77th United States Congress

The Seventy-seventh United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, DC from January 3, 1941, to January 3, 1943, during the ninth and tenth years of Franklin D. Roosevelt's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Sixteenth Census of the United States in 1940. Both chambers had a Democratic majority.

This was the first Congress to have more than one Senate President (the Vice President of the United States), John Garner and Henry Wallace, due to the passage of the 20th amendment in 1933.

President Franklin D. Roosevelt-1941
President Franklin Roosevelt signing the Lend-Lease Act, March 11, 1941.
Fdr delivers speech
President Roosevelt delivering the "Infamy Speech" to Congress, requesting a declaration of war, December 8, 1941. Behind him are Vice President Henry Wallace (left) and House Speaker Sam Rayburn. To the right, in uniform in front of Rayburn, is Roosevelt's son James, who escorted his father to the Capitol.
Franklin Roosevelt signing declaration of war against Japan
President Roosevelt signing the declaration of war against Japan, December 8, 1941
77th United States Congress
76th ←
→ 78th
USCapitol1956
January 3, 1941 – January 3, 1943
Senate PresidentJohn N. Garner (D)
until January 20, 1941
Henry A. Wallace (D)
from January 20, 1941
Senate President pro temPat Harrison (D)
until June 22, 1941
Carter Glass (D)
from July 11, 1941
House SpeakerSam Rayburn (D)
Members96 senators
435 members of the House
4 non-voting delegates
Senate MajorityDemocratic
House MajorityDemocratic
Sessions
1st: January 3, 1941 – January 2, 1942
2nd: January 5, 1942 – December 16, 1942

Major events

Major legislation and resolutions

Select committees

Leadership

Senate

Majority (Democratic) leadership

Minority (Republican) leadership

House of Representatives

Majority (Democratic) leadership

Minority (Republican) leadership

Party summary

Senate

Party
(shading shows control)
Total Vacant
Democratic
(D)
Farmer-Labor
(FL)
Progressive
(P)
Republican
(R)
Independent
(I)
End of the previous congress 68 1 1 25 1 96 0
Begin 66 0 1 28 1 96 0
End 64 30
Final voting share 66.7% 0.0% 1.0% 31.3% 1.0%
Beginning of the next congress 58 0 1 36 0 95 1

House of Representatives

Party
(shading shows control)
Total Vacant
Democratic
(D)
Farmer-Labor
(FL)
American
Labor

(AL)
Wisconsin Progressive
(P)
Republican
(R)
End of the previous congress 252 1 1 3 172 429 0
Begin 268 1 1 3 162 435 1
End 267 4346
Final voting share 61.5% 0.2% 0.2% 0.7% 37.3%
Beginning of the next congress 222 1 1 2 209 435 0

Members

Senate

Senators are elected statewide every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election, In this Congress, Class 2 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1942; Class 3 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1944; and Class 1 meant their term began in this Congress, requiring reelection in 1946.

Alabama

Arizona

Arkansas

California

Colorado

Connecticut

Delaware

Florida

Georgia

Idaho

Illinois

Indiana

Iowa

Kansas

Kentucky

Louisiana

Maine

Maryland

Massachusetts

Michigan

Minnesota

Mississippi

Missouri

Montana

Nebraska

Nevada

New Hampshire

New Jersey

New Mexico

New York

North Carolina

North Dakota

Ohio

Oklahoma

Oregon

Pennsylvania

Rhode Island

South Carolina

South Dakota

Tennessee

Texas

Utah

Vermont

Virginia

Washington

West Virginia

Wisconsin

Wyoming

House of Representatives

77 us house membership
House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80+% to 100% Democratic
  80+% to 100% Republican
  60+% to 80% Democratic
  60+% to 80% Republican
  Up to 60% Democratic
  Up to 60% Republican

Changes in membership

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of this Congress.

