95th United States Congress

The Ninety-fifth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, DC from January 3, 1977, to January 3, 1979, during the final weeks of the administration of U.S. President Gerald Ford and the first two years of the administration of U.S. President Jimmy Carter.

The apportionment of seats in this House of Representatives was based on the Nineteenth Census of the United States in 1970. Both chambers had a Democratic majority. It was the first time either party held a filibuster-proof 60% super majority in both the Senate and House chambers since the 89th United States Congress in 1965, and last time until the 111th United States Congress in 2009. All three super majorities were Democratic party and also were accompanied by Democratic Presidents.[1] As of 2019, this is the most recent Congress to approve an amendment (the unratified District of Columbia Voting Rights Amendment) to the Constitution.

95th United States Congress
94th ←
→ 96th
USCapitol
January 3, 1977 – January 3, 1979
Senate PresidentNelson Rockefeller (R)
until January 20, 1977
Walter Mondale (D)
from January 20, 1977
Senate President pro temJames Eastland (D)
House SpeakerTip O'Neill (D)
Members100 senators
435 members of the House
5 non-voting delegates
Senate MajorityDemocratic
House MajorityDemocratic
Sessions
1st: January 4, 1977 – December 15, 1977
2nd: January 19, 1978 – October 15, 1978

Major events

Hearings

Major legislation

Constitutional amendments

Treaties ratified

  • March 16, 1978: First of the Torrijos-Carter Treaties (Panama Canal) treaty: "The Treaty Concerning the Permanent Neutrality and Operation of the Panama Canal," commonly known as the "Neutrality Treaty"
  • April 19, 1978: Second of the Torrijos-Carter Treaties treaty, commonly known as "The Panama Canal Treaty"

Party summary

Senate

Party
(shading shows control)
Total Vacant
Conservative
(N.Y.)

(C)
Democratic
(D)
Independent
(I)
Republican
(R)
End of the previous congress 1 61 1 37 100 0
Begin 0 61 1 38 100 0
End 58 41
Final voting share 0.0% 58.0% 1.0% 41.0%
Beginning of the next congress 0 58 1 41 100 0
095senate
Party standings on the opening day of the 95th Congress
  61 Democratic Senators
  1 Independent Senator, caucusing with Democrats
  38 Republican Senators

House of Representatives

Party
(shading shows control)
Total Vacant
Democratic
(D)
Republican
(R)
End of the previous congress 291 144 435 0
Begin 292 143 435 0
End 275 140 41520
Final voting share 66.3% 33.7%
Beginning of the next congress 277 158 435 0

Leadership

Senate

Majority (Democratic) leadership

Minority (Republican) leadership

House of Representatives

Majority (Democratic) leadership

Minority (Republican) leadership

Caucuses

Members

Senate

In this Congress, Class 2 meant their term ended with this Congress, facing re-election in 1978; Class 3 meant their term began in the last Congress, facing re-election in 1980; and Class 1 meant their term began in this Congress, facing re-election in 1982.

Alabama

Alaska

Arizona

Arkansas

California

Colorado

Connecticut

Delaware

Florida

Georgia

Hawaii

Idaho

Illinois

Indiana

Iowa

Kansas

Kentucky

Louisiana

Maine

Maryland

Massachusetts

Michigan

Minnesota

Mississippi

Missouri

Montana

Nebraska

Nevada

New Hampshire

New Jersey

New Mexico

New York

North Carolina

North Dakota

Ohio

Oklahoma

Oregon

Pennsylvania

Rhode Island

South Carolina

South Dakota

Tennessee

Texas

Utah

Vermont

Virginia

Washington

West Virginia

Wisconsin

Wyoming

House of Representatives

Members of the House of Representatives elected statewide at-large, are preceded by "At-large," and the names of those elected from districts, are preceded by their district numbers.

Many of the congressional district numbers are linked to articles describing the district itself. Since the boundaries of the districts have changed often and substantially, the linked article may only describe the district as it exists today, and not as it was at the time of this Congress.

