79th United States Congress

The Seventy-ninth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, DC from January 3, 1945, to January 3, 1947, during the last months of Franklin D. Roosevelt's presidency, and the first two years of Harry Truman's presidency. The apportionment of seats in this House of Representatives was based on the Sixteenth Census of the United States in 1940. Both chambers had a Democratic majority.

79th United States Congress
78th ←
→ 80th
USCapitol1956
January 3, 1945 – January 3, 1947
Senate PresidentHenry A. Wallace (D)
until January 20, 1945
Harry S. Truman (D)
Jan 20–Apr 12, 1945
Vacant
from April 12, 1945
Senate President pro temKenneth McKellar (D)
House SpeakerSam Rayburn (D)
Members96 senators
435 members of the House
4 non-voting delegates
Senate MajorityDemocratic
House MajorityDemocratic
Sessions
1st: January 3, 1945 – December 21, 1945
2nd: January 14, 1946 – August 2, 1946

Major events

Major legislation

Atomic Energy Act of 1946 signing
President Truman signs the Atomic Energy Act on August 1, 1946.

Treaties ratified

  • December 4, 1945: Senate approved the entry of the United States into the United Nations (by a vote of 65–7)[3]
  • July 4, 1946: The United States ratified the Treaty of Manila, which gave independence to The Philippines

Party summary

Senate

Party
(shading shows control)
Total Vacant
Democratic
(D)
Progressive
(P)
Republican
(R)
End of the previous congress 56 1 39 96 0
Begin 57 1 38 96 0
End 54 41
Final voting share 56.3% 1.0% 42.7%
Beginning of the next congress 45 0 51 96 0

House of Representatives

Party
(shading shows control)
Total Vacant
Democratic
(D)
Farmer-Labor
(FL)
American
Labor

(AL)
Wisconsin Progressive
(P)
Republican
(R)
End of the previous congress 214 1 1 2 207 425 9
Begin 242 0 1 1 191 435 0
End 240 188 4305
Final voting share 55.8% 0.0% 0.2% 0.2% 43.7%
Beginning of the next congress 185 0 1 0 248 434 1

Leadership

Senate

House of Representatives

Members

Senate

Senators are popularly elected statewide every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election, In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term ended with this Congress, facing re-election in 1946; Class 2 meant their term began in the last Congress, facing re-election in 1948; and Class 3 meant their term began in this Congress, facing re-election in 1950.

Alabama

Arizona

Arkansas

California

Colorado

Connecticut

Delaware

Florida

Georgia

Idaho

Illinois

Indiana

Iowa

Kansas

Kentucky

Louisiana

Maine

Maryland

Massachusetts

Michigan

Minnesota

Mississippi

Missouri

Montana

Nebraska

Nevada

New Hampshire

New Jersey

New Mexico

New York

North Carolina

North Dakota

Ohio

Oklahoma

Oregon

Pennsylvania

Rhode Island

South Carolina

South Dakota

Tennessee

Texas

Utah

Vermont

Virginia

Washington

West Virginia

Wisconsin

Wyoming

House of Representatives

The names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers.

79 us house membership
House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80+% to 100% Democratic
  80+% to 100% Republican
  60+% to 80% Democratic
  60+% to 80% Republican
  Up to 60% Democratic
  Up to 60% Republican

Changes in membership

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of this Congress.

