869

Year 869 (DCCCLXIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Millennium: 1st millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
869 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar869
DCCCLXIX
Ab urbe condita1622
Armenian calendar318
ԹՎ ՅԺԸ
Assyrian calendar5619
Balinese saka calendar790–791
Bengali calendar276
Berber calendar1819
Buddhist calendar1413
Burmese calendar231
Byzantine calendar6377–6378
Chinese calendar戊子(Earth Rat)
3565 or 3505
    — to —
己丑年 (Earth Ox)
3566 or 3506
Coptic calendar585–586
Discordian calendar2035
Ethiopian calendar861–862
Hebrew calendar4629–4630
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat925–926
 - Shaka Samvat790–791
 - Kali Yuga3969–3970
Holocene calendar10869
Iranian calendar247–248
Islamic calendar255–256
Japanese calendarJōgan 11
(貞観11年)
Javanese calendar766–767
Julian calendar869
DCCCLXIX
Korean calendar3202
Minguo calendar1043 before ROC
民前1043年
Nanakshahi calendar−599
Seleucid era1180/1181 AG
Thai solar calendar1411–1412
Tibetan calendar阳土鼠年
(male Earth-Rat)
995 or 614 or −158
    — to —
阴土牛年
(female Earth-Ox)
996 or 615 or −157
Edmundbeingmartyred05
Death of king Edmund the Martyr (right)

Events

By place

Byzantine Empire

Europe

Britain

Arabian Empire

Japan

Mesoamerica

By topic

Religion

Births

Deaths

References

  1. ^ Kreutz, p. 43.
  2. ^ Paul Hill (2009). The Viking Wars of Alfred the Great, pp. 32–33. ISBN 978-1-59416-087-5.
  3. ^ Paul Hill (2009). The Viking Wars of Alfred the Great, p. 36. ISBN 978-1-59416-087-5.
  4. ^ Martin, Simon; Nikolai Grube (2000). Chronicle of the Maya Kings and Queens: Deciphering the Dynasties of the Ancient Maya. London and New York: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-05103-8. OCLC 47358325.
  5. ^ Karl Rahner (2004). Encyclopedia of Theology, p. 389. ISBN 0-86012-006-6.
800 (number)

800 (eight hundred) is the natural number following 799 and preceding 801.

It is the sum of four consecutive primes (193 + 197 + 199 + 211). It is a Harshad number.

869 Sanriku earthquake

The 869 Sanriku earthquake (貞観地震, Jōgan jishin) and its associated tsunami struck the area around Sendai in the northern part of Honshu on 9 July 869 AD (or the 26th day of the 5th month in the 11th year of Jōgan). The earthquake had an estimated magnitude of at least 8.4 on the moment magnitude scale, but may have been as high as 9.0, similar to the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami. The tsunami caused widespread flooding of the Sendai plain. In 2001, researchers identified sand deposits in a trench more than 4.5 kilometres (2.8 mi) from the coast as coming from this tsunami.

Al-Mu'tazz

Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Jaʿfar (Arabic: أبو عبد الله محمد بن جعفر‎; 847 – 16 July 869), better known by his regnal title al-Muʿtazz bi-ʾllāh (المعتز بالله, "He who is strengthened by God") was the Abbasid caliph from 866 to 869, during a period of extreme internal instability within the Abbasid Caliphate, known as the "Anarchy at Samarra".

Originally named as the second in line of three heirs of his father al-Mutawakkil, al-Mu'tazz was forced to renounce his rights after the accession of his brother al-Muntasir, and was thrown in prison as a dangerous rival during the reign of his cousin al-Musta'in. He was released and raised to the caliphate in January 866, during the civil war between al-Musta'in and the Turkish military of Samarra. Al-Mu'tazz was capable and determined to reassert the authority of the caliph over the Turkish military, but had only limited success. Aided by the vizier Ahmad ibn Isra'il, he managed to remove and kill the leading Turkish generals, Wasif al-Turki and Bugha al-Saghir, but the decline of the Tahirids in Baghdad deprived him of their role as a counterweight to the Turks. Faced with the assertive Turkish commander Salih ibn Wasif, and unable to find money to satisfy the demands of his troops, he was deposed and died of ill treatment a few days later, on 16 July 869.

His reign marks the apogee of the decline of the Caliphate's central authority, and the climax of centrifugal tendencies, expressed through the emergence of the autonomous dynasties of the Tulunids in Egypt and the Saffarids in the East, Alid uprisings in Hejaz and Tabaristan, and the first stirrings of the great Zanj Rebellion in lower Iraq.

Area code 869

Area code 869 is the local telephone area code of Saint Kitts and Nevis. The 869 area code was created during a split from the original (809) area code which began permissive dialing on 1 October 1996 and ended 31 March 1997.

When in Saint Kitts and Nevis, the seven digits of the number alone can be dialed. When calling to Saint Kitts and Nevis from anywhere in the United States or Canada 1 + (869) + the seven digit phone number needs to be dialed.

