8K resolution

8K resolution refers to any screen or display with around 8000 pixels width. 8K UHD, also known as Full UHD, FUHD, or Full Ultra HD is the current highest ultra high definition television (UHDTV) resolution in digital television, digital cinematography and digital signage. 8K in 8K UHD refers to the horizontal resolution of 7,680 pixels, forming the total image dimensions of (7680×4320), also known as 4320p, which refers to the vertical resolution.[1]

8K UHD has twice as many horizontal and twice as many vertical pixels as 4K UHD, as well as four times the linear resolution of 1080p (Full HD), and six times the linear resolution of 720p. 8K displays are able to produce images with such smooth gradients and high levels of sharpness that objects shown can appear even more realistic than in real world. This phenomenon is referred to as hyperrealism.[2]

High-resolution displays such as 8K allow for each pixel to be indistinguishable to the human eye when viewed at a typical distance from the screen. 8K resolution can also be used for the purpose of creating enhanced lower resolution videos through a combination of cropping techniques and/or with downsampling[3] techniques used in video and film editing. Resolutions such as 8K allows filmmakers to shoot in a high resolution with a wide lens or at a further distance, in the case of potentially dangerous subjects (such as in wildlife documentaries), by being able to zoom and crop digitally in post-production. The technique involves taking a portion of the original 8K image and cropping it to match a smaller resolution such as the current industry standard for high-definition televisions (4K, 1080p, and 720p).[4]

8K display resolution is the successor to 4K resolution. TV manufacturers pushed to make 4K a new standard by 2017.[5] The feasibility of a fast transition to this new standard is questionable in view of the absence of broadcasting resources.[6] It is predicted that 8K-ready devices will still only account for 3% of UHD TVs by 2023 with global sales of 11 million units a year.[7] However, TV manufacturers remain optimistic as the 4K market grew much faster than expected, with actual sales exceeding projections nearly 6-fold in 2016.[8]

As of 2018, few cameras had the capability to shoot video in 8K, with NHK being one of the only companies to have created a small broadcasting camera with an 8K image sensor.[3] By 2018 Red Digital Cinema camera company had delivered three 8K cameras in both a Full Frame sensor and Super 35 sensor.[9] Until major content sources are available, 8K is speculated to become a mainstream consumer display resolution around 2023 as mentioned in UHD forum Phase-B recommendations. Despite this, filmmakers are pushing demand for 8K cameras due to their ability to capture better 4K footage.

Resolution of SD, Full HD, 4K Ultra HD & 8K Ultra HD
Comparison chart
Example 8k footage from the International Space Station (select "WebM source" from the menu to view).

History

Astro8Kcamerademo
Astro Design 8K camera being displayed at the 2013 NAB Show
NHKHitachi8Kcamerademo
NHK and Hitachi demonstrating their 8K camera at the 2013 NAB Show

Japan's public broadcaster NHK was the first to start research and development of 4320p resolution in 1995. The format was standardized by SMPTE in October 2007, Interface standardized by SMPTE in August 2010 and Recommended as the international standard for television by lTU-R in 2012. Followed by public displays at electronics shows and screenings of 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi and public viewings in February 2014 and the FIFA World Cup in Brazil in June 2014 using HEVC with partners AstroDesign and Ikegami Electronics.[10][11][12]

On January 6, 2015, the MHL Consortium announced the release of the superMHL specification which will support 8K resolution at 120 fps, 48-bit video, the Rec. 2020 color space, high dynamic range support, a 32-pin reversible superMHL connector, and power charging of up to 40 watts.[13][14][15]

On March 1, 2016, The Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA) unveiled DisplayPort 1.4, a new format that lets the use of 8K resolution (7680×4320) at 60 Hz with HDRR and 32 audio channels through USB-C.[16]

On January 4, 2017, the HDMI Forum announced HDMI 2.1 featuring support for 8k video with HDR, will be "released early in Q2 2017".[17]

First cameras

On April 6, 2013, Astrodesign Inc. announced the AH-4800, capable of recording 8K resolution. In April 2015 it was announced by Red that their newly unveiled Red Weapon VV is also capable of recording 8K footage. In October 2016 they announced two additional 8K cameras, Red Weapon 8K S35 and Red Epic-W 8K S35.[18] The Red Weapon Dragon VV has been discontinued as of October 7, 2017, when Red unveiled the Red Weapon Monstro VV, their fourth camera capable of shooting 8K, with additional improvements in dynamic range and noise reduction, among other features.