95 us house membership
House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80+% to 100% Republican
  80+% to 100% Democratic
  60+% to 80% Republican
  60+% to 80% Democratic
  50+% to 60% Republican
  50+% to 60% Democratic
Striped: 50–50 split

Changes in Membership

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.

Senate

  • replacements: 11
  • deaths: 4
  • resignations: 5
  • vacancy:
  • Total seats with changes: 9
State
(class)
Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation
Arkansas
(2)
John L. McClellan
(D)
Died November 28, 1977.
Successor appointed to finish the term.
Kaneaster Hodges Jr.
(D)
December 10, 1977
Montana
(2)
Lee Metcalf
(D)
Died January 12, 1978.
Successor appointed to finish the term.
Paul G. Hatfield
(D)
January 22, 1978
Minnesota
(1)
Hubert Humphrey
(DFL)
Died January 13, 1978.
Successor appointed to continue the term.
Muriel Humphrey
(D)
January 25, 1978
Alabama
(3)
James Allen
(D)
Died June 1, 1978.
Successor appointed to continue the term.
Maryon Pittman Allen
(D)
June 8, 1978
Alabama
(3)
Maryon Pittman Allen
(D)
Appointee lost special election.
Successor elected November 7, 1978.
Donald Stewart
(D)
November 7, 1978
Minnesota
(1)
Muriel Humphrey
(DFL)
Appointee retired when successor qualified.
Successor elected November 7, 1978.
David Durenberger
(R)
November 8, 1978
Montana
(2)
Paul G. Hatfield
(D)
Lost nomination to the next term.
Resigned early December 12, 1978.
Successor appointed, having already been elected to the next term.
Max Baucus
(D)
December 15, 1978
Kansas
(2)
James B. Pearson
(R)
Resigned December 23, 1978.
Successor appointed, having already been elected to the next term.
Nancy Kassebaum
(R)
December 23, 1978
Mississippi
(2)
James Eastland
(D)
Resigned December 27, 1978.
Successor appointed, having already been elected to the next term.
Thad Cochran
(R)
December 27, 1978
Minnesota
(2)
Wendell Anderson
(DFL)
Resigned December 29, 1978.
Successor appointed, having already been elected to the next term.
Rudy Boschwitz
(R)
December 30, 1978
Wyoming
(2)
Clifford Hansen
(R)
Resigned December 31, 1978.
Successor appointed, having already been elected to the next term.
Alan K. Simpson
(R)
January 1, 1979
Virginia
(2)
William L. Scott
(R)
Resigned January 1, 1979.
Successor appointed, having already been elected to the next term.
John Warner
(R)
January 2, 1979

House of Representatives

  • replacements: 6
  • deaths: 6
  • resignations: 21
  • contested election:
  • Total seats with changes: 25
District Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation
Minnesota 7th Robert Bergland (DFL) Resigned January 22, 1977, after being appointed United States Secretary of Agriculture Arlan Stangeland (R) February 22, 1977
Washington 7th Brock Adams (D) Resigned January 22, 1977, after being appointed United States Secretary of Transportation John E. Cunningham (R) May 17, 1977
Georgia 5th Andrew Young (D) Resigned January 29, 1977, after being appointed United States Ambassador to the United Nations Wyche Fowler (D) April 6, 1977
Louisiana 1st Richard A. Tonry (D) Forced to resign May 4, 1977 Bob Livingston (R) August 27, 1977
New York 18th Ed Koch (D) Resigned December 31, 1977, after being elected Mayor of New York City S. William Green (R) February 14, 1978
New York 21st Herman Badillo (D) Resigned December 31, 1977, after becoming Deputy Mayor of New York City Robert García (D) February 21, 1978
Tennessee 5th Clifford Allen (D) Died June 18, 1978 Vacant Not filled this term
California 18th William M. Ketchum (R) Died June 24, 1978
Illinois 1st Ralph Metcalfe (D) Died October 10, 1978
Maryland 6th Goodloe Byron (D) Died October 11, 1978
California 11th Leo Ryan (D) Murdered by members of the Peoples Temple at the Guyana Airport November 18, 1978, shortly before the Jonestown Massacre
Wisconsin 6th William A. Steiger (R) Died December 4, 1978
Montana 1st Max Baucus (D) Resigned December 14, 1978, after being appointed to the U.S. Senate
Mississippi 4th Thad Cochran (R) Resigned December 26, 1978, after being appointed to the U.S. Senate
Wyoming At-large Teno Roncalio (D) Resigned December 30, 1978
California 3rd John E. Moss (D) Resigned December 31, 1978
California 14th John J. McFall (D) Resigned December 31, 1978
California 33rd Del M. Clawson (R) Resigned December 31, 1978
Kansas 5th Joe Skubitz (R) Resigned December 31, 1978
Michigan 10th Elford A. Cederberg (R) Resigned December 31, 1978
New Jersey 14th Joseph A. LeFante (D) Resigned December 31, 1978
New York 9th James Delaney (D) Resigned December 31, 1978
Texas 6th Olin E. Teague (D) Resigned December 31, 1978
Texas 11th William R. Poage (D) Resigned December 31, 1978
Texas 17th Omar Burleson (D) Resigned December 31, 1978

