The Act recognized the United States private sector as having the capability to develop commercial launch vehicles, orbital satellites, and operate private launch sites and services. The Act also assigned the duties of overseeing and coordinating commercial launches, issuing of licenses and permits, and promotion of safety standards to the Secretary of Department of Transportation.The H.R. 3942 legislation was enacted by the 98th Congressional session and signed by the 40th President of the United States Ronald Reagan on October 30, 1984.

Comprehensive Crime Control Act of 1984

The Comprehensive Crime Control Act of 1984 (Pub.L. 98–473, S. 1762, 98 Stat. 1976, enacted October 12, 1984) was the first comprehensive revision of the U.S. criminal code since the early 1900s. It was signed into law by President Ronald Reagan. Among its constituent parts and provisions were:

Armed Career Criminal Act

Sentencing Reform Act which created the United States Sentencing Commission

extension of the United States Secret Service's jurisdiction over credit card fraud and computer fraud

increased federal penalties for cultivation, possession, or transfer of marijuana

a new section in the criminal code for hostage taking

re-institution of the federal death penalty

Stipulations about using civil forfeiture to seize assets of organized crime.

Computer Fraud and Abuse Act

The Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA) is a United States cybersecurity bill that was enacted in 1984 as an amendment to existing computer fraud law (18 U.S.C. § 1030), which had been included in the Comprehensive Crime Control Act of 1984. The law prohibits accessing a computer without authorization, or in excess of authorization. Prior to computer-specific criminal laws, computer crimes were prosecuted as mail and wire fraud, but the applying law was often insufficient.

The original 1984 bill was enacted in response to concern that computer-related crimes might go unpunished. The House Committee Report to the original computer crime bill characterized the 1983 techno-thriller film WarGames—in which a young Matthew Broderick breaks into a U.S. military supercomputer programmed to predict possible outcomes of nuclear war and unwittingly almost starts World War III—as "a realistic representation of the automatic dialing and access capabilities of the personal computer."The CFAA was written to extend existing tort law to intangible property, while, in theory, limiting federal jurisdiction to cases "with a compelling federal interest-i.e., where computers of the federal government or certain financial institutions are involved or where the crime itself is interstate in nature.", but its broad definitions have spilled over into contract law. (see "Protected Computer", below). In addition to amending a number of the provisions in the original section 1030, the CFAA also criminalized additional computer-related acts. Provisions addressed the distribution of malicious code and denial of service attacks. Congress also included in the CFAA a provision criminalizing trafficking in passwords and similar items.Since then, the Act has been amended a number of times—in 1989, 1994, 1996, in 2001 by the USA PATRIOT Act, 2002, and in 2008 by the Identity Theft Enforcement and Restitution Act. With each amendment of the law, the types of conduct that fell within its reach were extended.

In January 2015 Barack Obama proposed expanding the CFAA and the RICO Act in his Modernizing Law Enforcement Authorities to Combat Cyber Crime proposal. DEF CON organizer and Cloudflare researcher Marc Rogers, Senator Ron Wyden, and Representative Zoe Lofgren have stated opposition to this on the grounds it will make many regular Internet activities illegal, and moves further away from what they were trying to accomplish with Aaron's Law.

Deficit Reduction Act of 1984

The Deficit Reduction Act of 1984 (Pub.L. 98–369), also known as the DEFRA, was a federal law enacted in the United States in 1984. Originally part of the stalled Tax Reform Act of 1983, it was adjusted and reintroduced as the Tax Reform Act of 1984. After passing in the House, it was merged with the Senate version into its final form. Collectively known as the Deficit Reduction Act of 1984, it was signed into law by president Ronald Reagan on July 18, 1984.

Equal Access Act

The Equal Access Act is a United States federal law passed in 1984 to compel federally funded secondary schools to provide equal access to extracurricular student clubs. Lobbied for by Christian groups who wanted to ensure students the right to conduct Bible study programs during lunch and after school, it is also essential in litigation regarding the right of students to form gay–straight alliances; and to form groups focused on any religion or on secularism.