Senate

State
(class)
Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation[a]
Washington
(1)
Monrad Wallgren (D) Resigned January 9, 1945, after being elected Governor of Washington.
Successor was appointed to serve until the next election.
Hugh Mitchell (D) January 10, 1945
Connecticut
(1)
Francis T. Maloney (D) Died January 16, 1945.
Successor was appointed to serve until a special election.
Thomas C. Hart (R) February 15, 1945
Missouri
(1)
Harry S. Truman (D) Resigned January 17, 1945, after being elected Vice President of the United States.
Successor was appointed to serve until the next election.
Frank P. Briggs (D) January 18, 1945
North Dakota
(3)
John Moses (D) Died March 3, 1945.
Successor was appointed to serve until a special election, which he subsequently won.
Milton Young (R) March 12, 1945
Nevada
(1)
James G. Scrugham (D) Died June 23, 1945.
Successor was appointed to serve until the next election.
Edward P. Carville (D) July 25, 1945
California
(1)
Hiram Johnson (R) Died August 6, 1945.
Successor was appointed to serve until a special election, which he subsequently won.
William F. Knowland (R) August 26, 1945
Ohio
(1)
Harold H. Burton (R) Resigned September 30, 1945, after being appointed an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.
Successor was appointed to serve until a special election.
James W. Huffman (D) October 8, 1945
Kentucky
(2)
Happy Chandler (D) Resigned November 1, 1945, after becoming Commissioner of Major League Baseball.
Successor was appointed to serve until a special election.
William A. Stanfill (R) November 19, 1945
Idaho
(2)
John W. Thomas (R) Died November 10, 1945.
Successor was appointed to serve until a special election, which he subsequently lost.
Charles C. Gossett (D) November 17, 1945
Virginia
(2)
Carter Glass (D) Died May 28, 1946.
Successor was appointed to serve until a special election.
Thomas G. Burch (D) May 31, 1946
Alabama
(2)
John H. Bankhead II (D) Died June 12, 1946.
Successor was appointed to serve until a special election.
George R. Swift (D) June 15, 1946
Vermont
(1)
Warren Austin (R) Resigned August 2, 1946, after being appointed United States representative on the United Nations Security Council.
Successor was appointed to serve until the next election.
Ralph Flanders (R) November 1, 1946
Florida
(1)
Charles O. Andrews (D) Died September 18, 1946.
Successor was elected to finish term.
Spessard Holland (D) September 25, 1946
Alabama
(2)
George R. Swift (D) Resigned November 5, 1946.
Successor was elected to finish term.
John Sparkman (D) November 6, 1946
Connecticut
(1)
Thomas C. Hart (R) Resigned November 5, 1946.
Successor was elected to finish term.
Raymond E. Baldwin (R) December 27, 1946
Kentucky
(2)
William A. Stanfill (R) Resigned November 5, 1946. Successor was elected to finish term John S. Cooper (R) November 6, 1946
Ohio
(1)
James W. Huffman (D) Resigned November 5, 1946. Successor was elected to finish term. Kingsley A. Taft (R) November 6, 1946
Virginia
(2)
Thomas G. Burch (D) Resigned November 5, 1946.
Successor was elected to finish term.
Absalom W. Robertson (D) November 6, 1946
Idaho
(2)
Charles C. Gossett (D) Resigned November 6, 1946.
Successor was elected to finish term.
Henry Dworshak (R) November 6, 1946
North Carolina
(2)
Josiah Bailey (D) Died December 15, 1946.
Successor was appointed to serve until a special election, which he subsequently lost.
William B. Umstead (D) December 18, 1946
Washington
(1)
Hugh Mitchell (D) Resigned December 25, 1946. Successor was appointed to finish the term already having to be elected the next term. Harry P. Cain (R) December 26, 1946