Committees

Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members (House and Senate) of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link (2 links), in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate, House (Standing with Subcommittees, Select and Special) and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.

Senate

House of Representatives

  • Aging (Select) (Chair: Claude Pepper)
  • Agriculture (Chair: Tom Foley)
    • Livestock and Grains
    • Tobacco
    • Cotton
    • Dairy and Poultry
    • Family Farms and Rural Development
    • Oilseeds and Rice
    • Tobacco
    • Conservation and Credit
    • Department, Investigations, Oversight and Research
    • Domestic Marketing, Consumer Relations and Nutrition
    • Family Farms, Rural Development and Special Studies
  • Appropriations (Chair: George H. Mahon)
    • Agriculture and Related Agencies
    • Defense
    • District of Columbia
    • Foreign Operations
    • HUD-Independent Agencies
    • Interior
    • Labor-Health, Education and Welfare
    • Legislative
    • Military Construction
    • Public Works
    • State, Justice, Commerce and Judiciary
    • Transportation
    • Treasury, Postal Service and General Government
  • Armed Services (Chair: Charles Melvin Price)
    • Intelligence and Military Application of Nuclear Energy
    • Research and Development
    • Seapower, Strategic and Critical Materials
    • Investigations
    • Military Installations and Facilities
    • Military Personnel
    • Military Compensation
  • Assassinations (Select) (Chair: Henry B. Gonzalez)
  • Banking, Finance and Urban Affairs (Chair: Henry S. Reuss)
    • The City
    • Housing and Community and Development
    • Economic Stabilization
    • Financial Institutions Supervision, Regulation and Insurance
    • International Development Institutions and Finance
    • General Oversight and Renegotiation
    • Consumer Affairs
    • Domestic Monetary Policy
    • Historic Preservation and Coinage
    • International Trade, Investment and Monetary Policy
  • Budget (Chair: Robert Giaimo)
    • Task Forces
    • Budget Process
    • Economic Policy
    • Tax Expenditures, Government Organization and Regulation
    • Distributive Impacts of Budget and Economic Policies
    • National Security
    • Human Resources
    • Community and Physical Resources
    • State and Local Government
  • Crime (Select)
  • District of Columbia (Chair: Charles Diggs)
    • Fiscal and Government Affairs
    • Judiciary
    • Economic Development
  • Education and Labor (Chair: Carl D. Perkins)
    • Elementary, Secondary and Vocational Education
    • Labor-Management Relations
    • Labor Standards
    • Select Education
    • Employment Opportunities
    • Postsecondary Education
    • Compensation, Health and Safety
    • Economic Opportunity
  • Ethics (Select)
  • Government Operations (Chair: Jack Brooks)
    • Legislation and National Security
    • Intergovernmental Relations and Human Resources
    • Commerce, Consumer and Monetary Affairs
    • Environment, Energy and Natural Resources
    • Manpower and Housing
    • Government Activities and Transportation
    • Government Information and Individual Rights
  • House Administration (Chair: Frank Thompson)
    • Accounts
    • Libraries and Memorials
    • Printing
    • Personnel and Police
    • Contracts
    • Services
    • Office Systems
  • House Beauty Shop (Select)
  • Intelligence (Select) (Chair: Edward Boland)
  • Insular Affairs (Chair: Mo Udall)
