7th Ohio Cavalry

The 7th Regiment, Ohio Cavalry was a regiment of Union cavalry raised in southern Ohio for service during the American Civil War. Nicknamed the "River Regiment" as its men came from nine counties along the Ohio River, it served in the Western Theater in several major campaigns of the Army of the Ohio.

7th Regiment, Ohio Volunteer Cavalry
CountryUnited States of America
BranchUnion Army
Part ofArmy of the Ohio, Cavalry Corps
Nickname(s)River Regiment
EngagementsAmerican Civil War

Organization and service

The 7th Ohio Volunteer Cavalry was organized in Ripley, Ohio, on October 3, 1862, under Col. Israel Garrard.

The regiment primarily operated in Kentucky, Tennessee, and western North Carolina, seeing action in several campaigns and cavalry raids as part of the Army of the Ohio. It was part of the Union forces hastily sent northward in the summer of 1863 in pursuit of Morgan's Raiders, seeing action at the Battle of Buffington Island where much of Morgan's command was captured. Colonel Garrard accepted the surrender of the Confederates under Col. Basil W. Duke, although Brig. Gen. John Hunt Morgan escaped with a portion of the raiders.[1]

Participating in the Knoxville Campaign in the autumn of 1863, the 7th suffered a significant setback in a small skirmish in Greeneville, Tennessee, on November 6. Confederate Maj. Gen. Robert Ransom, Jr., and Brig. Gen. William E. "Grumble" Jones dispersed Union cavalry and infantry in the area, seizing numerous prisoners from the 7th Ohio Cavalry and the 2nd East Tennessee Mounted Infantry regiments.[2]

In July 1864, the regiment moved from Tennessee into Georgia and joined the forces of Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman during the Atlanta Campaign. It participated in numerous skirmishes and engagements with Confederate cavalry until the fall of Atlanta in late July. The regiment then accompanied the army of George H. Thomas northward back into Tennessee during the Franklin-Nashville Campaign, again engaged in scouting and periodic skirmishes with the Confederates, particularly during the retreat of the beaten Army of Tennessee as it withdrew towards the Tennessee River.[3]

In March 1865, the 7th participated in Wilson's Raid into Alabama and was among the troops to enter Selma. It pursued retreating Confederates as far as the Andersonville Prison in Georgia, where news was received that Robert E. Lee had surrendered in Virginia.[4]

The 7th OVC was mustered out on July 4, 1865, and returned home to Ohio. During the war, the regiment lost 2 officers and 26 enlisted men killed and mortally wounded, and 4 officers and 197 enlisted men by disease, for a total of 229 fatalities.[4]

Following the war, veterans frequently met to remember the war and their fallen comrades, and many became active in local posts of the Grand Army of the Republic.


  • Eicher, David J., The Longest Night: A Military History of the Civil War, Simon & Schuster, 2001, ISBN 0-684-84944-5.
  • Stevens, Larry, 7th Ohio Cavalry, 1995.
  • Civil War Soldiers and Sailors System


  1. ^ * Duke, Basil Wilson, A History of Morgan's Cavalry Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine, Cincinnati, Ohio: Miami Printing and Pub. Co., 1867. Retrieved 2008-10-29
  2. ^ Eicher, p. 614.
  3. ^ Curry, War History.
  4. ^ a b Stevens, 7th Ohio Cavalry Retrieved 2008-10-29

Further reading

  • Dyer, Frederick H., A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion, Vol. 2, Dayton: Morningside Press, 1979, p. 1478.
  • Reid, Whitelaw, Ohio in the War: Her Statesmen, Her Generals and Soldiers...., Vol. 2, Cincinnati, OH: Wilstach, Baldwin, 1872, pp. 804, 807.
11th Ohio Cavalry

The 11th Regiment Cavalry, Ohio Volunteers, known in vernacular as the 11th Ohio Cavalry, was a cavalry regiment raised in the name of the governor of Ohio from several counties in southwest Ohio, serving in the Union Army during the American Civil War. The regiment was stationed in the Dakota and Idaho territories on the American frontier to protect travelers and settlers from raids by American Indians.