House of Representatives

District Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation[a]
Rhode Island 2nd Vacant John E. Fogarty resigned during the previous Congress. John E. Fogarty (D) February 7, 1945
Montana 2nd James F. O'Connor (D) Died January 15, 1945 Wesley A. D'Ewart (R) June 5, 1945
Virginia 3rd Dave E. Satterfield, Jr. (D) Resigned February 15, 1945, to become general counsel and executive director of the Life Insurance Association of America J. Vaughan Gary (D) March 6, 1945
Illinois 24th James V. Heidinger (R) Died March 22, 1945 Roy Clippinger (R) November 6, 1945
New Mexico At-large Clinton P. Anderson (D) Resigned June 30, 1945, after being appointed Secretary of Agriculture Vacant Not filled this term
New Jersey 4th D. Lane Powers (R) Resigned August 30, 1945, to become a member of the Public Utilities Commission of New Jersey Frank A. Mathews, Jr. (R) November 6, 1945
Oregon 1st James W. Mott (R) Died November 12, 1945 A. Walter Norblad (R) January 18, 1946
North Carolina 10th Joseph W. Ervin (D) Died December 25, 1945 Sam Ervin (D) January 22, 1946
New York 19th Samuel Dickstein (D) Resigned December 30, 1945 Arthur G. Klein (D) February 19, 1946
Virginia 6th Clifton A. Woodrum (D) Resigned December 31, 1945, to become president of the American Plant Food Council, Inc. J. Lindsay Almond, Jr. (D) January 22, 1946
Georgia 5th Robert Ramspeck (D) Resigned December 31, 1945, to become executive vice-president of the Air Transport Association Helen D. Mankin (D) February 12, 1946
Pennsylvania 33rd Samuel A. Weiss (D) Resigned January 7, 1946, after being elected judge of Common Pleas in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania Frank Buchanan (D) May 21, 1946
Pennsylvania 23rd J. Buell Snyder (D) Died February 24, 1946 Carl H. Hoffman (R) May 21, 1946
North Carolina 8th William O. Burgin (D) Died April 11, 1946 Eliza Jane Pratt (D) May 25, 1946
Virginia 5th Thomas G. Burch (D) Resigned May 31, 1946, after being appointed to the U.S. Senate Thomas B. Stanley (D) November 5, 1946
Texas 6th Luther A. Johnson (D) Resigned July 17, 1946, after becoming judge of the United States Tax Court Olin E. Teague (D) August 24, 1946
Pennsylvania 10th John W. Murphy (D) Resigned July 17, 1946, to become judge of the US District Court for the Middle District of Pennsylvania James P. Scoblick (R) November 5, 1946
Minnesota 3rd William Gallagher (DFL) Died August 13, 1946 Vacant Not filled this term
Puerto Rico At-large Jesús T. Piñero (PPD) Resigned September 2, 1946, after being appointed Governor of Puerto Rico Antonio Fernós-Isern (PPD) September 11, 1946
New York 4th William B. Barry (D) Died October 20, 1946 Vacant Not filled this term
Alabama 8th John Sparkman (D) Resigned November 6, 1946, after being elected to the U.S. Senate Vacant Not filled this term
Idaho 2nd Henry Dworshak (R) Resigned November 5, 1946, after being elected to the U.S. Senate Vacant Not filled this term
Virginia 7th Absalom W. Robertson (D) Resigned November 5, 1946, after being elected to the U.S. Senate Burr Harrison (D) November 5, 1946
Wisconsin 2nd Robert K. Henry (R) Died November 20, 1946 Vacant Not filled this term

Committees

Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members (House and Senate) of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link (4 links), in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate, House (Standing with Subcommittees, Select and Special) and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.

Senate

House of Representatives

Joint committees

  • Atomic Energy
  • Conditions of Indian Tribes (Special)
  • Disposition of Executive Papers
  • Investigation of the Pearl Harbor Attack
  • Legislative Budget
  • The Library
  • Organization of Congress
  • Reduction of Nonessential Federal Expenditures
  • Selective Service Deferments
  • Taxation

Caucuses

Employees

Legislative branch agency directors

Senate

House of Representatives

See also

External links

Notes

  1. ^ a b This is the date the member was seated or an oath administered, not necessarily the same date her/his service began.

References

  1. ^ "Senate archive on the Joint Committee on the Investigation of the Pearl Harbor Attack". Retrieved October 18, 2015.
  2. ^ Jamison, Dennis (December 7, 2014). "The blame and victory of Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor".
  3. ^ "UNO Bill Approved By Senate, 65 to 7, With One Change". www.nytimes.com. Retrieved April 6, 2018.
1945 State of the Union Address

The 1945 State of the Union Address was given to the 79th United States Congress on Saturday, January 6, 1945, by the 32nd President of the United States, Franklin D. Roosevelt. It was given in the year he died. It was given during the final year of World War II. He stated, "In considering the State of the Union, the war and the peace that is to follow are naturally uppermost in the minds of all of us.

This war must be waged--it is being waged--with the greatest and most persistent intensity. Everything we are and have is at stake. Everything we are and have will be given. American men, fighting far from home, have already won victories which the world will never forget.

We have no question of the ultimate victory. We have no question of the cost. Our losses will be heavy.

We and our allies will go on fighting together to ultimate total victory."