    • Energy and the Environment
    • General Oversight and Alaska Lands
    • Mines and Mining
    • National Parks and Insular Affairs
    • Indian Affairs and Public Lands
    • Special Investigations
    • Water and Power Resources
  • International Relations (Chair: Clement J. Zablocki)
    • International Security and Scientific Affairs
    • International Operations
    • Africa
    • International Organizations
    • Europe and the Middle East
    • Asian and Pacific Affairs
    • International Economic Policy and Trade
  • Interstate and Foreign Commerce (Chair: Harley Orrin Staggers)
    • International Security and Scientific Affairs
    • Oversight and Investigations
    • Energy and Power
    • Health and the Environment
    • Communications
    • Transportation and Commerce
    • Consumer Protection and Finance
  • Judiciary (Chair: Peter W. Rodino)
    • Immigration, Citizenship and International Law
    • Administrative Law and Governmental Relations
    • Courts, Civil Liberties and the Administration of Justice
    • Civil and Constitutional Rights
    • Monopolies and Commercial Law
    • Crime
    • Criminal Justice
  • Merchant Marine and Fisheries (Chair: John M. Murphy)
    • Merchant Marine
    • Fisheries, Wildlife Conservation and the Environment
    • Coast Guard and Navigation
    • Oceangraphy
    • Panama Canal
    • Maritime Education and Training (Ad Hoc)
  • Modernization of House Gallery Facilities (Special)
  • Narcotics Abuse and Control (Select)
  • Outer Continental Shelf (Ad Hoc/Select)
  • Post Office and Civil Service
    • Employee Ethics and Utilization
    • Civil Service
    • Investigations
    • Compensations and Employee Benefits
    • Postal Operations and Services
    • Census and Population
    • Postal Personnel and Modernization
  • Public Works and Transportation (Chair: Harold T. Johnson)
    • Aviation
    • Economic Development
    • Investigations and Review
    • Public Buildings and Grounds
    • Surface Transportation
    • Water Resources
  • Rules (Chair: James J. Delaney)
  • Science and Technology (Chair: Olin E. Teague)
    • Space Science and Applications
    • Fossil and Energy Research, Development and Demonstration
    • Advanced Energy Technologies, Energy Conservation, Development and Demonstration
    • Environment and the Atmosphere
    • Transportation, Aviation and Weather
    • Science, Research and Technology
    • Domestic and International Scientific Planning, Analysis and Cooperation
  • Small Business
    • SBA and SBIC Authority and General Small Business
    • Minority Enterprise and General Oversight
    • Antitrust and Restraint of Trade Activities Affecting Small Business
    • Energy, Environment, Safety and Research
    • Capital Investment and Business Opportunities
    • Special Small Business Problems
  • Standards of Official Conduct (Chair: L. Richardson Preyer)
  • Veterans' Affairs (Chair: Ray Roberts)
    • Compensation, Pension and Insurance
    • Education and Training
    • Medical Facilities and Benefits
    • Housing
    • Cemeteries and Burial Benefits
  • Ways and Means (Chair: Al Ullman)
  • Whole

Joint committees

Employees and legislative agency directors

Legislative branch agency directors

Senate

House of Representatives

See also

References

  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1982). The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
  1. ^ "Court declares Franken the winner of Minnesota Senate race". CNN. June 30, 2009.