Productions

In 2007, the original 65 mm negative of the 1992 film Baraka was re-scanned at 8K with a film scanner built specifically for the job at FotoKem Laboratories, and used to remaster the 2008 Blu-ray release. Chicago Sun-Times critic Roger Ebert described the Blu-ray release as "the finest video disc I have ever viewed or ever imagined."[19] A similar 8K scan/4K intermediate digital restoration of Lawrence of Arabia was made for Blu-ray and theatrical re-release during 2012 by Sony Pictures to celebrate the film's 50th anniversary.[20][21] According to Grover Crisp, executive VP of restoration at Sony Pictures, the new 8K scan has such high resolution that when examined, showed a series of fine concentric lines in a pattern "reminiscent of a fingerprint" near the top of the frame. This was caused by the film emulsion melting and cracking in the desert heat during production. Sony had to hire a third party to minimise or eliminate the rippling artifacts in the new restored version.[20]

On May 17, 2013, the Franklin Institute premiered To Space and Back, an 8K×8K, 60 fps, 3D video running approximately 25 minutes. During its first run at the Fels Planetarium it was played at 4K, 60 fps.[22]

In November 2013, NHK screened the experimental-drama short film "The Chorus" at Tokyo Film Festival which was filmed in 8k and 22.2 sound format.[23]

On May 1, 2015, an 8K abstract computer animation was screened at the Filmatic Festival at the University of California, San Diego. The work was created as an assignment in the VIS 40/ICAM 40 Introduction to Computing in the Arts class taught at UCSD by Associate Teaching Professor Brett Stalbaum during the winter quarter of 2015, with each student producing 300 8192×4800 pixel frames. The work's music soundtrack was composed by Mark Matamoros.[24][25]

On January 6, 2016, director James Gunn stated that the 2017 film Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2 would be the first (feature) film to be shot in 8K, using the Red Weapon 8K VV.[26] Villain (2017) is the first Indian film to be shot completely in 8K resolution.

Broadcasting

Japanese public broadcaster NHK began research and development on 8K in 1995, having spent over $1 billion on R & D since then.[27] Codenamed Super Hi-Vision (named after its old Hi-Vision analog HDTV system), NHK also was simultaneously working on the development of 22.2 channel surround sound audio. The world's first 8K television was unveiled by Sharp at the Consumer Electronics Show (CES) in 2012.[28] Experimental transmissions of the resolution were tested with the 2012 Summer Olympics, and at the Cannes Film Festival showcasing Beauties À La Carte, a 27-minute short showcased publicly on a 220" screen, with a three-year roadmap that entails the launch of 8K test broadcasting in 2016, with plans to roll out full 8K services by 2018, and in time for the 2020 Summer Olympics.[29] On December 1, 2018, NHK launched BS8K, a broadcast channel with 8K capability.[30][31]