1946 State of the Union Address

The 1946 State of the Union Address was given by the 33rd President of the United States, Harry S. Truman, on Monday, January 21, 1946, to the 79th United States Congress. He stated, "At Moscow the United States, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, and Great Britain agreed to further this development by supporting the efforts of the national government and nongovernmental Chinese political elements in bringing about cessation of civil strife and in broadening the basis of representation in the Government. That is the policy which General Marshall is so ably executing today.

It is the purpose of the Government of the United States to proceed as rapidly as is practicable toward the restoration of the sovereignty of Korea and the establishment of a democratic government by the free choice of the people of Korea." The Cold War was just beginning.

476 (disambiguation)

476 may refer to:

Interstate 476, an Interstate highway in Pennsylvania.

The year 476 on the Gregorian calendar.

Public Law 476, an act of 79th United States Congress chartering the Civil Air Patrol.

Atomic Energy Act of 1946

The Atomic Energy Act of 1946 (McMahon Act) determined how the United States would control and manage the nuclear technology it had jointly developed with its World War II allies, the United Kingdom and Canada. Most significantly, the Act ruled that nuclear weapon development and nuclear power management would be under civilian, rather than military control, and established the United States Atomic Energy Commission for this purpose.

It was sponsored by Senator Brien McMahon, a Democrat from Connecticut, who chaired the United States Senate Special Committee on Atomic Energy, and whose hearings in late 1945 and early 1946 led to the fine tuning and passing of the Act. The Senate passed the Act unanimously through voice vote, and it passed the House of Representatives 265–79. Signed into law by President Harry S. Truman on August 1, 1946, it went into effect on January 1, 1947, and the Atomic Energy Commission assumed responsibility for nuclear energy from the wartime Manhattan Project.

The Act was subsequently amended to promote private development of nuclear energy under the Eisenhower administration's Atoms for Peace program in 1954. In restricting the access to nuclear information to other countries, it created a rift between the United States and its allies, particularly Britain and Canada, which had participated in the Manhattan Project. This resulted in cumbersome command and control arrangements, and in Britain developing its own nuclear weapons. The Act was amended in 1958 to allow the United States to share information with its close allies.

Ellis E. Patterson

Ellis Ellwood Patterson (November 28, 1897 – August 25, 1985) was a one-term Democratic California congressman. Born in Yuba City, California, he served as representative between 1945 and 1947. Patterson also served in the California State Assembly. He was also the 33rd Lieutenant Governor of California, 1939-43.

Born in Yuba City, California, Patterson attended public schools and graduated from the University of California, Berkeley in 1921. He served as a seaman in the United States Navy in 1917 and 1918 during World War I, and taught school in Colusa County, California from 1922 to 1924.

From 1923 to 1932, Patterson served as the district superintendent of schools for South Monterey County, California. He also studied law at Stanford University and the University of California from 1931 to 1936. He was admitted to the bar in 1937 and commenced law practice in Sacramento and Los Angeles.

Patterson served as a member of the California State Assembly from 1932 to 1938. In 1936, after being defeated in the primaries in his second re-election bid, Patterson waged a write-in campaign and won the election. Originally elected as a Republican, Patterson switched his party affiliation to Democrat after becoming enamored with President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal.After gaining publicity for his write-in Assembly campaign, Patterson was elected Lieutenant Governor of California, and served from 1938 to 1942. He was defeated in 1942. He was elected as a Democrat to the 79th United States Congress in 1944. In 1946, he did not seek renomination for his House seat, but instead was an unsuccessful candidate for nomination for the United States Senate. Patterson was an unsuccessful candidate for election to the 81st United States Congress in 1948, and resumed the practice of law.

He was a resident of Los Angeles until his death there, of cancer, on August 25, 1985.

Federal Airport Act of 1946

Federal Airport Act of 1946 is United States statute establishing a federal program for the development of civil aviation airports within the continental United States. The Act of Congress authorized federal grants to progressively evolve civil aviation bases. The public law mandates a national airport plan encompassing airport classifications as defined by the Civil Aeronautics Administration.The Senate legislation was passed by the 79th United States Congressional session and enacted into law by the 33rd President of the United States Harry Truman on May 13, 1946.