Senate

State
(class)
Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation
West Virginia
(2)
Matthew M. Neely (D) Resigned January 12, 1941, after being elected Governor of West Virginia.
Successor was appointed to serve until a special election, which he subsequently lost. In addition, successor took oath of office after the Senate resolved a challenge to the appointment.
Joseph Rosier (D) January 13, 1941
Arkansas
(2)
John E. Miller (D) Resigned March 31, 1941, after being appointed judge for the US District Court for the Western District of Arkansas.
Successor was appointed to finish the term.
G. Lloyd Spencer (D) April 1, 1941
Texas
(2)
Morris Sheppard (D) Died April 9, 1941.
Successor was appointed to serve until a special election.
Andrew Jackson Houston (D) April 21, 1941
Mississippi
(2)
Pat Harrison (D) Died June 22, 1941.
Successor was appointed to serve until a special election.
James Eastland (D) June 30, 1941
Texas
(2)
Andrew Jackson Houston (D) Died June 26, 1941.
Successor was elected to finish term.
W. Lee O'Daniel (D) June 28, 1941
South Carolina
(2)
James F. Byrnes (D) Resigned July 17, 1941, after being appointed Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.
Successor was appointed to serve until a special election.
Alva M. Lumpkin (D) July 22, 1941
South Carolina
(2)
Alva M. Lumpkin (D) Died August 1, 1941.
Successor was appointed to serve until a special election.
Roger C. Peace (D) August 5, 1941
Mississippi
(2)
James Eastland (D) Appointee did not seek election to finish term.
Successor was elected September 28, 1941, to finish term.
Wall Doxey (D) September 29, 1941
South Carolina
(2)
Roger C. Peace (D) Appointee did not seek election to finish term.
Successor was elected November 4, 1941, to finish term.
Burnet R. Maybank (D) November 5, 1941
Colorado
(3)
Alva B. Adams (D) Died December 1, 1941.
Successor was appointed to serve until the November 3, 1942, special election, which he won.
Eugene Millikin (R) December 20, 1941
West Virginia
(2)
Joseph Rosier (D) Appointee lost election November 17, 1942, to finish the term.
Successor was elected to finish term.
Hugh Shott (R) November 18, 1942
Nevada
(1)
Berkeley L. Bunker (D) Appointee lost election December 7, 1942, to finish the term.
Successor was elected to finish term.
James G. Scrugham (D) December 7, 1942

House of Representatives

District Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation
Oklahoma 7th Sam C. Massingale (D) Died January 17, 1941 Victor Wickersham (D) April 1, 1941
New York 17th Kenneth F. Simpson (R) Died January 25, 1941 Joseph C. Baldwin (R) March 11, 1941
Alabama 7th Walter W. Bankhead (D) Resigned February 1, 1941 Carter Manasco (D) June 24, 1941
Maryland 6th William D. Byron (D) Died February 27, 1941 Katharine Byron (D) May 27, 1941
Virginia 2nd Colgate Darden (D) Resigned March 1, 1941, to run for Governor of Virginia Winder R. Harris (D) April 8, 1941
New York 42nd Pius L. Schwert (D) Died March 11, 1941 John C. Butler (R) April 22, 1941
North Carolina 5th Alonzo D. Folger (D) Died April 30, 1941 John H. Folger (D) June 14, 1941
New York 14th Morris M. Edelstein (D) Died June 4, 1941 Arthur G. Klein (D) July 29, 1941
Wisconsin 1st Stephen Bolles (R) Died July 8, 1941 Lawrence H. Smith (R) August 29, 1941
Pennsylvania 15th Albert G. Rutherford (R) Died August 10, 1941 Wilson D. Gillette (R) November 4, 1941
Colorado 4th Edward T. Taylor (D) Died September 3, 1941 Robert F. Rockwell (R) December 9, 1941
Mississippi 2nd Wall Doxey (D) Resigned September 28, 1941, after being elected to the US Senate Jamie L. Whitten (D) November 4, 1941
California 17th Lee E. Geyer (D) Died October 11, 1941 Cecil R. King (D) August 25, 1942
Massachusetts 7th Lawrence J. Connery (D) Died October 19, 1941 Thomas J. Lane (D) December 30, 1941
Connecticut 5th J. Joseph Smith (D) Resigned November 4, 1941, after being appointed judge for the United States District Court for the District of Connecticut Joseph E. Talbot (R) January 20, 1942
Pennsylvania 12th J. Harold Flannery (D) Resigned January 3, 1942, after becoming judge of common pleas for Luzerne County, PA Thomas B. Miller (R) May 19, 1942
Pennsylvania 33rd Joseph A. McArdle (D) Resigned January 5, 1942, after being elected to the Pittsburgh City Council Elmer J. Holland (D) May 19, 1942
Pennsylvania 11th Patrick J. Boland (D) Died May 18, 1942 Veronica G. Boland (D) November 3, 1942
Washington 5th Arthur D. Healey (D) Resigned August 1, 1942, after being appointed judge for the United States District Court for the Western District of Washington Vacant until the next Congress
Massachusetts 8th Charles H. Leavy (D) Resigned August 3, 1942, after being appointed judge for the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts Vacant until the next Congress
Ohio 15th Robert T. Secrest (D) Resigned August 3, 1942, after accepting a commission in the U.S. Navy Vacant until the next Congress
Ohio 13th Albert D. Baumhart, Jr. (R) Resigned September 2, 1942, after accepting a commission in the U.S. Navy Vacant until the next Congress
Iowa 9th Vincent F. Harrington (D) Resigned September 5, 1942, after accepting a commission as major in the United States Army Harry E. Narey (R) November 3, 1942
California 3rd Frank H. Buck (D) Died September 17, 1942 Vacant until the next Congress
Maryland 2nd William Purington Cole, Jr. (D) Resigned October 26, 1942, after being appointed judge for the U.S. Customs Court Vacant until the next Congress
Pennsylvania 25th Charles I. Faddis (D) Resigned December 4, 1942, to enter the US Army Vacant until the next Congress
Illinois 4th Harry P. Beam (D) Resigned December 6, 1942, after being elected judge for the municipal court of Chicago Vacant until the next Congress
Illinois 6th A. F. Maciejewski (D) Resigned December 6, 1942 Vacant until the next Congress
Missouri 6th Philip A. Bennett (R) Died December 7, 1942 Vacant until the next Congress
Nevada At-large James G. Scrugham (D) Resigned December 7, 1942, after being elected to the U.S. Senate Vacant until the next Congress