Borough of Pendle

Pendle is a local government district and borough of Lancashire, England. It adjoins the Lancashire boroughs of Burnley and Ribble Valley, the North Yorkshire district of Craven and the West Yorkshire districts of Calderdale and the City of Bradford. It has a total population of 90,700 (mid-2017 est.).

Chaffee, California

Chaffee (formerly, Chaffe) is an unincorporated community in Kern County, California. It is located on the Southern Pacific Railroad 1 mile (1.6 km) north of Mojave, at an elevation of 2851 feet (869 m).

Code page 869

Code page 869 (CP 869, IBM 869, OEM 869) is a code page used under DOS to write Greek language. It is also called DOS Greek 2. It was designed to include all characters from ISO 8859-7.

Code page 869 was not as popular as code page 737.

Edmund the Martyr

Edmund the Martyr (also known as St Edmund or Edmund of East Anglia, died 20 November 869) was king of East Anglia from about 855 until his death.

Almost nothing is known about Edmund. He is thought to have been of East Anglian origin and was first mentioned in an annal of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, written some years after his death. The kingdom of East Anglia was devastated by the Vikings, who destroyed any contemporary evidence of his reign. Later writers produced fictitious accounts of his life, asserting that he was born in 841, the son of Æthelweard, an obscure East Anglian king, whom it was said Edmund succeeded when he was fourteen (or alternatively that he was the youngest son of a Germanic king named Alcmund). Later versions of Edmund's life relate that he was crowned on 25 December 855 at Burna (probably Bures St. Mary in Suffolk), which at that time functioned as the royal capital, and that he became a model king.

In 869, the Great Heathen Army advanced on East Anglia and killed Edmund. He may have been slain by the Danes in battle, but by tradition he met his death at an unidentified place known as Haegelisdun, after he refused the Danes' demand that he renounce Christ: the Danes beat him, shot him with arrows and then beheaded him, on the orders of Ivar the Boneless and his brother Ubba. According to one legend, his head was then thrown into the forest, but was found safe by searchers after following the cries of an ethereal wolf that was calling, in Latin, "Hic, Hic, Hic" – "Here, Here, Here".

A coinage commemorating Edmund was minted from around the time East Anglia was absorbed by the kingdom of Wessex and a popular cult emerged. In about 986, Abbo of Fleury wrote of his life and martyrdom. The saint's remains were temporarily moved from Bury St Edmunds to London for safekeeping in 1010. His shrine at Bury was visited by many kings, including Canute, who was responsible for rebuilding the abbey: the stone church was rebuilt again in 1095. During the Middle Ages, when Edmund was regarded as the patron saint of England, Bury and its magnificent abbey grew wealthy, but during the Dissolution of the Monasteries, his shrine was destroyed. Medieval manuscripts and works of art relating to Edmund include Abbo's Passio Sancti Eadmundi, John Lydgate's 14th-century Life, the Wilton Diptych and a number of church wall paintings.

Florida State Road 869

Florida State Road 869 (SR 869) is a 24-mile-long (39 km) state road located in western and northern Broward County, acting as a de facto bypass of Fort Lauderdale as well as the northern coastal and southern parts of the county extending north from a junction of Interstate 75 (SR 93), Interstate 595 (SR 862) in Sunrise to Coral Springs where it heads eastward towards Florida's Turnpike and intersecting Interstate 95 before terminating at Southwest 6th Avenue in Deerfield Beach. The 21.242-mile (34.186 km) section west of the Turnpike is known as the Sawgrass Expressway or the Sawgrass Tollway, a six-lane, limited-access, all-electronic toll road; the 2.745-mile (4.418 km) section east of the Turnpike is a surface street known as Southwest 10th Street. The expressway opened in 1986 and was added to Florida's Turnpike Enterprise in 1990. The at-grade section east of the Turnpike is maintained by FDOT.

Fourth Council of Constantinople (Catholic Church)

For the Eastern Orthodox synod (879–880), see Fourth Council of Constantinople (Eastern Orthodox)The Fourth Council of Constantinople was the eighth Catholic Ecumenical Council held in Constantinople from October 5, 869, to February 28, 870. It included 102 bishops, three papal legates, and four patriarchs. The Council met in ten sessions from October 869 to February 870 and issued 27 canons.

The council was called by Emperor Basil I the Macedonian and Pope Adrian II. It deposed Photios, a layman who had been appointed as Patriarch of Constantinople, and reinstated his predecessor Ignatius.

The Council also reaffirmed the decisions of the Second Council of Nicaea in support of icons and holy images and required the image of Christ to have veneration equal with that of the gospel book.A later council, the Greek Fourth Council of Constantinople, was held after Photios had been reinstated on the order of the emperor. Today, the Catholic Church recognizes the council in 869–870 as "Constantinople IV", while the Eastern Orthodox Churches recognize the councils in 879–880 as "Constantinople IV" and revere Photios as a saint. At the time that these councils were being held, this division was not yet clear. These two councils represent a growing divide between East and West. The previous seven ecumenical councils are recognized as ecumenical and authoritative by both Eastern Orthodox and Catholic Christians. These kinds of differences led eventually to the East-West Schism of 1054.

