7 World Trade Center

7 World Trade Center (7 WTC) refers to two buildings that have existed at the same location within the World Trade Center site in Lower Manhattan, New York City. The original structure, part of the original World Trade Center, was completed in 1987 and was destroyed in the September 11 attacks in 2001. The current structure opened in May 2006. Both buildings were developed by Larry Silverstein, who holds a ground lease for the site from the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey.

The original 7 World Trade Center was 47 stories tall, clad in red masonry, and occupied a trapezoidal footprint. An elevated walkway connected the building to the World Trade Center plaza. The building was situated above a Consolidated Edison power substation, which imposed unique structural design constraints. When the building opened in 1987, Silverstein had difficulties attracting tenants. Salomon Brothers signed a long-term lease in 1988 and became the main tenants of 7 WTC.

On September 11, 2001, the structure was damaged by debris when the nearby North Tower of the World Trade Center collapsed. The debris also ignited fires, which continued to burn throughout the afternoon on lower floors of the building. The building's internal fire suppression system lacked water pressure to fight the fires, and the building collapsed completely at 5:21:10 pm, according to FEMA,[5]:23 while the 2008 NIST study placed the final collapse time at 5:20:52 pm.[6]:19, 21, 50–51 The collapse began when a critical internal column buckled and triggered structural failure throughout, which was first visible from the exterior with the crumbling of a rooftop penthouse structure at 5:20:33 pm. The collapse made the old 7 World Trade Center the first tall building known to have collapsed primarily due to uncontrolled fires,[7] and at the time, the only steel skyscraper in the world to have collapsed due to fire.[8]

Construction of the new 7 World Trade Center began in 2002 and was completed in 2006. The building is 52 stories tall (plus one underground floor), making it the 28th-tallest in New York.[2][3][4] It is built on a smaller footprint than the original, and is bounded by Greenwich, Vesey, Washington, and Barclay Streets on the east, south, west, and north, respectively. A small park across Greenwich Street occupies space that was part of the original building's footprint. The current building's design emphasizes safety, with a reinforced concrete core, wider stairways, and thicker fireproofing of steel columns. It also incorporates numerous green design features. The building was the first commercial office building in New York City to receive the U.S. Green Building Council's Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification, where it won a gold rating. It was also one of the first projects accepted to be part of the Council's pilot program for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design – Core and Shell Development (LEED-CS).[9]

7 World Trade Center
A new skyscraper in New York's World Trade Center
The new 7 World Trade Center from the southeast (2008)
General information
StatusComplete
TypeOffice
Location250 Greenwich Street
Manhattan, New York 10006, United States
Coordinates40°42′48″N 74°00′43″W / 40.7133°N 74.0120°WCoordinates: 40°42′48″N 74°00′43″W / 40.7133°N 74.0120°W
Construction startedMay 7, 2002[1]
Completed2006
OpenedMay 23, 2006
Height
Architectural743 ft (226 m)[2]
Roof741 ft (226 m)[3]
Top floor679 ft (207 m)[2]
Technical details
Floor count52[3][4]
Floor area1,681,118 sq ft (156,181 m2)[2]
Lifts/elevators29[2]
Design and construction
ArchitectDavid Childs (SOM)[2]
DeveloperSilverstein Properties[2][4]
Structural engineerWSP Cantor Seinuk[2]
Website
7 World Trade Center, wtc.com
References
[2]

Original building (1987–2001)

Design and layout

World Trade Center, New York City - aerial view (March 2001)
Original 7 World Trade Center, the red-tinted building behind and to the left of the Twin Towers (View from southwest)
Wtc7 from wtc observation deck
The original 7 World Trade Center from the WTC observation deck
Wtc7 transfer trusses
Transfer trusses used on the 5–7th floors to redistribute load to the foundation

The original 7 World Trade Center was a 47-story building, designed by Emery Roth & Sons, with a red granite facade. The building was 610 feet (190 m) tall, with a trapezoidal footprint that was 330 ft (100 m) long and 140 ft (43 m) wide.[10][11] Tishman Realty & Construction managed construction of the building.[10] The ground-breaking ceremony was hosted on October 2, 1984.[12] The building opened in May 1987, becoming the seventh structure of the World Trade Center.[13]

7 World Trade Center was constructed above a two-story Con Edison substation that had been located on the site since 1967.[14][12] The substation had a caisson foundation designed to carry the weight of a future building of 25 stories containing 600,000 sq ft (56,000 m2).[15] The final design for 7 World Trade Center was for a much larger building than originally planned when the substation was built.[16]:xxxviii The structural design of 7 World Trade Center therefore included a system of gravity column transfer trusses and girders, located between floors 5 and 7, to transfer loads to the smaller foundation.[6]:5 Existing caissons installed in 1967 were used, along with new ones, to accommodate the building. The 5th floor functioned as a structural diaphragm, providing lateral stability and distribution of loads between the new and old caissons. Above the 7th floor, the building's structure was a typical tube-frame design, with columns in the core and on the perimeter, and lateral loads resisted by perimeter moment frames.[15]