Resolutions

comparison of 8K resolutions
Resolution Display aspect ratio Megapixels
7680 × 2160 3.55:1 (32:9) 16.59
7680 × 3200 2.40:1 (24:10) 24.58
7680 × 3240 2.370:1 (64:27) 24.88
7680 × 4320 1.77:1 (16:9) 33.18
8192 × 4320 ≈1.90∶1 (256∶135) 35.39
8192 × 5120 1.60:1 (16:10) 41.94
8192 × 8192 1.00:1 (1:1) 67.11
comparison of 4320p resolutions
Resolution Display aspect ratio Megapixels
15360 × 4320 3.55:1 (32:9) 66.36
10368 × 4320 2.40:1 (24:10) 44.79
10240 × 4320 2.370:1 (64:27) 44.24
8640 × 4320 2.00:1 (18:9) 37.32
8192 × 4320 ≈1.90∶1 (256∶135) 35.39
7680 × 4320 1.77:1 (16:9) 33.18
6912 × 4320 1.60:1 (16:10) 29.86

8K UHD is a resolution of 7680 × 4320 (33.2 megapixels) and is one of the two resolutions of ultra high definition television, the other being 4K UHD.[32] In 2013, a transmission network's capability to carry HDTV resolution was limited by internet speeds and relied on satellite broadcast to transmit the high data rates. The demand is expected to drive the adoption of video compression standards and to place significant pressure on physical communication networks in the near future.[33]

8K UHD has four times the horizontal and vertical resolution of the 1080p HDTV format, with sixteen times as many pixels overall.

8K fulldome

A chart showing the scale differences between HTDV to 8K Fulldome video resolution standards
This chart shows the proportional scale differences from 1080p (1920×1080 pixels) to 8K×8K fulldome video.

8K fulldome is a resolution of 8192×8192 (67.1 megapixels) and is the resolution of top-end modern projection for hemispherical fulldome theatres often seen in planetaria.

Devices

TVs and monitors

Cameras

  • Sony CineAlta F65, Unveiled on September 7, 2011
  • Astrodesign AH-4800, 1.7-inch CMOS camera capable of recording in 8K resolution. Unveiled by on April 6, 2013.
  • RED Weapon Vista Vision 35MM 8K (8192×4320) at 60 fps in full-sensor mode, or up to 75 fps in a scope (2.40:1) frame format. The camera has a 40.96 x 21.6mm sensor based on the previous generation Dragon sensor. Unveiled at NAB 2015, released end of 2015.
  • RED DSMC2 Helium with an S35MM 8K 29.9 × 15.77mm (Diagonal: 33.80 mm) 35.4 Megapixel CMOS sensor—up to 60 fps at 8K Full Format (8192 × 4320) & 75 fps at 8K 2.4:1 (8192 x 3456) with a dynamic range of 16.5+ stops; limited release July 2016, general release October 2016.
  • RED Epic-W with an S35MM 8K 29.9 × 15.77mm 35.4 Megapixel CMOS Helium sensor—up to 30 fps at 8K Full Format (8192 × 4320) with a dynamic range of 16.5+ stops; release date: October 2016.
  • RED DSMC2 Monstro 8K VV[44] 40.96 mm x 21.60 mm (Diagonal: 46.31 mm) 35.4 Megapixel CMOS "wider than full frame" Monstro sensor—up to 60 fps at 8K Full Format (8192 × 4320) & 75 fps at 8K 2.4:1 (8192 x 3456) with a dynamic range of 17+ stops; release date: October 2017.
  • Ikegami S35MM SHK-810 8K broadcast camera. Unveiled at NAB 2015.
  • Hitachi S35MM SK-UHD8060 broadcast camera Unveiled at NAB 2015.
  • Canon Cinema EOS System S35MM 8K camera. Unveiled September, 2015.
  • Panavision DXL 35MM 8K 60fps and HDR Digital Cinematography Camera (Vista Vision Sensor). May 2016
  • Sharp S35MM 8C-B60A 8K Professional broadcast Camcorder[45] Nov 2017
  • Cinemartin Fran 8K VV Global Shutter, announced on 8 May 2018, starting sales in fall 2018.