German submarine U-869

German submarine U-869 was a Type IXC/40 U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II, whose wreck was discovered off the coast of New Jersey in 1991. Its keel was laid down 5 April 1943 by Deutsche Schiff- und Maschinenbau AG Weser of Bremen. It was commissioned on 26 January 1944 with Kapitänleutnant Helmuth Neuerburg in command. Neuerburg went down with his boat.

Kosmos 869

Kosmos 869 (Russian: Космос 869 meaning Cosmos 869) was an unmanned military Soyuz 7K-S test. It was a somewhat successful mission.

NGC 869

NGC 869 (also known as h Persei) is an open cluster located 7600 light years away in the constellation of Perseus. The cluster is most likely around 13 million years old. It is the westernmost of the Double Cluster with NGC 884.

NGC 869 and 884 are often designated h and χ Persei, respectively. Some confusion surrounds what Bayer intended by these designations. It is sometimes claimed that Bayer could not have resolved the pair into two patches of nebulosity, and that Chi refers to the Double Cluster and h to a nearby star. Bayer's Uranometria chart for Perseus does not show them as nebulous objects, but his chart for Cassiopeia does, and they are described as Nebulosa Duplex in Schiller's Coelum Stellatum Christianum, which was assembled with Bayer's help. The clusters are both located in the Perseus OB1 association, a few hundred light years apart from each other. The clusters were first recorded by Hipparchus, but have likely been known since antiquity.

The Double Cluster is often photographed and observed with small telescopes. The clusters are visible with the unaided eye between the constellations of Perseus and Cassiopeia as a brighter patch in the winter Milky Way. In small telescopes the cluster appears as an assemblage of bright stars located in a rich star field. Dominated by bright blue stars, the cluster also hosts a few orange stars.

RD-864

The RD-864 (GRAU: 15D177) is a Soviet liquid propellant rocket engine burning UDMH and nitrogen tetroxide in a gas generator combustion cycle. It has a four combustion chambers that provide thrust vector control by gimbaling each nozzle in a single axis +/- 55°. It is used on the third stage of the R-36M UTTKh (GRAU: 15A18) and Dnepr. For the R-36M2 (GRAU: 15A18M), an improved version, the RD-869 (GRAU: 15D300) was developed.

Saints Cyril and Methodius

Saints Cyril and Methodius (826–869, 815–885; Greek: Κύριλλος καὶ Μεθόδιος (Kýrillos kaí Methódios), Old Church Slavonic: Кѷриллъ и Меѳодїи) were two brothers who were Byzantine Christian theologians and Christian missionaries. Through their work they influenced the cultural development of all Slavs, for which they received the title "Apostles to the Slavs". They are credited with devising the Glagolitic alphabet, the first alphabet used to transcribe Old Church Slavonic. After their deaths, their pupils continued their missionary work among other Slavs. Both brothers are venerated in the Orthodox Church as saints with the title of "equal-to-apostles". In 1880, Pope Leo XIII introduced their feast into the calendar of the Roman Catholic Church. In 1980, Pope John Paul II declared them co-patron saints of Europe, together with Benedict of Nursia.

Shapur ibn Sahl

Sābūr ibn Sahl (شاپور بن سهل گندیشاپوری; d. 869 CE) was a 9th-century Persian Christian physician from the Academy of Gundishapur.

Among other medical works, he wrote one of the first medical books on antidotes called Aqrabadhin (القراباذين), which was divided into 22 volumes, and which was possibly the earliest of its kind to influence Islamic medicine. This antidotary enjoyed much popularity until it was superseded Ibn al-Tilmidh's version later in the first half of twelfth century.

USS Arnold J. Isbell (DD-869)

USS Arnold J. Isbell (DD-869), a Gearing-class destroyer, was the only ship of the United States Navy to be named for Arnold J. Isbell, an aircraft carrier captain during World War II.

Her keel was laid down on 14 March 1945 at Staten Island, New York, by Bethlehem Mariners Harbor. She was launched on 6 August 1945 sponsored by Mrs. Arnold J. Isbell, the widow of Captain Isbell; and commissioned on 5 January 1946 with Commander Carlton B. Jones in command.

She joined the Atlantic Fleet and operated off the east coast. In January 1947, she was transferred to the Pacific Fleet and homeported at San Diego. She spent the remainder of her US Navy days homeported on the West coast.

USS LST-869

USS LST-869 was an LST-542-class tank landing ship in the United States Navy. Like many of her class, she was not named and is properly referred to by her hull designation.

LST-869 was laid down on 27 October 1944 at Jeffersonville, Indiana, by the Jeffersonville Boat & Machinery Co.; launched on 11 December 1944; sponsored by Mrs. Janie G. Ray; and commissioned on 6 January 1945, Lt. (jg.) E. J. Malloy in command.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 869

United Nations Security Council resolution 869, adopted unanimously on 30 September 1993, after reaffirming Resolution 743 (1992) and subsequent resolutions relating to the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR), the Council extended its mandate for a further 24 hours until 1 October 1993.The Council reiterated its determination to ensure the security of UNPROFOR and its freedom of movement for all its missions in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia.

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