Committees

Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members (House and Senate) of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link (4 links), in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate, House (Standing with Subcommittees, Select and Special) and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.

Senate

House of Representatives

Joint committees

  • Conditions of Indian Tribes (Special)
  • Disposition of (Useless) Executive Papers
  • Eradication of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly
  • Forestry
  • The Library
  • Reduction of Nonessential Federal Expenditures
  • Taxation
  • To Investigate Phosphate Resource of the United States

Caucuses

Employees

Senate

House

See also

References

  • House of Representatives Session Calendar for the 77th Congress (PDF).
  • Official Congressional Directory for the 77th Congress, 1st Session.
  • Official Congressional Directory for the 77th Congress, 1st Session (Revision).
  • Official Congressional Directory for the 77th Congress, 2nd Session.
  • Official Congressional Directory for the 77th Congress, 2nd Session (Revision).
1942 United States Senate special election in Minnesota

The 1942 United States Senate special election in Minnesota took place on November 3, 1942. The election was held to fill the vacancy in the seat formerly held by Ernest Lundeen for the final two months of Lundeen's unexpired term. Governor Harold Stassen had appointed Joseph H. Ball to fill the seat in 1940, but this appointment was temporary and subject to a special election held in the next general election year thereafter—1942. Ball opted to run for the full six-year term immediately following the end of Lundeen's term, instead of running for election to continue for the remainder of the term. In Ball's stead, the Republican Party of Minnesota nominated Arthur E. Nelson, who, in the special election, defeated both of his challengers—Al Hansen of the Farmer-Labor Party of Minnesota and John E. O'Rourke of the Minnesota Democratic Party.

Andrew Edmiston Jr.

Andrew Edmiston Jr. (November 13, 1892– August 28, 1966) was a Democratic politician who served as a United States Representative from West Virginia. He was born in Weston in Lewis County, West Virginia on November 13, 1892. He served in the Seventy-third through Seventy-seventh Congresses.

He attended the Friends' Select School in Washington, D.C., Kentucky Military Institute at Lyndon, and West Virginia University at Morgantown, West Virginia. He was engaged in agricultural pursuits from 1915 to 1917 and in the manufacture of glass at Weston, West Virginia, starting in 1925. He served overseas in World War I as a second lieutenant with the Thirty-ninth Infantry, Fourth Division from 1917 to 1919. He was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross, the Purple Heart with Oak Leaf Cluster, and the Distinguished Service Medal of West Virginia.