Fulldome

  • Definiti 8K theaters, 8192×8192 resolution (apu)

See also

  • 4K resolution – digital video formats with a horizontal resolution of around 4000 pixels
  • 5K resolution – digital video formats with a horizontal resolution of around 5000 pixels, aimed at non-television computer monitor usage
  • 10K resolution – digital video formats with a horizontal resolution of around 10,000 pixels, aimed at non-television computer monitor usage
  • 16K resolution – experimental VR format
  • Ultra-high-definition television (UHDTV) – digital video formats with resolutions of 4K (3840×2160) and 8K (7680×4320)
  • Rec. 2020 – ITU-R Recommendation for UHDTV

References

  1. ^ Robert Silva. "8K Resolution - Definition and Explanation of 8K Video Resolution". About.com. Retrieved February 12, 2014.
  2. ^ YungKyung Park. "8K Resolution: Making Hyperrealism a Reality". Samsung Display. Retrieved February 14, 2019.
  3. ^ a b Marine, Joe. "NHK Has Finally Shrunk Their 8K Resolution Camera, but How Close Are We to Shooting in 8K?". No Film School. Retrieved April 3, 2014.
  4. ^ Bloom, Phillip. "From Chicago to the Moon: The power of 4K resolution and how to make it work for you creatively". Archived from the original on 2015-03-28. Retrieved April 3, 2014.
  5. ^ Johnson, Luke. "Toshiba suggests 4K TVs will be mainstream by 2017". Trusted Reviews. Retrieved April 3, 2014.
  6. ^ Roy Furchgott. "Why You Don't Need a 4K TV". The New York Times. Retrieved February 2, 2015.
  7. ^ Felix Richter. "Infographic: Forecast Of Global Ultra HD TV Adoption And 8K TV Sales". International Business Times. Retrieved February 14, 2019.
  8. ^ "8K Resolution: The Future of Digital Displays". Samsung Display. Retrieved February 14, 2019.
  9. ^ Staff, RedShark News. "RedShark News - RED's radical Helium S35 8K sensor: the story so far".
  10. ^ "The history of Super Hi-Vision". Archived from the original on 2016-08-12.
  11. ^ "World's First Hand-Held 8K Ultra High Definition Television Camera System, Developed in Collaboration with Japan Broadcasting Corporation (NHK) (Press Release)". Ikegami. Archived from the original on 2016-08-22.
  12. ^ "8K (SHV) Ultra High Resolution/High Definition Imaging". Archived from the original on 2016-04-03.
  13. ^ "MHL Consortium Announces superMHL – the First Audio/Video Specification With Support Up to 8K". Yahoo Finance. January 6, 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-10-20. Retrieved January 10, 2015.
  14. ^ Ryan Smith (January 6, 2015). "MHL Consortium Announces superMHL: New Standard & New Cable To Drive 8K TV". AnandTech. Retrieved January 10, 2015.
  15. ^ "Introducing superMHL". MHL. Retrieved January 10, 2015.
  16. ^ "VESA Publishes DisplayPort™ Standard Version 1.4 - DisplayPort". DisplayPort. Retrieved 2016-03-03.
  17. ^ "Introducing HDMI 2.1 Specification". HDMI. Retrieved 2017-02-11.
  18. ^ "Introducing the RED EPIC-W And New WEAPON Cameras".
  19. ^ Ebert, Roger (2008-10-16). "Great Movies: Baraka (1992)". Chicago Sun-Times / RogerEbert.com. Archived from the original on 17 December 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-15.
  20. ^ a b Rob Sabin (December 20, 2011). "Home Theater: Hollywood, The 4K Way". HomeTheater.com Ultimate Tech. Source Interlink Media. Retrieved February 24, 2013.
  21. ^ Lawrence of Arabia on Blu-ray Later This Year. Blu-rayDefinition.com (June 12, 2012).
  22. ^ "'To Space & Back' latest Planetarium feature". Philadelphia Tribune. Retrieved September 6, 2016.
  23. ^ Aftab, Kaleem. "Introducing 8K: The Final Frontier? | Filmmaker Magazine". Retrieved 2016-08-22.
  24. ^ "First 8K – Filmatic Festival".
  25. ^ "ArtPower!'s Filmatic Festival to Explore the Intersection of Science and Cinema". UC San Diego News Center. Retrieved May 24, 2016.
  26. ^ "James Gunn on Twitter".
  27. ^ Shilov, Anton. "NHK Shows World's First 8K Movie at Cannes Film Festival". X Bit Labs. Archived from the original on 2014-04-07. Retrieved April 3, 2014.
  28. ^ Singal, Nidhi. "CES 2013: Sharp showcases world's first 8K TV". Business Today. Retrieved April 3, 2014.
  29. ^ Super-Hi Vision Update: Answering the Eight Biggest Questions on NHK 8K Production Jason Dachman. Sports Video Group. Friday, October 16, 2015 - 2:44 pm
  30. ^ "4K, 8K broadcasting begins in Japan". NHK. December 1, 2018. Retrieved December 2, 2018.
  31. ^ Fox, Chris (December 1, 2018). "Space Odyssey helps launch first 8K TV channel". BBC News. Retrieved December 2, 2018.
  32. ^ "CES 2013: Sharp Demoes Double-UHD (8K) Set, Two 4K Sets, 21 New Aquos 3D Smart TVs". DailyTech. Archived from the original on 2014-02-12. Retrieved 2013-01-20.
  33. ^ "High Efficiency Video Coding". Motion Pictures Experts Group. Retrieved December 10, 2013.
  34. ^ "BOE Reveal World's Largest 8K Displays".
  35. ^ "LG's 98-inch UH9800 is the world's first 8K HDR TV".
  36. ^ Pachal, Pete. "Samsung takes TVs to 8K with 98-inch curved set".
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  44. ^ "RED Announces The New MONSTRO 8K VV". www.red.com.
  45. ^ "Sharp Announces 8C-B60A 8K Professional Camcorder". www.sharp-world.com.