45th Ohio Infantry

The 45th Ohio Volunteer Infantry (or 45th OVI) was an infantry regiment in the Union Army during the American Civil War.

Atlanta Campaign Union order of battle

The following Union Army units and commanders fought in the Atlanta Campaign of the American Civil War. The Confederate order of battle is listed separately. Order of battle compiled from the army organization during the campaign.This order of battle covers the period of May 7 - July 17, 1864. The period from July 17 - September 8, 1864 is listed separately.

For the engagement on July 22, 1864 see: Atlanta Union order of battle

Atlanta Campaign Union order of battle (Second Phase)

The following Union Army units and commanders fought in the Atlanta Campaign of the American Civil War. The Confederate order of battle is listed separately. Order of battle compiled from the army organization during the campaign.This order of battle covers the second phase of the campaign, from July 17 - September 8, 1864. The period from May 1 - July 17, 1864 is listed separately.

For the engagement on July 22, 1864 see: Atlanta Union order of battle

Battle of Buffington Island

The Battle of Buffington Island, also known as the St. Georges Creek Skirmish, was an American Civil War engagement in Meigs County, Ohio, and Jackson County, West Virginia, on July 19, 1863, during Morgan's Raid. The largest battle in Ohio during the war, Buffington Island contributed to the capture of the famed Confederate cavalry raider, Brig. Gen. John Hunt Morgan, who was seeking to escape Union army pursuers across the Ohio River at a ford opposite Buffington Island.

Delayed overnight, Morgan was almost surrounded by Union cavalry the next day, and the resulting battle ended in a Confederate rout, with over half of the 1,700-man Confederate force being captured. General Morgan and some 700 men escaped, but the daring raid finally ended on July 26 with his surrender after the Battle of Salineville. Morgan's Raid was of little military consequence, but it did spread terror among much of the population of southern and eastern Ohio, as well as neighboring Indiana.

Battle of Cynthiana

The Second Battle of Cynthiana included three separate engagements during the American Civil War that were fought on June 11 and 12, 1864, in Harrison County, Kentucky, in and near the town of Cynthiana. This was part of Confederate Brigadier General John H. Morgan's 1864 Raid into Kentucky. The battle ultimately resulted in a victory by Union forces over the raiders and ended Morgan's Last Kentucky Raid in defeat. Morgan's command had previously captured the town in the First Battle of Cynthiana, July 17, 1862.

At dawn on June 11, 1864, Brig. Gen. John H. Morgan approached Cynthiana with 1,200 cavalrymen. The town was defended by a small Union force under Colonel Conrad Garis, commanding five companies of the 168th Ohio Infantry and some home guard troops, about 300 men altogether. Morgan divided his troops into two columns which approached the town from the south and east, and launched an attack at the covered bridge, driving Garis' forces back towards the Kentucky Central Railroad depot and north along the railroad towards the Rankin House, which Federal troops used as a fortified position. Having no artillery in which to drive the Federals from their positions, the Confederates set fire to the town, destroying thirty-seven buildings and killing some of the Union troops.

As the fighting flared in Cynthiana, another Union force, about 500 men of the 171st Ohio Infantry (along with 30 men from the 47th Regiment Kentucky Volunteer Mounted Infantry and 70 men from the 52nd Regiment Kentucky Volunteer Mounted Infantry) under the overall command of Brigadier General Edward Hobson, arrived by train about a mile north of the Cynthiana at Keller's Bridge, the bridge having been burned by a detachment of Morga's command a few days prior. This force fought portions of Morgan's force for about six hours. Eventually Morgan trapped this new Union force in a meander of the Licking River. Altogether, Morgan had about 1,300 Union prisoners of war camping with him overnight in line of battle. The 171st Ohio Infantry was paroled the next day. This engagement, Morgan's last victory, was known as the Battle of Keller's Bridge [bridge named for Abraham Keller, not spelled "Kellar"].With little ammunition, Morgan recklessly decided to stay and fight an expected larger Union force. Brigadier General Stephen G. Burbridge with 2,400 men, a combined force of Ohio, Kentucky, and Michigan mounted infantry and cavalry, along with a section of artillery, attacked Morgan at dawn on June 12, this action taking place on the hills east of town. The Union forces drove the Rebels back, causing them to flee into Cynthiana, where many were captured or killed. General Morgan and many of his officers escaped. Combined casualties in the separate Union forces were 1,092 men, while Morgan is estimated to have lost about 1,000 men, although no firm records exist.