A shipping and receiving ramp, which served the entire World Trade Center complex, occupied the eastern quarter of the 7 World Trade Center footprint. The building was open below the 3rd floor, providing space for truck clearance on the shipping ramp.[15] The spray-on fireproofing for structural steel elements was gypsum-based Monokote, which had a two-hour fire rating for steel beams, girders and trusses, and a three-hour rating for columns.[5]:11

Mechanical equipment was installed on floors four through seven, including 12 transformers on the 5th floor. Several emergency generators installed in the building were used by the New York City Office of Emergency Management, Salomon Smith Barney, and other tenants.[5]:13 In order to supply the generators, 24,000 gallons (91,000 L) of diesel fuel were stored below ground level.[17] Diesel fuel distribution components were located at ground level, up to the ninth floor.[18]:35 After the World Trade Center bombings of February 26, 1993, New York City mayor Rudy Giuliani decided to situate the emergency command center and associated fuel tanks at 7 World Trade Center. Although this decision was criticized in light of the events of 9/11, the fuel in the building is today not believed to have contributed to the collapse of the building.[19][20]:2 The roof of the building included a small west penthouse and a larger east mechanical penthouse.[14]

Each floor had 47,000 sq ft (4,400 m2) of rentable office space, which made the building's floor plans considerably larger than most office buildings in the City.[21] In all, 7 World Trade Center had 1,868,000 sq ft (173,500 m2) of office space.[5]:1 Two pedestrian bridges connected the main World Trade Center complex, across Vesey Street, to the third floor of 7 World Trade Center. The lobby of 7 World Trade Center held three murals by artist Al Held: The Third Circle, Pan North XII, and Vorces VII.[22]

Tenants

WTC Building Arrangement and Site Plan (building 7 highlighted)
The position of building 7 in relation to the other WTC buildings before September 11, 2001

In June 1986, before construction was completed, developer Larry Silverstein signed Drexel Burnham Lambert as a tenant to lease the entire 7 World Trade Center building for $3 billion over a term of 30 years.[23] In December 1986, after the Boesky insider-trading scandal, Drexel Burnham Lambert canceled the lease, leaving Silverstein to find other tenants.[24] Spicer & Oppenheim agreed to lease 14 percent of the space, but for more than a year, as Black Monday and other factors adversely affected the Lower Manhattan real estate market, Silverstein was unable to find tenants for the remaining space. By April 1988, he had lowered the rent and made other concessions.[25]

In November 1988, Salomon Brothers withdrew from plans to build a large new complex at Columbus Circle in Midtown, and agreed to a 20-year lease for the top 19 floors of 7 World Trade Center.[26] The building was extensively renovated in 1989 to accommodate the needs of Salomon Brothers. This led to the alternative naming of the building as the Salomon Brothers building.[27] Most of three existing floors were removed as tenants continued to occupy other floors, and more than 350 tons (U.S.) of steel were added to construct three double-height trading floors. Nine diesel generators were installed on the 5th floor as part of a backup power station. "Essentially, Salomon is constructing a building within a building – and it's an occupied building, which complicates the situation", said a district manager of Silverstein Properties. The unusual task was possible, said Larry Silverstein, because it was designed to allow for "entire portions of floors to be removed without affecting the building's structural integrity, on the assumption that someone might need double-height floors."[27]

At the time of the September 11, 2001, attacks, Salomon Smith Barney was by far the largest tenant in 7 World Trade Center, occupying 1,202,900 sq ft (111,750 m2) (64 percent of the building) which included floors 28–45.[5]:2[28] Other major tenants included ITT Hartford Insurance Group (122,590 sq ft/11,400 m2), American Express Bank International (106,117 sq ft/9,900 m2), Standard Chartered Bank (111,398 sq ft/10,350 m2), and the Securities and Exchange Commission (106,117 sq ft/9,850 m2).[28] Smaller tenants included the Internal Revenue Service Regional Council (90,430 sq ft/8,400 m2) and the United States Secret Service (85,343 sq ft/7,900 m2).[28] The smallest tenants included the New York City Office of Emergency Management,[29] National Association of Insurance Commissioners, Federal Home Loan Bank, First State Management Group Inc., Provident Financial Management, and the Immigration and Naturalization Service.[28] The Department of Defense (DOD) and Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) shared the 25th floor with the IRS.[5]:2 (The clandestine CIA office was revealed only after the 9/11 attacks.)[30] Floors 46–47 were mechanical floors, as were the bottom six floors and part of the seventh floor.[5]:2[30]

9/11 and collapse

Wtc7onfire
7 World Trade Center on fire after the collapse of the Twin Towers on 9/11