External links

10K resolution

10K resolution is horizontal resolution of around 10,000 pixels. This resolution is expected to be used in computer monitors, and is not a standard format in digital television and digital cinematography, which feature 4K and 8K resolutions.

16K resolution

The term 16K resolution (8640p) refers to a display resolution that has 15360 horizontal pixels by 8640 vertical pixels, for a total of 132.7 megapixels. It has four times as many pixels as 8K resolution, sixteen times as many pixels as 4K resolution and sixty-four times as many pixels as 1080p resolution.

Innolux's 100-inch 16K8K S-UHD (15360×8640) display module displayed at Touch Taiwan is the only single display as of August 2018.Currently 16k resolutions can run on Multi-monitor setups with AMD Eyefinity or NVIDIA Surround.

8K

8K or 8k may stand for:

8K resolution

8K UHDTV, a digital video format

8 K, the quantity 8 kelvins

8000 (number), a natural number

Form 8-K, a United States Securities and Exchange Commission form

8,000 metres or 8K, a common running race distance

Eight-thousander, a class of tall mountains

GCR Class 8K, a class of British 2-8-0 steam locomotive

China Railways 8K, an Alstom-built electric locomotive

K-Mile Air (IATA airline code)

Aoi (song)

"Aoi" (English: "Blue", Japanese pronunciation: [aoi]) is a song by Japanese band Sakanaction. Used as the 2013 theme song for NHK's broadcasts of professional soccer matches, the song was one of two promotional singles from their sixth studio album Sakanaction (2013). Sakanaction wrote the song specifically for NHK, taking inspiration from soccer, and from the associations of the word blue in Japanese, due to the colors use as the color of the Japan national football team.

Released as a bonus on iTunes for pre-ordering Sakanaction on February 27, 2013, the song was used to promote the album on Japanese radio stations. It peaked at number 27 on the Billboard Japan Hot 100 chart a week after the release of Sakanaction. Critically, CDJournal reviewers responded positively to the song, believing the guitar-based rock, dance beat and vocal choir showed off a signature style of the band.