External links

1976 United States elections

The 1976 United States elections was held on November 2, and elected the members of the 95th United States Congress. The Democratic Party won the presidential election and retained control of Congress.Democratic Governor Jimmy Carter of Georgia defeated Republican incumbent President Gerald Ford. Carter won the popular vote by two points and finished with 297 electoral votes, taking a mix of Southern and Northern states. Ford, who had taken office after the Watergate scandal led to the resignation of Republican President Richard Nixon in 1974, defeated California Governor Ronald Reagan to take the Republican nomination. The convention nominated Kansas Senator Bob Dole as Ford's running mate, instead of sitting Vice President Nelson Rockefeller. Carter defeated a slew of competitors in the 1976 Democratic primaries, including California Governor Jerry Brown, Alabama Governor George Wallace, Arizona Congressman Mo Udall, Washington Senator Henry M. Jackson, and Idaho Senator Frank Church.

Neither the House nor Senate saw major changes in partisan composition, so the Democrats retained control of Congress.

In the gubernatorial elections, the Democratic Party picked up one seat.

1977 Minnesota's 7th congressional district special election

The 1977 United States House of Representatives special election in Minnesota's 7th congressional district was held on February 22, 1977 to select the successor to Bob Bergland (DFL) who resigned to accept appointment as Secretary of Agriculture under the Carter Administration. Independent-Republican candidate Arlan Stangeland defeated the DFL favorite, Mike Sullivan, in an upset landslide.

1978 State of the Union Address

The 1978 State of the Union address was given by President Jimmy Carter to a joint session of the 95th United States Congress on January 19, 1978.

The speech lasted 46 minutes and 4 seconds. and contained 4580 words.The Republican Party response was delivered by Senator Howard Baker Jr. (TN) and Representative John Rhodes (AZ).

1978 United States Senate special election in Minnesota

The 1978 United States Senate special election in Minnesota was held on November 7, 1978. Democratic candidate Bob Short was defeated by Republican candidate David Durenberger.

Amateur Sports Act of 1978

The Amateur Sports Act of 1978, signed by President Jimmy Carter, established the United States Olympic Committee and provides for national governing bodies for each Olympic sport. The Act provides important legal protection for individual athletes.

Contract Disputes Act of 1978

The Contract Disputes Act of 1978 ("CDA", Pub.L. 95–563, 92 Stat. 2383), which became effective on March 1, 1979, establishes the procedures for handling "claims" relating to United States Federal Government contracts. It is codified, as amended, at 41 U.S.C. §§ 7101–7109.

Claims by contractors against the Federal Government must be submitted in writing to the Government's Contracting Officer for a decision. Claims by the Federal Government against a contractor must be the subject of a decision by the Contracting Officer. Apart from claims by the Federal Government alleging fraud in connection with a claim by the contractor, all claims by either the Federal Government or the contractor must be submitted within six years after the accrual of the claim.Claims by contractors for more than $100,000 must be accompanied by a certification that (i) the claim is made in good faith, (ii) the supporting data are accurate and complete to the best of the contractor's knowledge and belief, (iii) the amount requested represents the contract adjustment for which the contractor believes the Federal Government is liable, and (iv) the certifier is authorized to submit the certification on behalf of the contractor. There are procedures in the statute for remedying certifications that do not exactly mimic the required certification language.For claims of $100,000 or less, the Contracting Officer is required to issue a decision within 60 days of receipt of the claim provided the contractor requests a decision within that time period. For claims in excess of $100,000, the Contracting Officer is required, within 60 days, either to issue a decision or notify the contractor when a decision will be issued. All decisions should be issued within a reasonable time, taking into account the nature of the claim, and, if they are not, the contractor may either request a tribunal to direct the Contracting Officer to issue a decision within a specified time or treat the failure to issue a decision as an appealable "deemed" denial of the claim.If the contractor is dissatisfied with the Contracting Officer's decision on a claim, the contractor may (i) appeal that decision to the cognizant agency board of contractor appeals within 90 days of receipt of the decision or (ii) bring suit on the claim in the United States Court of Federal Claims within 12 months. Decisions not appealed within one of these time periods become final and conclusive.There are procedures in the statute authorizing the use of mutually agreeable alternative dispute resolution techniques for handling disputes and well as for the use of streamlined and accelerated litigation procedures for smaller claims at the boards of contract appeals.The losing party may appeal a decision by either a board of contract appeals or the United States Court of Federal Claims to the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit.A contractor is entitled to interest on the amount found due on its claim running from the date the Contracting Officer received the claim until the claim is paid.