Collapse

As the North Tower collapsed on September 11, 2001, heavy debris hit 7 World Trade Center, damaging the south face of the building[31]:18 (PDF p. 22) and starting fires that continued to burn throughout the afternoon.[6]:16, 18 The collapse also caused damage to the southwest corner between floors 7 and 17 and on the south face between Floor 44 and the roof; other possible structural damage included a large vertical gash near the center of the south face between Floors 24 and 41.[6]:17 The building was equipped with a sprinkler system, but had many single-point vulnerabilities for failure: the sprinkler system required manual initiation of the electrical fire pumps, rather than being a fully automatic system; the floor-level controls had a single connection to the sprinkler water riser, and the sprinkler system required some power for the fire pump to deliver water.[32]:11 Additionally, water pressure was low, with little or no water to feed sprinklers.[33]:23–30

After the North Tower collapsed, some firefighters entered 7 World Trade Center to search the building. They attempted to extinguish small pockets of fire, but low water pressure hindered their efforts.[34] Over the course of the day, fires burned out of control on several floors of 7 World Trade Center, the flames visible on the east side of the building.[35] During the afternoon, the fire was also seen on floors 6–10, 13–14, 19–22, and 29–30.[31]:24 (PDF p. 28) In particular, the fires on floors 7 through 9 and 11 through 13 continued to burn out of control during the afternoon.[7] At approximately 2:00 pm, firefighters noticed a bulge in the southwest corner of 7 World Trade Center between the 10th and 13th floors, a sign that the building was unstable and might collapse.[36] During the afternoon, firefighters also heard creaking sounds coming from the building.[37] Around 3:30 pm, FDNY Chief Daniel A. Nigro decided to halt rescue operations, surface removal, and searches along the surface of the debris near 7 World Trade Center and evacuate the area due to concerns for the safety of personnel.[38] The fire expanded the girders of the building, causing some to lose their structural integrity. This led column number 79, a critical column supporting a large part of the 13th floor, to buckle, causing the floors above it to collapse to the fifth floor; however, this could not be seen from outside the building. The structure also developed cracks in the facade just before the entire building started to fall.[6]:21[39] According to FEMA, this collapse started at 5:20:33 pm EDT when the east mechanical penthouse started crumbling.[5]:23[40] Differing times are given as to what time the building completely collapsed:[40] at 5:21:10 pm EDT according to FEMA,[5]:23 and at 5:20:52 pm EDT according to NIST.[6]:19, 21, 50–51 There were no casualties associated with the collapse.[39] NIST found no evidence to support conspiracy theories such as the collapse being the result of explosives; it found that a combination of factors including physical damage, fire, and the building's unusual construction set off a chain-reaction collapse.[41]

Reports

Wtc7 collapse progression
Schematic view of collapse progression, with structural failure initiating on lower floors, on the east side of the building and vertical progression up to the east mechanical penthouse

In May 2002, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) issued a report on the collapse based on a preliminary investigation conducted jointly with the Structural Engineering Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers under the leadership of Dr. W. Gene Corley, P.E. FEMA made preliminary findings that the collapse was not primarily caused by actual impact damage from the collapse of 1 WTC and 2 WTC but by fires on multiple stories ignited by debris from the other two towers that continued burning unabated due to lack of water for sprinklers or manual firefighting. The report did not reach conclusions about the cause of the collapse and called for further investigation.[20]:3

Subsequently, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) was authorized to lead an investigation into the structural failure and collapse of the World Trade Center Twin Towers and 7 World Trade Center.[7] The investigation, led by Dr S. Shyam Sunder, drew upon in-house technical expertise as well as the knowledge of several outside private institutions, including the Structural Engineering Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers (SEI/ASCE); the Society of Fire Protection Engineers (SFPE); the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA); the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC); the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH); and the Structural Engineers Association of New York (SEAoNY).[42]

Abcnews-wtc7damage
Few photos and video clips exist that show the damage sustained to the south face of 7 World Trade Center on 9/11. An ABC News helicopter captured footage of the south face of 7 World Trade Center, including a glimpse of a gash, extending approximately 10 stories.

The bulk of the investigation of 7 World Trade Center was delayed until after reports were completed on the Twin Towers.[7] In the meantime, NIST provided a preliminary report about 7 WTC in June 2004, and thereafter released occasional updates on the investigation.[31] According to NIST, the investigation of 7 World Trade Center was delayed for a number of reasons, including that NIST staff who had been working on 7 World Trade Center were assigned full-time from June 2004 to September 2005 to work on the investigation of the collapse of the Twin Towers.[43] In June 2007, Shyam Sunder explained,

We are proceeding as quickly as possible while rigorously testing and evaluating a wide range of scenarios to reach the most definitive conclusion possible. The 7 WTC investigation is in some respects just as challenging, if not more so than the study of the towers. However, the current study does benefit greatly from the significant technological advances achieved and lessons learned from our work on the towers.[44]

Fiterman hall damage
BMCC's Fiterman Hall was heavily damaged from the collapse of 7 World Trade Center.