Extra-Long Staple Cotton Act of 1983

The Extra-Long Staple Cotton Act of 1983 (P.L. 98-88) eliminated marketing quotas and allotments for extra-long staple cotton and tied its support to upland cotton through a formula that set the nonrecourse loan rate at not less than 150% of the upland cotton loan level.

The act amended the Agricultural Act of 1949 to set forth new Extra-Long Staple cotton program provisions and Agriculture and Food Act of 1981 to add Extra-Long Staple cotton to the $50,000 payment limitation for the payments which a person received under commodity programs. The act was sponsored by Kika de la Garza.

List of United States Senators in the 98th Congress by seniority

This is a complete list of members of the United States Senate during the 98th United States Congress listed by seniority, from January 3, 1983, to January 3, 1985.

Order of service is based on the commencement of the senator's first term. Behind this is former service as a senator (only giving the senator seniority within his or her new incoming class), service as vice president, a House member, a cabinet secretary, or a governor of a state. The final factor is the population of the senator's state.Senators who were sworn in during the middle of the two-year congressional term (up until the last senator who was not sworn in early after winning the November 1984 election) are listed at the end of the list with no number.

National Minimum Drinking Age Act

The National Minimum Drinking Age Act of 1984 (23 U.S.C. § 158) was passed by the United States Congress on July 17, 1984. The act was a controversial bill that punished every state that allowed persons below 21 years to purchase and publicly possess alcoholic beverages by reducing its annual federal highway apportionment by 10 percent. The law was later amended, lowering the penalty to 8 percent from fiscal year 2012 and beyond.Despite its name, this act did not outlaw the consumption of alcoholic beverages by those under 21 years of age, just its purchase. However, Alabama, Indiana, Kansas, Michigan, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, and Vermont, and the District of Columbia extended the law into an outright ban. The minimum purchase and drinking ages is a state law, and most states still permit "underage" consumption of alcohol in some circumstances. In some states, no restriction on private consumption is made, while in other states, consumption is only allowed in specific locations, in the presence of consenting and supervising family members, as in the states of Colorado, Maryland, Montana, New York, Texas, West Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming. The act also does not seek to criminalize alcohol consumption during religious occasions (e.g. communion wines, Kiddush).

The act was expressly upheld as constitutional in 1987 by the United States Supreme Court in South Dakota v. Dole.

Ronald D. Coleman

Ronald D'Emory Coleman (born November 29, 1941) is an American politician and a former member of the United States House of Representatives from Texas. He was elected as a Democrat to the 98th United States Congress and to the six succeeding Congresses. He served from January 3, 1983 until January 3, 1997. He was not a candidate for re-election to the 105th United States Congress. He was implicated in the House banking scandal in 1992 but was reelected following receipt of a letter of no wrongdoing from the Department of Justice. In Congress he was a member of the House Appropriations Committee, the House Armed Services Committee, and the Select Committee on Intelligence.

Theft or bribery concerning programs receiving Federal funds

Theft or bribery concerning programs receiving federal funds (sometimes referred to as program fraud or program bribery) is a federal crime under 18 U.S.C. § 666. The purpose of this statute is protect the integrity of the vast sums of money distributed through federal programs. The section is designed to facilitate the prosecution of persons who steal money or otherwise divert property or services from state and local governments or private organizations—for example, universities, foundations and business corporations—that receive large amounts of federal funds.

Voting Accessibility for the Elderly and Handicapped Act

The Voting Accessibility for the Elderly and Handicapped Act, P.L. 98-435, 42 U.S.C. §§ 1973ee–1973ee-6, was passed to promote the fundamental right to vote by improving access for handicapped and elderly individuals to registration facilities and polling places for Federal elections by requiring access to polling places used in Federal elections and available registration and voting aids, such as instructions in large type

United States Congresses (and year convened)

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