Cynthiana demonstrated that Union numbers and mobility were starting to take their toll; Confederate cavalry and partisans could no longer raid with impunity.

Battle of Franklin (1864) Union order of battle

The following Union Army units and commanders fought in the Battle of Franklin (1864) of the American Civil War. Order of battle compiled from the army organization during the campaign. The Confederate order of battle is shown separately.

Battle of the Cumberland Gap (1863)

The September 7–9, 1863 fall of the Cumberland Gap was a victory for Union forces under the command of Ambrose Burnside during his campaign for Knoxville. The bloodless engagement cost the Confederates 2,300 men and control of the Cumberland Gap.

Benjamin Piatt Runkle

Benjamin Piatt Runkle (September 3, 1836 – June 28, 1916) was one of the seven founders of Sigma Chi fraternity and an officer in the Union Army during the American Civil War. He served as Chief Superintendent of Freedmen's Affairs in Kentucky, and was plaintiff in the Supreme Court case Runkle v. United States. Runkle was also an Episcopal rector and twice served as trustee of Miami University.

Carolinas Campaign Union order of battle

The following Union Army units and commanders fought in the Carolinas Campaign of the American Civil War. The Confederate order of battle is listed separately. Order of battle compiled from the army organization during the campaign.

Galvanized Yankees

Galvanized Yankees was a term from the American Civil War denoting former Confederate prisoners of war who swore allegiance to the United States and joined the Union Army. Approximately 5,600 former Confederate soldiers enlisted in the "United States Volunteers", organized into six regiments of infantry between January 1864 and November 1866. Of those, more than 250 had begun their service as Union soldiers, were captured in battle, then enlisted in prison to join a regiment of the Confederate States Army. They surrendered to Union forces in December 1864 and were held by the United States as deserters, but were saved from prosecution by being enlisted in the 5th and 6th U.S. Volunteers. An additional 800 former Confederates served in volunteer regiments raised by the states, forming ten companies. Four of those companies saw combat in the Western Theater against the Confederate Army, two served on the western frontier, and one became an independent company of U.S. Volunteers, serving in Minnesota.

The term "galvanized" has also been applied to former Union soldiers enlisting in the Confederate Army, including the use of "galvanized Yankees" to designate them. At least 1,600 former Union prisoners of war enlisted in Confederate service in late 1864 and early 1865, most of them recent German or Irish immigrants who had been drafted into Union regiments. The practice of recruiting from prisoners of war began in 1862 at Camp Douglas at Chicago, Illinois, with attempts to enlist Confederate prisoners who expressed reluctance to exchange following their capture at Fort Donelson. Some 228 prisoners of mostly Irish extraction were enlisted by Col. James A. Mulligan before the War Department banned further recruitment March 15. The ban continued until 1863, except for a few enlistments of foreign-born Confederates into largely ethnic regiments.