In November 2008, NIST released its final report on the causes of the collapse of 7 World Trade Center.[6] This followed NIST's August 21, 2008, draft report which included a period for public comments,[7] and was followed in 2012 by a peer-reviewed summary in the Journal of Structural Engineering.[45] In its investigation, NIST utilized ANSYS to model events leading up to collapse initiation and LS-DYNA models to simulate the global response to the initiating events.[46]:6–7 NIST determined that diesel fuel did not play an important role, nor did the structural damage from the collapse of the Twin Towers or the transfer elements (trusses, girders, and cantilever overhangs). The lack of water to fight the fire was an important factor. The fires burned out of control during the afternoon, causing floor beams near column 79 to expand and push a key girder off its seat, triggering the floors to fail around column 79 on Floors 8 to 14. With a loss of lateral support across nine floors, column 79 buckled – pulling the east penthouse and nearby columns down with it. With the buckling of these critical columns, the collapse then progressed east-to-west across the core, ultimately overloading the perimeter support, which buckled between Floors 7 and 17, causing the remaining portion of the building above to fall down as a single unit. The fires, which were fueled by office contents and burned for 7 hours, along with the lack of water, were the key reasons for the collapse.[6]:21–22 Incidentally, this made the old 7 WTC the only steel skyscraper at the time to have collapsed from fire.[8]

When 7 WTC collapsed, debris caused substantial damage and contamination to the Borough of Manhattan Community College's Fiterman Hall building, located adjacent at 30 West Broadway, to the extent that the building was not salvageable.[47] A revised plan called for demolition in 2009 and completion of the new Fiterman Hall in 2012, at a cost of $325 million.[48] The adjacent Verizon Building, an art deco building constructed in 1926, had extensive damage to its east facade from the collapse of 7 World Trade Center, though it was able to be restored at a cost of US$1.4 billion.[49]

WTC Area With Building Numbers 50dpi contrast
Aerial view of WTC remains and neighboring buildings after 9/11, with the original footprints of the Twin Towers and 7 WTC outlined

Files relating to numerous federal investigations had been housed in 7 World Trade Center. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission estimated over 10,000 of its cases were affected.[50] Investigative files in the Secret Service's largest field office were lost, with one Secret Service agent saying, "All the evidence that we stored at 7 World Trade, in all our cases, went down with the building."[51] Copies of emails in connection with the WorldCom scandal that were later requested by the SEC from Salomon Brothers, a subsidiary of Citigroup housed in the building, were also destroyed.[52]

The NIST report found no evidence supporting the conspiracy theories that 7 World Trade Center was brought down by controlled demolition. Specifically, the window breakage pattern and blast sounds that would have resulted from the use of explosives were not observed.[6]:26–28 The suggestion that an incendiary material such as thermite was used instead of explosives was considered unlikely by NIST because of observations of the fire and the building's structural response to the fire, and because it is unlikely the necessary quantity of material could have been planted without discovery.[7] Based on its investigation, NIST reiterated several recommendations it had made in its earlier report on the collapse of the Twin Towers.[6]:63–73 It urged immediate action on a further recommendation: that fire resistance should be evaluated under the assumption that sprinklers are unavailable;[6]:65–66 and that the effects of thermal expansion on floor support systems be considered.[6]:65, 69 Recognizing that current building codes are drawn to prevent loss of life rather than building collapse, the main point of NIST's recommendations was that buildings should not collapse from fire even if sprinklers are unavailable.[6]:63–73

New building

WTC Building Arrangement in preliminary site plan
Preliminary site plans for the World Trade Center rebuild
Wtc7-lookingup
The new 7 World Trade Center from the ground

The new 7 World Trade Center has 52 stories and is 741 ft (226 m) tall.[53] The building has 42 floors of leasable space, starting at the 11th floor, and a total of 1,700,000 sq ft (160,000 m2) of office space.[54] The first ten floors house an electrical substation which provides power to much of Lower Manhattan. The office tower has a narrower footprint at ground level than did its predecessor, so the course of Greenwich Street could be restored to reunite TriBeCa and the Financial District. The original building, on the other hand, had bordered West Broadway on the east, necessitating the destruction of Greenwich Street between Barclay Street and the northern border of the World Trade Center superblock.[55]