In 2015, a musical presentation using the song was created by NHK Media Technology and NHK Enterprises, shown in 3D with an 8K resolution and 22.2 surround sound. It was unveiled at the 2015 Media Technology! exhibition in Shibuya in November 2015.

B. Unnikrishnan

Unnikrishnan Bhaskaran (born 14 August 1970) is an Indian film director, screenwriter, and distributor who works in the Malayalam film industry. He completed post-graduation in English literature and took M. Phil from Mahatma Gandhi University with first rank. He started publishing his writings on literature, politics and culture during early 1990s. Unnikrishnan along with V. C. Haris edited a series of books on postmodernism published by DC Books.

He began his film career by screenwriting Jalamarmaram in 1999, which won the Kerala State Film Award for Best Screenplay. In 2005, he scripted, directed and produced the telefilm Annu Mayayairunnu, which won six Kerala State Television Awards, including Best Telefilm and Best Playwright for him. In the same year, The Tiger, a thriller written by him was a major commercial success. He made his feature film directorial debut in 2006 with the film Smart City. His most notable directorial works include Madambi (2008) and Grandmaster (2012). In 2017, he directed the crime drama Villain, India's first film completely shot in 8K resolution.

Unnikrishnan is involved in organisational activities in film industry. He is the general secretary of Film Employees Federation of Kerala (FEFKA) since 2008 and All India Film Employees Confederation (AIFEC) since 2014. He is a member in the advisory committee of Cine Workers' Welfare Board and director of Saamskaarika Kshemanidhi. He is the managing director of film post-production studio Vismayas Max and the multiplex Aries Plex SL Cinemas. He owns the distribution company RD Illuminations.

Baraka (film)

Baraka is a 1992 non-narrative documentary film directed by Ron Fricke. The film is often compared to Koyaanisqatsi, the first of the Qatsi films by Godfrey Reggio for which Fricke served as the cinematographer. It is also the most recent film to be photographed in the 70mm Todd-AO format, and the first film ever to be restored and scanned at 8K resolution.

Canon EOS 5DS

The Canon EOS 5DS and EOS 5DS R (known as the EOS 5Ds and EOS 5Ds R in Japan) are two closely related digital SLR cameras announced by Canon on February 6, 2015. Both are professional full-frame cameras with 50.6-megapixel sensors, the highest of any full-frame camera at the time of announcement. The only difference between the two models is that the sensor of the "R" version includes an optical filter that cancels out the effects of a standard optical low-pass filter. This distinction is roughly similar to that between Nikon's now-replaced D800 and D800E (with the E having a self-cancelling filter). Canon stated that both the 5DS and 5DS R will not replace the older EOS 5D Mark III, so therefore both the 5DS and 5DS R will have their new positions in Canon's DSLR camera lineup.

At the time of announcement, estimated prices were US$3,699.00 and US$3,899.00 (EOS 5DS and EOS 5DS R), with announced date of availability, through authorized Canon retailers, in June 2015.Despite the record-high pixel count and related storage and processing power, these cameras do not shoot 4K video or high frame rate 1080p video.Full-size demosaicked jpeg files from this camera occupy approximately 20 megabytes and exceed 8K resolution.

DNxHR codec

Avid DNxHR, which stands for "Digital Nonlinear Extensible High Resolution", is a lossy UHDTV post-production codec engineered for multi-generation compositing with reduced storage and bandwidth requirements. The codec was specifically developed for resolutions considered above FHD/1080p, including 2K, 4K and 8K resolution. DNxHD will continue to be used for HD resolutions.On September 12, 2014, Avid Technology, Inc. announced the DNxHR codec as part of a broader "Avid Resolution Independence" announcement at their Fall 2014 Avid Connect event, which was held during the IBC 2014 conference in Amsterdam, Netherlands.On December 22, 2014, Avid released Media Composer 8.3 which included support for 4K project formats and the DNxHR codec. Further details for the DNxHR codec were outlined in the "Avid High-Resolution Workflows Guide - December 2014".