From 1920 to 1935 he served as editor of the Weston Democrat. He held the office of mayor of Weston from 1924 to 1926 and served as a delegate to the Democratic National Conventions in 1928 and 1952. He was state chairman of the Democratic executive committee from 1928 to 1932. He was elected to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Lynn Hornor. Re-elected to the Seventy-fourth and to three succeeding Congresses, he served from November 28, 1933, to January 3, 1943. His candidacy for re-election in 1942 was unsuccessful. He then returned to his former business pursuits. On June 28, 1943, he was appointed Director of War Manpower for West Virginia and served until his resignation on June 30, 1945, to return to private business. He died in Weston on August 28, 1966, aged 73. He was buried in Machpelah Cemetery.

Defense Base Act

The Defense Base Act (DBA) (ch. 357 of the 77th United States Congress, 55 Stat. 622, enacted August 16, 1941, codified at 42 U.S.C. §§ 1651–1654) is an extension of the federal workers' compensation program that covers longshoremen and harbor workers, the Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act 33 U.S.C. §§ 901–950. The DBA covers persons employed at United States defense bases overseas. The DBA is designed to provide medical treatment and compensation to employees of defense contractors injured in the scope and course of employment. The DBA is administered by the United States Department of Labor.

Elmer J. Holland

Elmer Joseph Holland (January 8, 1894 – August 9, 1968) was a Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania.

Emergency Price Control Act of 1942

The Emergency Price Control Act of 1942 is a United States statute imposing an economic intervention as restrictive measures to control inflationary spiraling and pricing elasticity of goods and services while providing economic efficiency to support the United States national defense and security. The Act of Congress established the Office of Price Administration (OPA) as a federal independent agency being officially created by Franklin D. Roosevelt on April 11, 1941.The H.R. 5990 legislation was passed by the 77th U.S. Congressional session and enacted into law by Franklin D. Roosevelt on January 30, 1942.

Florence Reville Gibbs

Florence Reville Gibbs (April 4, 1890 – August 19, 1964) was a Democratic congresswoman, the first woman to represent Georgia in the United States House of Representatives.

Florence Reville was born April 4, 1890, in Thomson, McDuffie County, Georgia. She grew up there, attending public schools, and then graduated from Brenau College in Gainesville, Georgia. She married Willis Benjamin Gibbs, a Georgia attorney and politician.

In 1938, W. Benjamin Gibbs was elected as a Democrat to represent Georgia's Eighth congressional district in the 76th United States Congress. He took his seat on January 3, 1939, and served until his death in 1940. Florence Gibbs was elected as a Democrat in the special election to fill the vacant seat left by her husband's death; she took office October 1, 1940. She did not run in the general election to represent the district in the 77th United States Congress, and she left office January 3, 1941.

After leaving Congress, Florence Gibbs retired from public life and resided in Jesup, Georgia, until her death there on August 19, 1964.

Four Freedoms

The Four Freedoms were goals articulated by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt on Monday, January 6, 1941. In an address known as the Four Freedoms speech (technically the 1941 State of the Union address), he proposed four fundamental freedoms that people "everywhere in the world" ought to enjoy:

Freedom of speech

Freedom of worship

Freedom from want

Freedom from fearRoosevelt delivered his speech 11 months before the surprise Japanese attack on U.S. forces in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii that caused the United States to declare war on Japan, December 8, 1941. The State of the Union speech before Congress was largely about the national security of the United States and the threat to other democracies from world war that was being waged across the continents in the eastern hemisphere. In the speech, he made a break with the tradition of United States non-interventionism that had long been held in the United States. He outlined the U.S. role in helping allies already engaged in warfare.

In that context, he summarized the values of democracy behind the bipartisan consensus on international involvement that existed at the time. A famous quote from the speech prefaces those values: "As men do not live by bread alone, they do not fight by armaments alone." In the second half of the speech, he lists the benefits of democracy, which include economic opportunity, employment, social security, and the promise of "adequate health care". The first two freedoms, of speech and religion, are protected by the First Amendment in the United States Constitution. His inclusion of the latter two freedoms went beyond the traditional Constitutional values protected by the U.S. Bill of Rights. Roosevelt endorsed a broader human right to economic security and anticipated what would become known decades later as the "human security" paradigm in social science and economic development. He also included the "freedom from fear" against national aggression and took it to the new United Nations he was setting up.