Frank Buchanan (Pennsylvania politician)

Frank Buchanan (December 1, 1902 – April 27, 1951) was a Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania.

Frank Buchanan was born in the Pittsburgh suburb of McKeesport, Pennsylvania. He married future Representative Vera Daerr on January 4, 1929. He graduated from the University of Pittsburgh in 1925 where he was a member of the Phi Gamma Delta fraternity. He worked as a teacher in the high schools of Homestead, Pennsylvania and McKeesport from 1924 to 1928 and 1931 to 1942. From 1928 to 1931, he worked as an automobile dealer, and he also worked as an economic consultant from 1928 to 1946. He served as mayor of McKeesport from 1942 to 1946.

Buchanan was elected as a Democrat to the 79th United States Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Samuel A. Weiss. He was re-elected to the Eightieth, Eighty-first, and Eighty-second Congresses and served until his death in Bethesda, Maryland. In Congress, he served as Chairman of the United States House Select Committee on Lobbying Activities during the 81st Congress.

His wife Vera Buchanan later died while serving in Congress, and they were the first husband and wife to both die while serving in Congress.

Hill–Burton Act

The Hospital Survey and Construction Act (or the Hill–Burton Act) is a U.S. federal law passed in 1946, during the 79th United States Congress. It was sponsored by Senator Harold Burton of Ohio and Senator Lister Hill of Alabama.In November 1945, President Harry S. Truman delivered a special message to Congress in which he outlined a five-part program for improving the health and health care of Americans. The Hospital Survey and Construction Act responded to the first of President Truman's proposals, which called for the construction of hospitals and related health care facilities, and was designed to provide federal grants and guaranteed loans to improve the physical plant of the nation's hospital system. Money was designated to the states to achieve 4.5 beds per 1,000 people. The states allocated the available money to their various municipalities, but the law provided for a rotation mechanism, so that an area that received funding moved to the bottom of the list for further funding.

Facilities that received Hill–Burton funding had to adhere to several requirements:

They were not allowed to discriminate based on race, color, national origin, or creed, though separate but equal facilities in the same area were allowed. The U.S. Supreme Court struck down this segregation in 1963 when it denied certiorari to the Fourth Circuit decision Simkins v. Cone.

Facilities that received funding were also required to provide a ‘reasonable volume’ of free care each year for those residents in the facility's area who needed care but could not afford to pay. Hospitals were initially required to provide uncompensated care for 20 years after receiving funding. The federal money was also only provided in cases where the state and local municipality were willing and able to match the federal grant or loan, so that the federal portion only accounted for one third of the total construction or renovation cost.

The states and localities were also required to prove the economic viability of the facility in question. This excluded the poorest municipalities from the Hill–Burton program; the majority of funding went to middle class areas. It also served to prop up hospitals that were economically nonviable, retarding the development wrought by market forces. Once Medicare and Medicaid were enacted, participation in those programs was added to the list of requirements for access to Hill–Burton funding.The reality, however, did not nearly meet the written requirement of the law. For the first 20 years of the act's existence, there was no regulation in place to define what constituted a "reasonable volume" or to ensure that hospitals were providing any free care at all. This did not improve until the early 1970s, when lawyers representing poor people began suing hospitals for not abiding by the law. Hill-Burton was set to expire in June 1973, but it was extended for one year in the last hour. In 1975, the Act was amended and became Title XVI of the Public Health Service Act. The most significant changes at this point were the addition of some regulatory mechanisms (defining what constitutes the inability to pay) and the move from a 20-year commitment to a requirement to provide free care in perpetuity. Still, it was not until 1979 that compliance levels were defined.

James P. Scoblick

James Paul Scoblick (May 10, 1909 – December 4, 1981) was a Republican member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania.

James P. Scoblick was born in Archbald, Pennsylvania; both of his parents were Italian immigrants. He graduated from Fordham University in New York City in 1930 and took postgraduate work at Columbia University in New York City. He served as a member of the Department of Public Assistance Board of Lackawanna County, Pennsylvania.

Scoblick was elected as a Republican to the 79th United States Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of John W. Murphy and at the same time was elected to the 80th United States Congress. He was an unsuccessful candidate for renomination in 1948.