Design

David Childs of Skidmore, Owings and Merrill worked in conjunction with glass artist and designer James Carpenter to create a design that uses ultra-clear, low-iron glass to provide reflectivity and light, with stainless-steel spandrels behind the glass to help reflect sunlight.[56] Stainless steel used in the building façade is molybdenum-containing Type 316, which provides improved resistance to corrosion.[57] To enclose the power substation and improve its aesthetics, the base of the building has a curtain wall with stainless steel louvers that provide ventilation for the machinery.[58] During the day, the curtain wall reflects light, while at night it is illuminated with blue LED lights.[59] The curtain wall around the lobby uses heavily laminated, heat-strengthened glass that meets high standards for blast resistance.[60] At night, a large cube of light above the lobby also emanates blue light, while during the day it provides white light to the lobby, and at dusk it transitions to violet and back to blue.[61] Inside the main lobby, artist Jenny Holzer created a large light installation with glowing text moving across wide plastic panels.[56] The entire wall, which is 65 ft (20 m) wide and 14 ft (4.3 m) tall, changes color according to the time of day. Holzer worked with Klara Silverstein, the wife of Larry Silverstein, to select poetry for the art installation. The wall is structurally fortified as a security measure.[62]

The building is being promoted as the safest skyscraper in the U.S.[63] According to Silverstein Properties, the owner of the building, it "incorporate[s] a host of life-safety enhancements that will become the prototype for new high-rise construction."[64] The building has 2-foot-thick (0.61 m) reinforced-concrete and fireproofed elevator and stairway access shafts. The original building used only drywall to line these shafts.[65] The stairways are wider than in the original building to permit faster egress.[65]

7 World Trade Center is equipped with Otis destination elevators.[66] After pressing a destination floor number on a lobby keypad, passengers are grouped and directed to specific elevators that will stop at the selected floor (there are no buttons to press inside the elevators). This system is designed to reduce elevator waiting and travel times. The elevator system is integrated with the lobby turnstile and card reader system that identifies the floor on which a person works as he or she enters and can automatically call the elevator for that floor.[67]

Nearly 30 percent of structural steel used in the building consists of recycled steel.[68] Rainwater is collected and used for irrigation of the park and to cool the building.[56] Along with other sustainable design features, the building is designed to allow in plenty of natural light, power is metered to tenants to encourage them to conserve energy, the heating steam is reused to generate some power for the building, and recycled materials are used for insulation and interior materials.[69]

Construction

Construction 7wtc
7 World Trade Center construction in October 2004

The construction phase of the new 7 World Trade Center began on May 7, 2002, with the installation of a fence around the construction site.[1] Tishman Construction Corporation of New York began work at the new 7 World Trade Center in 2002, soon after the site was cleared of debris. Restoring the Con Ed electrical substation was an urgent priority to meet power demands of Lower Manhattan.[55] Because 7 World Trade Center is separate from the main 16-acre (6.5 ha) World Trade Center site, Larry Silverstein required approval from only the Port Authority, and rebuilding was able to proceed quickly.[70] Building Seven was not included in the original World Trade Center master plan by Daniel Libeskind, but was designed by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill under the leadership of David Childs, who largely redesigned One World Trade Center.

Once construction of the power substation was completed in October 2003, work proceeded on building the office tower. An unusual approach was used in constructing the building; erecting the steel frame before adding the concrete core. This approach allowed the construction schedule to be shortened by a few months.[71] Construction was completed in 2006 at a cost of $700 million.[56] Though Silverstein received $861 million from insurance on the old building, he owed more than $400 million on its mortgage.[72] Costs to rebuild were covered by $475 million in Liberty Bonds, which provide tax-exempt financing to help stimulate rebuilding in Lower Manhattan and insurance money that remained after other expenses.[73]

A 15,000 sq ft (1,400 m2) triangular park was created between the extended Greenwich Street and West Broadway by David Childs with Ken Smith and his colleague, Annie Weinmayr, of Ken Smith Landscape Architect. The park comprises an open central plaza with a fountain and flanking groves of sweetgum trees and boxwood shrubs.[74] At the center of the fountain, sculptor Jeff Koons created Balloon Flower (Red), whose mirror-polished stainless steel represents a twisted balloon in the shape of a flower.[75]

Opening

The building was officially opened at noon on May 23, 2006, with a free concert featuring Suzanne Vega, Citizen Cope, Bill Ware Vibes, Brazilian Girls, Ollabelle, Pharaoh's Daughter, Ronan Tynan (of the Irish Tenors), and special guest Lou Reed.[76][77] Prior to opening, in March 2006, the new 7 World Trade Center frontage and lobby were used in scenes for the movie Perfect Stranger with Halle Berry and Bruce Willis.[78]

Since the building opened, several unleased upper floors have been used for events such as charity lunches, fashion shows, and black-tie galas. Silverstein Properties allowed space in the new building to be used for these events as a means to draw people to see the building.[79] From September 8 to October 7, 2006, the work of photographer Jonathan Hyman was displayed in "An American Landscape", a free exhibit hosted by the World Trade Center Memorial Foundation at 7 World Trade Center. The photographs captured the response of people in New York City and across the United States after the September 11, 2001, attacks. The exhibit took place on the 45th floor while space remained available for lease.[80]