Digital intermediate

Digital intermediate (typically abbreviated to DI) is a motion picture finishing process which classically involves digitizing a motion picture and manipulating the color and other image characteristics.

Malayalam cinema

Malayalam cinema is the Indian film industry based in the southern state of Kerala, dedicated to the production of motion pictures in the Malayalam language. It is also known by the sobriquet Mollywood in various print and online media (a portmanteau of Malayalam and Hollywood). The films produced here are known for their cinematography and story-driven realistic plots. Works such as Marana Simhasanam and Vanaprastham were screened in the Un Certain Regard section at the 1999 Cannes Film Festival.Marana Simhasanam garnered the coveted Caméra d'Or ("Golden Camera") for that year.In 1982, Elippathayam won the Sutherland Trophy at the London Film Festival, and Most Original Imaginative Film of 1982 by the British Film Institute. Rajiv Anchal's Guru (1997) and Salim Ahamed's Adaminte Makan Abu (2011) were Malayalam films sent by India as its official entries for the Best Foreign Language Film category at the Academy Awards. Adoor Gopalakrishnan has won the International Film Critics Prize (FIPRESCI) for his works such as Mukhamukham (1984), Anantaram (1987), Mathilukal (1989), Vidheyan (1993), Kathapurushan (1995), and Nizhalkkuthu (2002).Other films which achieved global acclaim include Chemmeen (1965), which received a Certificate of Merit at the Chicago International Film Festival, and a Gold Medal at the Cannes Film Festival for Best Cinematography. Piravi (1989) won at least 31 international honours, including the Caméra d'Or – Mention Spéciale at the 1989 Cannes Film Festival, and was screened at the Un Certain Regard. Swaham (1994) won the Bronze Rosa Camuna at the Bergamo Film Meeting in Italy.

The first 3D film produced in India, My Dear Kuttichathan (1984), was made in Malayalam. The first CinemaScope film produced in Malayalam was Thacholi Ambu (1978).During the early 1920s the Malayalam film industry was based in Thiruvananthapuram, although the film industry started to develop and flourish only by the late 1940s. Later the industry shifted to Chennai (formerly Madras), which then was the capital of the South Indian film industry. By the late 1980s, the Malayalam film industry returned and established itself in Kerala with the majority of locations, studios, production and post-production facilities being located in Kochi and Thiruvananthapuram. Several media sources describe Kochi as the hub of the film industry.

Nikon D850

The Nikon D850 is a professional-grade full-frame digital single-lens reflex camera (DSLR) produced by Nikon. The camera was officially announced on July 25, 2017 (the 100th anniversary of Nikon's founding), launched on August 24, 2017, and first shipped on September 08, 2017. Nikon announced it could not fill the preorders on August 28, 2017 and filled less than 10% of preorders on the first shipping day. It is the successor to the Nikon D810.

The D850 is the first Nikon DSLR featuring a back-illuminated image sensor claiming overall a one-stop image quality (image noise) improvement. This camera was the first full frame DSLR achieving 100 points at Dxomark. The D850 also won Camera of the Year for 2017 at Imaging Resource.

Piranha (compositing software)

Piranha is a digital imaging application produced by Interactive Effects, Inc. Its features include editing, compositing, conforming, color grading, 2D and 3D paint, and titling. Piranha has been used to produce imagery for feature films, TV shows, and electronic entertainment titles since its debut in the mid-1990s.

Priyanka (2016 film)

Priyanka (Kannada: ಪ್ರಿಯಾಂಕ) is a 2016 Indian Kannada language thriller film written and directed by Dinesh Babu and produced by A. Mohan. Based on a real-life incident occurred in Bengaluru, the film stars Priyanka Upendra and Tejas in the lead roles. Prakash Raj plays a special role of an investigator in the film. The music is composed by Krupakar and cinematography is by the director, Babu.