Three factors led to a resurrection of the concept: an outbreak of the American Indian Wars by tribes in Minnesota and on the Great Plains; the disinclination of paroled but not exchanged Federal troops to be used to fight them; and protests of the Confederate government that any use of paroled troops in Indian warfare was a violation of the Dix–Hill prisoner of war cartel. Gen. Gilman Marston, commandant of the huge prisoner of war camp at Point Lookout, Maryland, recommended that Confederate prisoners be enlisted in the U.S. Navy, which Secretary of War Edwin Stanton approved December 21. General Benjamin Butler's jurisdiction included Point Lookout, and he advised Stanton that more prisoners could be recruited for the Army than the Navy. The matter was then referred to President Lincoln, who gave verbal authorization on January 2, 1864, and formal authorization on March 5 to raise the 1st United States Volunteer Infantry for three years' service without restrictions as to use.In January 1863, following issuance of the Emancipation Proclamation, the United States began to actively recruit black soldiers. The following May, the Confederate Congress passed a joint resolution suspending exchange of black Union soldiers and their white officers, and ordering that they instead be put on trial and punished. On July 30, 1863, President Abraham Lincoln ordered suspension of exchanges of Confederate prisoners until the Confederacy agreed to treat black prisoners the same as white prisoners. On September 1, Lincoln approved 1,750 more Confederate recruits in order to bolster his election chances in Pennsylvania, enough to form two more regiments, to be sent to the frontier to fight American Indians. Due to doubts about their ultimate loyalty, galvanized Yankees in federal service were generally assigned to garrison forts far from the Civil War battlefields or in action against Indians in the west. However, desertion rates among the units of galvanized Yankees were little different from those of state volunteer units in Federal service. The final two regiments of U.S. Volunteers were recruited in the spring of 1865 to replace the 2nd and 3rd U.S.V.I., which had been enlisted as one-year regiments. Galvanized troops of the U.S. Volunteers on the frontier served as far west as Camp Douglas, Utah; as far south as Fort Union, New Mexico; and as far north as Fort Benton, Montana.

Knoxville Campaign

The Knoxville Campaign was a series of American Civil War battles and maneuvers in East Tennessee during the fall of 1863 designed to secure control of the city of Knoxville and with it the railroad that linked the Confederacy east and west. Union Army forces under Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside occupied Knoxville, Tennessee, and Confederate States Army forces under Lt. Gen. James Longstreet were detached from Gen. Braxton Bragg's Army of Tennessee at Chattanooga to prevent Burnside's reinforcement of the besieged Federal forces there. Ultimately, Longstreet's own siege of Knoxville ended when Union Maj. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman led elements of the Army of the Tennessee and other troops to Burnside's relief after Union troops had broken the Confederate siege of Chattanooga. Although Longstreet was one of Gen. Robert E. Lee's best corps commanders in the East in the Army of Northern Virginia, he was unsuccessful in his role as an independent commander in the West and accomplished little in the Knoxville Campaign.

Knoxville Union order of battle

The following Union Army units and commanders fought in the Knoxville Campaign and subsequent East Tennessee operations during the American Civil War from November 4 to December 23, 1863 under the command of Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside. Engagements fought during this time included the battles of Campbell's Station and Fort Sanders and the siege of Knoxville. Order of battle compiled from the army organization during the campaign and return of casualties. The Confederate order of battle is shown separately.

List of Ohio Civil War units

During the American Civil War, nearly 320,000 Ohioans served in the Union Army, more than any other Northern state except New York and Pennsylvania. Of these, 5,092 were free blacks. Ohio had the highest percentage of population enlisted in the military of any state. Sixty percent of all the men between the ages of 18 and 45 were in the service. Ohio mustered 230 regiments of infantry and cavalry, as well as 25 light artillery batteries and 5 independent companies of sharpshooters. Total casualties among these units numbered 35,475 men, more than 10% of all the Buckeyes in uniform during the war. There were 6,835 men killed in action, including 402 officers.

Montana in the American Civil War

The area that eventually became the U.S. state of Montana played little direct role in the American Civil War. The closest the Confederate States Army ever came to the area was New Mexico and eastern Kansas, each over a thousand miles away. There was not even an organized territory using "Montana" until the Montana Territory was created on May 26, 1864, three years after the Battle of Fort Sumter. In 1861, the area was divided between the Dakota Territory and the Washington Territory, and in 1863, it was part of the Idaho Territory.