Nyas lobby wtc7
New York Academy of Sciences office (lobby) on the 40th floor

By March 2007, 60 percent of the building had been leased.[81] In September 2006, Moody's signed a 20-year lease to rent 15 floors of 7 World Trade Center.[82] Other tenants that had signed leases in 7 World Trade Center, as of May 2007, included ABN AMRO,[83] Ameriprise Financial Inc.,[84][77] law firm WilmerHale, Darby & Darby P.C.,[85] Mansueto Ventures LLC, business publisher of Fast Company and Inc.,[86] and the New York Academy of Sciences.[87][77]

The space occupied by Mansueto Ventures has been designed to use the maximum amount of natural light and has an open floor plan.[88] The space used by the New York Academy of Sciences on the 40th floor, designed by H3 Hardy Collaboration Architecture, works with the parallelogram shape of the building. Keeping with the green design of the building, the NYAS uses recycled materials in many of the office furnishings, has zoned heating and cooling, and lights that detect motion, coming on automatically only when people are present, and adjust according to incoming sunlight.[89]

Silverstein Properties also has offices and the Silver Suites executive office suites[90] in 7 World Trade Center, along with office space used by the architectural and engineering firms working on 1 World Trade Center, 150 Greenwich Street, 175 Greenwich Street, and 200 Greenwich Street.[91] The building became fully leased in September 2011 when MSCI was reported to have leased a 125,000 square feet (11,600 m2) space on the top floor.[92]

See also

References

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  14. ^ a b McAllister, T. P.; Gann, R. G.; Averill, J. D.; Gross, J. L.; Grosshandler, W. L.; Lawson, J. R.; McGrattan, K. B.; Pitts, W. M.; Prasad, K. R.; Sadek, F. H.; Nelson, H. E. (August 2008). Structural Fire Response and Probable Collapse Sequence of World Trade Center Building 7 (Volume 1). Federal Building and Fire Safety Investigation of the World Trade Center Disaster (NIST NCSTAR 1–9). National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). pp. 9–45. Retrieved September 1, 2011.
  15. ^ a b c Salvarinas, John J. (1986). Seven World Trade Center, New York, Fabrication and Construction Aspects. Proceedings of the 1986 Canadian Structural Engineering Conference. Vancouver: Canadian Steel Construction Council.
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External links

Bent Propeller

Bent Propeller (also known as World Trade Center Stabile) was a red stainless steel sculpture by Alexander Calder, commissioned by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey in 1969 and installed in 1970 at the World Trade Center in New York City.

The main elements of the sculpture were three sheets of curved metal, linked together to form a static work resting under its own weight, making it what Calder called a "stabile", as opposed to his famous "mobile" sculptures. It was reminiscent of a ship's propeller. Like many of Calder's public sculptures, it was painted red. The large work, 25 feet (7.6 m) high, was first installed near the entrance to WTC1 (the North Tower). It was moved in 1970 to a plaza in front of 7 World Trade Center, on the northeast corner of the World Trade Center Plaza by Vesey Street and Church Street.

The work was destroyed in 2001 in the aftermath of the September 11 attacks, crushed under thousands of tons of rubble when 7 World Trade Center collapsed. About 40 percent of the sculpture was recovered from the debris in the following months. With not enough of the original remaining for a restoration, the recovered elements were stored by the Calder Foundation. Today, a portion of the sculpture can be found at the National September 11 Memorial & Museum.

Collapse of the World Trade Center

New York City's World Trade Center was destroyed during the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, after being struck by two hijacked commercial airliners. The North Tower was hit at 8:46 am and collapsed at 10:28 am. The South Tower was hit at 9:03 am and collapsed at 9:59 am. The resulting debris severely damaged or destroyed more than a dozen other adjacent and nearby structures, ultimately leading to the collapse of Seven World Trade Center at 5:21 pm.As a result of the attacks to the towers, a total of 2,763 people died including 2,192 civilians, 343 firefighters, and 71 law enforcement officers as well as all the passengers and crew on the airplanes, including 147 civilians and the 10 hijackers.The scale of the destruction initially puzzled engineers, who had expected the buildings to survive airplane impacts. In September 2005, the National Institute of Standards and Technology published the results of its investigation into the collapse. The investigators did not find anything substandard in the design of the twin towers, noting that the severity of the attacks was beyond anything experienced in buildings in the past. They determined the fires to be the main cause of the collapses, finding that sagging floors pulled inward on the perimeter columns, causing them to bow and then to buckle. Once the upper section of the building began to move downwards, a total progressive collapse was unavoidable.The cleanup of the World Trade Center site involved round-the-clock operations, many contractors and subcontractors, and cost hundreds of millions of dollars. The demolition of the surrounding damaged buildings continued even as new construction proceeded on the Twin Towers' replacement, One World Trade Center, which was opened in November 2014. As of July 2019, five new buildings had been erected on the site; the last one, Two World Trade Center, is scheduled for completion in 2022.