Electronic Fund Transfer Act

The Electronic Fund Transfer Act was passed by the U.S. Congress in 1978 and signed by President Jimmy Carter, to establish the rights and liabilities of consumers as well as the responsibilities of all participants in electronic funds transfer activities.The act was implemented in Federal Reserve Board Regulation E.

Energy Tax Act

The Energy Tax Act (Pub.L. 95–618, 92 Stat. 3174, enacted November 9, 1978) is a law passed by the U.S. Congress as part of the National Energy Act. The objective of this law was shift from oil and gas supply toward energy conservation; thus, to promote fuel efficiency and renewable energy through taxes and tax credits.

Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977

The Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 (Public Law 95-164) amended the Coal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1969. It can be found in the United States Code under Title 30, Mineral Lands and Mining, Chapter 22, Mine Safety and Health.

The S. 717 legislation was passed by the 95th United States Congressional session and enacted into law by the 39th President of the United States Jimmy Carter on November 9, 1977.The law of the United States enacted on November 9, 1977 took effect one hundred and twenty days later.

Federal Power Act

The Federal Power Act is a law appearing in Chapter 12 of Title 16 of the United States Code, entitled "Federal Regulation and Development of Power". Enacted as the Federal Water Power Act on June 10, 1920, and amended many times since, its original purpose was to more effectively coordinate the development of hydroelectric projects in the United States. Representative John J. Esch (R-Wisconsin) was the sponsor. Prior to this time and despite federal control of navigable waters and the necessary congressional approval to construct such facilities, Congress had left the regulation of hydroelectric power to the individual states. The first federal legislation broadly dealing with hydroelectric development regarded its competition with navigation usage; with the passage of the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899 Congress made it illegal to dam navigable streams without a license (or permit) from them. Until 1903, these congressional permits were given away on a 'first come first served' perpetual basis and controlled by the individual states. This would lead to a long debate between competing private and public development interests, and culminate in the act's passage in 1920.The act created the Federal Power Commission (FPC) (now the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission) as the licensing authority for these plants. The FPC regulated the interstate activities of the electric power and natural gas industries, and coordinated national hydroelectric power activities. The Commission's mandate called for it to maintain reasonable, nondiscriminatory and just rates to the consumer. It was ensured that 37.5% of the income derived from hydroelectric power leases given out under the Water Power Act of 1920 went to the state in which the dam was built.

The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) regulates under Parts II and III of the Federal Power Act.

In 1935, the law was renamed the Federal Power Act, and the FPC's regulatory jurisdiction was expanded to include all interstate electricity transmission and wholesale power sales (a/k/a "sales for resale"). The Energy Policy Act of 2005 further amended the Federal Power Act to extend FERC's jurisdiction to certain power plant sales as well as the reliability of electric service.Other amendments to the law include the following:

Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA)(1978)

Energy Security Act (1980)

Electric Consumers Protection Act of 1986

Energy Policy Act of 1992

America's Water Infrastructure Act of 2018

International Emergency Economic Powers Act

The International Emergency Economic Powers Act (IEEPA), Title II of Pub.L. 95–223, 91 Stat. 1626, enacted October 28, 1977, is a United States federal law authorizing the President to regulate commerce after declaring a national emergency in response to any unusual and extraordinary threat to the United States which has a foreign source.

The H.R. 7738 legislation was passed by the United States 95th Congressional session and signed by President Jimmy Carter on December 28, 1977.

List of United States Senators in the 95th Congress by seniority

This is a complete list of members of the United States Senate during the 95th United States Congress listed by seniority, from January 3, 1977, to January 3, 1979.

Order of service is based on the commencement of the senator's first term. Behind this is former service as a senator (only giving the senator seniority within his or her new incoming class), service as vice president, a House member, a cabinet secretary, or a governor of a state. The final factor is the population of the senator's state.Senators who were sworn in during the middle of the two-year congressional term (up until the last senator who was not sworn in early after winning the November 1978 election) are listed at the end of the list with no number.