He resumed former business pursuits and engaged as consultant to food industry. In January 1953, Scoblick and two of his brothers were indicted in a check kiting scheme involving their fruit-processing business, Scoblick Bros. Inc. With the testimony of a bank cashier who turned state's evidence, all three were convicted on December 3, 1954 and Judge Albert L. Watson sentenced James Scoblick to five years in prison.Scoblick was a resident of Archbald, until his death there on December 4, 1981, and was interred in Mother of Sorrows Cemetery in Finch Hill, Pennsylvania.

Joint Committee on the Investigation of the Pearl Harbor Attack

The Joint Committee on the Investigation of the Pearl Harbor Attack, also known as The Pearl Harbor Committee, was a committee of members of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives formed during the 79th United States Congress after World War II to investigate the causes of the 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor, and possible preventative measures against future attacks. The resolution for the formation of this committee passed in the Senate on September 6, 1945, and in the House on September 11, 1945. The final report of the committee issued on June 20, 1946.

Lanham Act

The Lanham (Trademark) Act (Pub.L. 79–489, 60 Stat. 427, enacted July 5, 1946, codified at 15 U.S.C. § 1051 et seq. (15 U.S.C. ch. 22)) is the primary federal trademark statute of law in the United States. The Act prohibits a number of activities, including trademark infringement, trademark dilution, and false advertising.

List of United States Senators in the 79th Congress by seniority

This is a complete list of members of the United States Senate during the 79th United States Congress listed by seniority, from January 3, 1945, to January 3, 1947.

Order of service is based on the commencement of the senator's first term. Behind this is former service as a senator (only giving the senator seniority within his or her new incoming class), service as vice president, a House member, a cabinet secretary, or a governor of a state. The final factor is the population of the senator's state.Senators who were sworn in during the middle of the two-year congressional term (up until the last senator who was not sworn in early after winning the November 1946 election) are listed at the end of the list with no number.

McCarran–Ferguson Act

The McCarran–Ferguson Act, 15 U.S.C. §§ 1011-1015, is a United States federal law that exempts the business of insurance from most federal regulation, including federal antitrust laws to a limited extent. The McCarran–Ferguson Act was passed by the 79th Congress in 1945 after the Supreme Court ruled in United States v. South-Eastern Underwriters Association that the federal government could regulate insurance companies under the authority of the Commerce Clause in the U.S. Constitution and that the federal antitrust laws applied to the insurance industry.

The Act was sponsored by Senators Pat McCarran (D-Nev.) and Homer Ferguson (R-Mich.).

National Mental Health Act

The National Mental Health Act (1946) became law on July 3, 1946. It established and provided funds for a National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH).

The act made the mental health of the people a federal priority. It was inspired by alarm at the poor mental health of some draftees and veterans, and was demanded by veterans and their families. When veterans who were under stress during the war were later studied they displayed a high incidence of earlier mental health illness, completely aside from the problems that might have arisen from combat and wartime situations of high pressure.

Through the National Mental Health Act and the NIMH, a new form of diagnosis and treatment was created to better help those facing mental health problems. It was discovered during this time that mental health patients benefited more from evaluation and treatment rather than being institutionalized. The act redirected financing from the state level to a national level, and placed the NIMH as a leader for further research and analysis on the brain and psychiatric disorders.In other words, wartime pressures had stirred up repressed mental illness in the soldiers, who were a representative statistical sample of the general population, gender aside. The government realized it had a very serious problem on its hands—a population with a high incidence of mental health illness and therefore should take care of it immediately via government intervention, aiming to cut off future social pathologies.

The Menninger brothers set about training analysts, to fill the vacuum that existed at that time.