Larry Silverstein

Larry A. Silverstein (born May 30, 1931) is an American businessman. Among his real estate projects, he is the developer of the rebuilt World Trade Center complex in lower Manhattan as well as one of New York's tallest residential towers at 30 Park Place, where he owns a home. His worth has been estimated at $3.5 billion as of 2016.Silverstein was born in Brooklyn, and became involved in real estate, together with his father, establishing Silverstein Properties. Silverstein separated from his business partner, Bernard Mendik, in 1977, and bought a number of large office buildings in Midtown and Lower Manhattan in the late 1970s. In 1980, Silverstein won a bid from the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey to construct 7 World Trade Center on Vesey Street, just north of the main World Trade Center site. Silverstein was interested in acquiring the original World Trade Center complex, and put in a bid when the Port Authority put it up for lease in 2000. Silverstein won the bid when a deal between the initial winner and the Port Authority fell through, and he signed the lease on July 24, 2001.

Soon after the September 11 attacks, in 2001, Silverstein declared his intent to rebuild, though he and his insurers became embroiled in a multi-year dispute over whether the attacks had constituted one event or two under the terms of the insurance policy, which provided for a maximum of $3.55 billion coverage per event. A settlement was reached in 2007, with insurers agreeing to pay out $4.55 billion, which was not as much as Silverstein had sought. Silverstein also ran into multiple disputes with other parties in the rebuilding effort, including with the Port Authority. In an agreement reached in April 2006, Silverstein retained rights to build three office towers (150 Greenwich Street, 175 Greenwich Street, and 200 Greenwich Street), while One World Trade Center (previously referred to as the "Freedom Tower") would be owned by the Port Authority, as would Tower Five, which it would have the option of leasing to a different private developer and having redesigned as a residential building.

List of tenants in 7 World Trade Center

7 World Trade Center was building seven of the World Trade Center complex in New York City. It was completed in 1987 at a height of 185 m (610 ft).

According to The New York Times and CBS News, one of the federal agencies listed below was incorrect, as it was used as a front for Central Intelligence Agency operations.

MSCI

MSCI Inc. (formerly Morgan Stanley Capital International and MSCI Barra), is a global provider of equity, fixed income, hedge fund stock market indexes, and multi-asset portfolio analysis tools. It publishes the MSCI BRIC, MSCI World and MSCI EAFE Indexes.

The company is currently headquartered at 7 World Trade Center in Manhattan, New York City, U.S.

Massive Dynamic

Massive Dynamic is a fictional multinational conglomerate from the TV series Fringe that develops the advancement of weapons testing, robotics, medical equipment, aeronautics, genetics, pharmaceuticals, telecommunication, energy, transportation, and entertainment technology. Fictionally, the headquarters of Massive Dynamic is located at 655 18th Street, New York ("Olivia"). However, in reality, the exterior of the new 7 World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan is used as its headquarters. For the pilot episode, interior scenes of Massive Dynamic were filmed in the Michael Lee-Chin Crystal entrance of the Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto, Ontario. In the episode "Brown Betty", Massive Dynamic's headquarters are located in the South Tower of the original World Trade Center.

Their ongoing slogan was: "What do we do? What don't we do!"

Silverstein Properties

Silverstein Properties, Inc. (SPI) is a family held, full-service real estate development, investment and management firm based in New York City. Founded in 1957 by Chairman Larry Silverstein, the company specializes in developing, acquiring, and managing office, residential, hotel, retail, and mixed-use properties. The firm is New York City's fifth-largest commercial landlord.SPI's real estate business has been one of the largest investors in New York City real estate over the past fifty years, having developed, owned and managed more than 40 million square feet of office, residential, hotel and retail properties including the new World Trade Center, 30 Park Place (Four Seasons Private Residences New York Downtown), 120 Wall Street, Equitable Building, and Americas Tower.Silverstein Properties is headquartered at 7 World Trade Center in Manhattan, New York City.

The NIST World Trade Center Disaster Investigation

The National Construction Safety Team Act (NCST Act), signed into law on October 1, 2002 by President George W. Bush, mandated the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to establish the likely technical cause or causes of the three building failures that occurred on September 11, 2001 at the World Trade Center as a result of a terrorist attack. NIST issued its final report on the collapse of the World Trade Center Twin Towers in September 2005. It issued its final report on 7 World Trade Center in November 2008.

NIST concluded that the collapse of each tower resulted from the combined effects of airplane impact damage, widespread fireproofing dislodgment, and the fires that ensued. The sequence of failures that NIST concluded initiated the collapse of both towers involved the heat-induced sagging of floor trusses pulling some of the exterior columns on one side of each tower inward until they buckled, after which instability rapidly spread and the upper sections then fell onto the floors below. World Trade Center Building 7 (7WTC), which was never directly hit by an airplane, collapsed as a result of thermal expansion of steel beams and girders that were heated by uncontrolled fires caused by the collapse of the North Tower and failure of the fire-resistive material.