National Energy Conservation Policy Act

The National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1978 (NECPA, Pub.L. 95–619, 92 Stat. 3206, enacted November 9, 1978) is a United States statute which was enacted as part of the National Energy Act.

The H.R. 5037 legislation was passed by the 95th U.S. Congressional session and enacted into law by the 39th President of the United States Jimmy Carter on November 9, 1978.Energy demand management programs had been legislated earlier in California and Wisconsin as early as 1975.

Protection of Pupil Rights Amendment

The Protection of Pupil Rights Amendment (PPRA) of 1978, sometimes referred to as the Hatch Amendment, is a law intended to protect the rights of pupils and the parents of pupils in programs funded by the United States Department of Education (ED).

Psychotropic Substances Act (United States)

The Psychotropic Substances Act of 1978 amended the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 and Controlled Substances Act to ensure compliance with the Convention on Psychotropic Substances. 21 U.S.C. § 801a notes, "It is the intent of the Congress that the amendments made by this Act, together with existing law, will enable the United States to meet all of its obligations under the Convention and that no further legislation will be necessary for that purpose." The Psychotropic Substances Act created mechanisms by which the U.S. Government would add substances to the Schedules of controlled substances as required by the Convention. It also established a framework for exercising the U.S.'s rights to influence drug scheduling at the international level. The Secretary of Health and Human Services was given the power to make scheduling recommendations that would be binding on the U.S. representative in discussions and negotiations related to drug scheduling proposals before the Commission on Narcotic Drugs.

The Act viewed the regulations of Schedules IV and V of the Controlled Substances Act as being adequate to fulfill the minimum treaty obligations in the event of a disagreement between the U.S. and the U.N. on drug scheduling.

The S. 2399 legislation was passed by the 95th U.S. Congressional session and enacted into law by the 39th President of the United States Jimmy Carter on November 10, 1978.

Public Rangelands Improvement Act of 1978

The Public Rangelands Improvement Act of 1978 (PRIA) (Pub.L. 95–514) defines the current grazing fee formula and establishes rangeland monitoring and inventory procedures for Bureau of Land Management and United States Forest Service rangelands. The National Grasslands are exempt from PRIA.

The H.R. 10587 legislation was passed by the 95th U.S. Congressional session and enacted into law by the 39th President of the United States Jimmy Carter on October 25, 1978.

Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act

The Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA, Pub.L. 95–617, 92 Stat. 3117, enacted November 9, 1978) is a United States Act passed as part of the National Energy Act. It was meant to promote energy conservation (reduce demand) and promote greater use of domestic energy and renewable energy (increase supply). The law was created in response to the 1973 energy crisis, and one year in advance of a second energy crisis.

Upon entering the White House, President Jimmy Carter made energy policy a top priority. The law started the energy industry on the road to restructuring.

Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977

The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) is the primary federal law that regulates the environmental effects of coal mining in the United States.

SMCRA created two programs: one for regulating active coal mines and a second for reclaiming abandoned mine lands. SMCRA also created the Office of Surface Mining, an agency within the Department of the Interior, to promulgate regulations, to fund state regulatory and reclamation efforts, and to ensure consistency among state regulatory programs.

Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act

The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (1978) is a United States environmental law that amended the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and authorized the Environmental Protection Agency to establish health and environmental standards for the stabilization, restoration, and disposal of uranium mill waste. Title 1 of the Act required the EPA to set environmental protection standards consistent with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, including groundwater protection limits; the Department of Energy to implement EPA standards and provide perpetual care for some sites; and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to review cleanups and license sites to states or the DOE for perpetual care. Title 1 established a uranium mill remedial action program jointly funded by the federal government and the state. Title 1 of the Act also designated 22 inactive uranium mill sites for remediation, resulting in the containment of 40 million cubic yards of low-level radioactive material in UMTRCA Title 1 holding cells.

United States Congresses (and year convened)

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