Nevertheless, Confederate sympathizers did have a presence in what is now the U.S. state of Montana. Those in the Montana Territory who supported the Confederate side were varied. Among them were Confederate sympathizers who were determined that some of Montana's gold would go into the Southern instead of Northern coffers. But most were those who would rather not fight in the war, which ranged from pure drifters to actual Confederate deserters.

In southwest Montana, Madison County residents of the area native to the Southeast United States wished to name their new town Varina, in honor of Varina Davis, the wife of the Confederate President Jefferson Davis. The Varina Townsite Company, on June 16, 1863, went to confirm the 320 acres (1.3 km2) of land as the town of Varina. However, when they applied for the name, the judge—Connecticut native Dr. G.G. Bissell—refused, saying they would be "damned" before he would allow the town to be named for the first lady of the Confederacy. Bissell did say he would allow the company to name the town after the state of Virginia, and they did so, incorporating the town of Virginia City. Charles Dickens even mentioned it in his book All the Year Round. The town would remain sympathetic to the South, even after being named the capital of Montana. When boats sailed down the Yellowstone River from the town (this is manifestly wrong, since the Yellowstone River does not even penetrate Madison County, much less flow through Virginia City), the local newspaper said they were sailing to "America."The loyalty towards the Confederacy concerned many supporters of the Union. Seeing this, Sidney Edgerton in 1863 went quickly to see Abraham Lincoln about the situation, and this was one impetus to create the Montana Territory so quickly.Gold mining in Montana began during the Civil War; gold placer deposits were discovered at Bannack in 1862. The resulting gold rush resulted in more placer discoveries, including those at Virginia City in 1863 and at Helena and Butte in 1864. Gold from the Montana gold mines went to both sides of the conflict. In Broadwater County, in the central portion of the state, Confederate sympathizers found a vein of gold eight miles (13 km) west of Townsend, with the immediate area named "Confederate Gulch" in their honor. It was said to be among the "largest and richest of the placer diggings" within the state.

William O. Collins

William Oliver Collins (August 23, 1809 – October 26, 1880) was a Union Army officer who served in the cavalry during the Civil War and in the American West. He was the namesake for Fort Collins, Colorado.Collins was born in Connecticut and graduated from Amherst College in Massachusetts. Collins moved to Ohio where he worked as a lawyer and served in the Ohio Senate from 1860–1862. During the Civil War Collins was appointed colonel of the 7th Ohio Cavalry. However, this regiment never completed its muster and was therefore consolidated with the 6th Ohio Cavalry. Collins was now named lieutenant colonel of the 6th Ohio Cavalry with William Lloyd as colonel. Collins was resentful his regiment had been absorbed into another and used his political influence to have his original four companies transferred to an independent command. Ordered to St. Louis MO in February 1862, Collins' command was officially declared the 1st Ohio Independent Cavalry Battalion. Collins served under General James Craig protecting the Overland Mail routes in Nebraska Territory. In June 1862 four additional companies were recruited at Camp Dennison to be added to the 1st Ohio Cavalry Battalion. Before Collins could unite the two battalions, the new recruits were mobilized for the defense against Morgan's Ohio Raid. Also during this time General Craig ordered troops to establish a military post in northern Colorado Territory. Craig named the post Camp Collins in honor of the Ohio cavalry officer. The two Ohio cavalry battalions were joined to create the 11th Ohio Cavalry and on September 20, 1862 Collins was appointed lieutenant colonel, the de facto commanding officer. Lieutenant Colonel Collins commanded Fort Laramie from 1863–1864. In August he authorized the establishment of "Fort" Collins the previous establishment having been destroyed by a flood. Collins commanded the Western Sub-district of the District of Nebraska from 1864–1865. During this time he led troops into action against Native American warriors in the battles of Mud Springs and Rush Creek. In April 1865 Collins and the original four companies of the 11th Ohio Cavalry were mustered out of the volunteer service.


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