The act was first introduced by Congress in March, 1945, as the National Neuropsychiatric Institute Act. The name ultimately made its way to "Mental Health" to capture the importance of World War II and the problems associated with veterans returning from war.Robert Felix, a psychiatrist appointed as director of the Public Health Service's (PHS) Division of Mental Hygiene in 1944, did much work to try to pass the bill. William Menninger, Lawrence Kubie, and others helped Felix by testifying about how the lack of trained professionals in the field of mental health sometimes thwarted military morale and how intervening earlier rather than later actually helped the military in the long run by conserving personnel. They believed that if veterans received federal help and support through preventive services, professional training, and research they would transition back into postwar life quicker and easier. In addition, organizations like Mental Health America that advocated for changes in the psychiatric field helped push legislation towards action.Before the act was passed, during World War II, there was a severe shortage of professionals in the mental health field, and advanced treatment and understanding of psychiatric disorders lagged behind the increasing numbers of problems in veterans returning from the war. This provided the foundation for the act and the reasoning behind it.After the act was passed, many discoveries and breakthroughs regarding mental health diagnosis and treatment were made. These new drugs and treatments improved the lives of those previously suffering from psychosis and delusion, and were a result of the new funding and federal support that came from the National Mental Health Act of 1946.

National School Lunch Act

The Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (79 P.L. 396, 60 Stat. 230) is a 1946 United States federal law that created the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) to provide low-cost or free school lunch meals to qualified students through subsidies to schools. The program was established as a way to prop up food prices by absorbing farm surpluses, while at the same time providing food to school age children. It was named after Richard Russell, Jr., signed into law by President Harry S. Truman in 1946, and entered the federal government into schools dietary programs on June 4, 1946.The majority of the support provided to schools participating in the program comes in the form of a cash reimbursement for each meal served. Schools are also entitled to receive commodity foods and additional commodities as they are available from surplus agricultural stocks. The National School Lunch Program serves 30.5 million children each day at a cost of $8.7 billion for fiscal year 2007. Most participants are also eligible for food during the summer through the Summer Food Service Program.

New York's at-large congressional seat

On three occasions in New York history, some members of the United States House of Representatives were elected statewide at-large. This was due to an increase of the number of representatives after the previous federal census, and the failure of the State Legislature to re-apportion the congressional districts in time for the next election.

In 1872 and 1882, one representative each was elected for the ensuing term. The Legislature then re-apportioned the congressional districts before the elections in 1874 and 1884.

From 1933 to 1945, two representatives elected at-large sat in the House because the Legislature could not agree on a re-apportionment of the districts. For the election to the 79th United States Congress, which was held in 1944, the congressional districts were finally re-apportioned.

Public Law 79-476

Public Law 79-476 (Pub.L. 79–476) was passed by the 79th U.S. Congress in 1946. The Civil Air Patrol, the auxiliary of the United States Air Force, was to be "solely of a benevolent character". In other words, the Civil Air Patrol was to never participate in combat operations, nor to carry arms, sink submarines, or fight enemies from then on.

Wagner-Murray-Dingell Bill

The Wagner-Murray-Dingell Bill was a 1945 proposal to institute a national medical and hospitalization program. Senator Robert F. Wagner (D-New York), Senator James E. Murray (D-Montana), and Representative John D. Dingell, Sr. (D-Michigan) introduced it to the 79th United States Congress on May 24, 1945. The bill was not passed. It is notable as an effort for health care reform in the United States.

War Brides Act

The War Brides Act (59 Stat. 659, Act of Dec. 28, 1945) was enacted (on December 28, 1945) to allow alien spouses, natural children, and adopted children of members of the United States Armed Forces, "if admissible," to enter the U.S. as non-quota immigrants after World War II. More than 100,000 entered the United States under this Act and its extensions and amendments until it expired in December 1948.The 1945 Act only exempted spouses and dependents of military personnel from the quotas established by the Immigration Act of 1924 and the mental and health standards otherwise in force. Because the 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act was repealed by the Magnuson Act in 1943, Chinese were the Asian group that benefited most from the 1945 law. The Alien Fiancées and Fiancés Act of 1946 (60 stat. 339, Act of June 29, 1946) extended the privileges to Filipino and Asian Indian fiancées and fiancés of war veterans. A 1947 amendment removed the term "if admissible," making it possible for Korean and Japanese wives and fiancées of American soldiers to immigrate.The Act was open to abuse. The United States Supreme Court, in Lutwak v. United States (1953), considered the case of the fraudulent use of the Act, upholding convictions of parties to a conspiracy to arrange for the immigration of three Polish refugees. It was claimed that the marriages celebrated in France were never consummated, and that the parties to the marriages never lived together.

United States Congresses (and year convened)

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