World Trade Center (2001–present)

The World Trade Center is a mostly completed complex of buildings in Lower Manhattan, New York City, U.S., replacing the original seven buildings on the same site that were destroyed in the September 11 attacks. The site is being rebuilt with up to six new skyscrapers, four of which have been completed; a memorial and museum to those killed in the attacks; the elevated Liberty Park adjacent to the site, containing the St. Nicholas Greek Orthodox Church and Vehicular Security Center; and a transportation hub. The 104-story One World Trade Center, the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere, is the lead building for the new complex.

The buildings are among many created by the World Trade Centers Association. The original World Trade Center featured the landmark Twin Towers, which opened in 1973, and were the tallest buildings in the world at the time of their completion. They were destroyed on the morning of September 11, 2001, when al-Qaeda-affiliated hijackers flew two Boeing 767 jets into the complex in a coordinated act of terrorism. The attacks on the World Trade Center killed 2,753 people. The resulting collapse of the World Trade Center caused structural failure in the surrounding buildings as well. The process of cleaning up and recovery at the World Trade Center site took eight months, after which rebuilding of the site commenced.

After years of delay and controversy, reconstruction at the World Trade Center site started. The new complex includes One World Trade Center, 3 World Trade Center, 4 World Trade Center, 7 World Trade Center, and one other high-rise office building being planned at 2 World Trade Center. The new World Trade Center complex also includes a museum and memorial, and a transportation hub building that is similar in size to Grand Central Terminal. 7 World Trade Center opened on May 23, 2006, making it the first of five skyscrapers to have been completed in the World Trade Center complex. 4 World Trade Center, the first building completed as part of the site's master plan, opened on November 12, 2013. The National September 11 Memorial opened on September 11, 2011, while the Museum opened on May 21, 2014. One World Trade Center was opened on November 3, 2014. The World Trade Center Transportation Hub opened to the public on March 4, 2016, and 3 World Trade Center opened on June 11, 2018. 2 World Trade Center's full construction was placed on hold in 2009, with a new design announced in 2015.

World Trade Center controlled demolition conspiracy theories

World Trade Center controlled demolition theories contend that the collapse of the World Trade Center was not solely caused by the airliner crash damage that occurred as part of the September 11 attacks, and the resulting fire damage, but by explosives installed in the buildings in advance. Controlled demolition theories make up a major component of 9/11 conspiracy theories.

Early advocates such as physicist Steven E. Jones, architect Richard Gage, software engineer Jim Hoffman, theologian David Ray Griffin, and Dutch demolitions expert Danny Jowenko, proposed that the aircraft impacts and resulting fires could not have weakened the buildings sufficiently to initiate a catastrophic collapse, and that the buildings would not have collapsed completely, nor at the speeds that they did, without additional energy involved to weaken their structures.The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the magazine Popular Mechanics examined and rejected these theories. Specialists in structural mechanics and structural engineering accept the model of a fire-induced, gravity-driven collapse of the World Trade Center buildings, an explanation that does not involve the use of explosives. NIST "found no corroborating evidence for alternative hypotheses suggesting that the WTC towers were brought down by controlled demolition using explosives planted prior to Sept. 11, 2001." Professors Zdeněk Bažant of Northwestern University, Thomas Eagar, of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and James Quintiere of the University of Maryland, have also dismissed the controlled-demolition conspiracy theory.

In 2006, Jones suggested that thermite or super-thermite may have been used by government insiders with access to such materials and to the buildings themselves, to demolish the buildings. In April 2009, Jones, Dane Niels H. Harrit and seven other authors published a paper in The Open Chemical Physics Journal, causing the editor, Prof. Marie-Paule Pileni, to resign as she accused the publisher of printing it without her knowledge; this article was titled 'Active Thermitic Material Discovered in Dust from the 9/11 World Trade Center Catastrophe', and stated that they had found evidence of nano-thermite in samples of the dust that was produced during the collapse of the World Trade Center towers. NIST responded that there was no "clear chain of custody" to prove that the four samples of dust came from the WTC site. Jones invited NIST to conduct its own studies using its own known "chain of custody" dust, but NIST did not investigate.

World Trade Center site

The World Trade Center site, formerly referred to as "Ground Zero" or "the Pile" immediately after the September 11 attacks, is a 14.6-acre (5.9 ha) area in Lower Manhattan in New York City. The site is bounded by Vesey Street to the north, the West Side Highway to the west, Liberty Street to the south, and Church Street to the east. The Port Authority owns the site's land (except for 7 World Trade Center). The previous World Trade Center complex stood on the site until it was destroyed in the September 11 attacks.

The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ), Silverstein Properties, and the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation (LMDC) have overseen the reconstruction of the site as part of the new World Trade Center, following a master plan by Studio Daniel Libeskind. Developer Larry Silverstein holds the lease to retail and office space in four of the site's buildings.

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