Filming began in the November month of 2014 and took a single stretch of 32 days to complete. However, the film could not release for a long time. After multiple announcements of the release dates, the film released on 5 February 2016.

Red Digital Cinema

Red Digital Cinema is an American company that manufactures digital cinematography cameras and accessories.

The company’s headquarters are in Irvine, California, with studios in Hollywood, California. It has offices in London, Shanghai and Singapore, retail stores in Hollywood, New York and Miami as well as various authorized resellers and service centers around the world.

Remaster

Remaster (also digital remastering and digitally remastered) refers to changing the quality of the sound or of the image, or both, of previously created recordings, either audiophonic, cinematic, or videographic.

Shayan Italia

Shayan Italia is a critically acclaimed international multi-award-winning pianist, songwriter and entrepreneur. He came into the limelight by becoming the first person to sell a portion of his future earnings on eBay and with his song "Reflection". On 20 September 2018 he was awarded the "Global Indian Of The Year" by Mid Day.Created for 15 August 2018, Independence Day (India) celebrating 71 years, Shayan Italia's piano version of the Indian National Anthem acquired over 100 million views during the Independence week on YouTube. It is currently the most viewed rendition of the Indian National Anthem and any national anthem globally online till date. #IWouldStandForThis and #71for71Challenge are global initiatives that honour the Indian National Anthem, performed by Shayan Italia in 8K resolution on the Steinway D-274 concert grand piano, paying tribute to his mother who died of cancer. The #71for71Challenge trended on Twitter for 2 days. The music rendition brings together multinational cross-cultural music and video production talent from all over the world to inspire patriotism among the youth of India in its digital age. The video is directed by Dr. Farhad Vijay Arora. It is the first music video to be fully processed in 8K resolution.

Swami Vivekananda Planetarium

Swami Vivekananda Planetarium at Pilikula in Mangalore is the first 3D planetarium in India. It is also the first planetarium in the country with 8K digital and opto-mechanical (hybrid) projection system. The planetarium is at the Pilikula Regional Science Centre in Mangalore.The Swami Vivekananda Planetarium has a dome diameter of 18 m (59 ft) and a seating capacity of 170. 3D shows such as We Are Stars are presented in English and Kannada.

Ultra HD Forum

Ultra HD Forum is an organization whose goal is to help solve the real world hurdles in deploying Ultra HD video and thus to help promote UHD deployment. The Ultra HD Forum will help navigate amongst the standards related to high dynamic range (HDR), high frame rate (HFR), next generation audio (NGA), and wide color gamut (WCG). The Ultra HD Forum is an industry organisation that is complementary to the UHD Alliance (that maintains consumer-facing logos), covering different aspects of the UHD ecosystem.

Villain (2017 film)

Villain is a 2017 Indian Malayalam-language crime drama film that was written and directed by B. Unnikrishnan, and produced by Rockline Venkatesh. It stars Mohanlal in the lead role and Vishal, Raashi Khanna, Manju Warrier, Hansika Motwani and Srikanth in prominent supporting roles. The film marks the debuts of Vishal, Raashi Khanna, and Hansika in the Malayalam film industry. Manoj Paramahamsa and N. K. Ekambaram were the cinematographers. The songs were written by 4 Musics and the film score was composed by Sushin Shyam. In the film's plot, Additional director general of police Mathew Manjooran (Mohanlal) renounces his office after taking a sabbatical but is re-enlisted to deal with one last case involving a series of connected murders.

Unnikrishnan wrote Villain in 2.5 years. Principal photography began on 3 March 2017 in Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, and ended in mid-June. Villain is the first Indian film to be completely filmed in 8K resolution. It was released in India on 27 October 2017 and internationally on 2 November, debuting in the United Arab Emirates. The film was later dubbed into Hindi as Kaun Hai Villain in 2018 by RKD Studios.

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