George William Johnson (congressman)

George William Johnson (November 10, 1869 – February 24, 1944) was a lawyer and Democratic politician who served as United States Representative from West Virginia.

Hugh Ike Shott

Hugh Ike Shott (September 3, 1866 – October 12, 1953) was an American newspaper editor, pioneer broadcaster, and Republican politician in the U.S. State of West Virginia.

Infamy Speech

The Infamy Speech was a speech delivered by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt to a Joint Session of the US Congress on December 8, 1941, one day after the Empire of Japan's attack on the US naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, and the Japanese declaration of war on the United States and the British Empire. The name derives from the first line of the speech: Roosevelt describing the previous day as "a date which will live in infamy". The speech is also commonly referred to as the "Pearl Harbor Speech".Within an hour of the speech, Congress passed a formal declaration of war against Japan and officially brought the U.S. into World War II. The address is one of the most famous of all American political speeches.

Jasper, Alabama

Jasper is a city in and the county seat of Walker County, Alabama, United States. At the 2010 census, its population was 14,352, up from 14,052 in 2000. It is the county seat of Walker County. The city was once ranked among the world's leading producers of coal.

John Ambrose Meyer

John Ambrose Meyer (May 15, 1899 – October 2, 1969) was a U.S. Representative from Maryland.

Joseph C. Baldwin

Joseph Clark Baldwin (January 11, 1897 – October 27, 1957) was an American politician and a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives from New York.

List of United States Senators in the 77th Congress by seniority

This is a complete list of members of the United States Senate during the 77th United States Congress listed by seniority, from January 3, 1941, to January 3, 1943.

Order of service is based on the commencement of the senator's first term. Behind this is former service as a senator (only giving the senator seniority within his or her new incoming class), service as vice president, a House member, a cabinet secretary, or a governor of a state. The final factor is the population of the senator's state.Senators who were sworn in during the middle of the Congress (up until the last senator who was not sworn in early after winning the November 1942 election) are listed at the end of the list with no number.

List of members of the United States House of Representatives in the 77th Congress by seniority

This is a complete list of members of the United States House of Representatives during the 77th United States Congress listed by seniority.

As an historical article, the districts and party affiliations listed reflect those during the 77th Congress (January 3, 1941 – January 3, 1943). Current seats and party affiliations on the List of current members of the United States House of Representatives by seniority will be different for certain members.Seniority depends on the date on which members were sworn into office. Since many members are sworn in on the same day, subsequent ranking is based on previous congressional service of the individual and then by alphabetical order by the last name of the congressman.

Committee chairmanship in the House is often associated with seniority. However, party leadership is typically not associated with seniority.

Note: The "*" indicates that the representative/delegate may have served one or more non-consecutive terms while in the House of Representatives of the United States Congress.

Samuel A. Weiss

Samuel Arthur Weiss (April 15, 1902 – February 1, 1977) was a Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania.

Stabilization Act of 1942

The Stabilization Act of 1942 (Pub.L. 77–729, 56 Stat. 765, enacted October 2, 1942), formally entitled "An Act to Amend the Emergency Price Control Act of 1942, to Aid in Preventing Inflation, and for Other Purposes," and sometimes referred to as the "Inflation Control Act", was an act of Congress that amended the Emergency Price Control Act of 1942.

Stephen Bolles

Stephen Bolles (June 25, 1866 – July 8, 1941) was an American politician, a newspaper editor, and a congressman from Wisconsin.

William H. Stevenson

William Henry Stevenson (September 23, 1891 – March 19, 1978) was a member of the United States House of Representatives from Wisconsin for the years 1941-1949, he served as a Republican.

William Stevenson was born in Kenosha, Wisconsin and his family moved to La Crosse, Wisconsin when he was young. Stevenson graduated from the La Crosse Normal School (now the University of Wisconsin–La Crosse) and taught in area high schools. He went to law school in Madison and was admitted to the bar. Stevenson was District Attorney for Richland County, Wisconsin from 1924 to 1926. He moved to La Crosse and was District Attorney for La Crosse County from 1935 until 1941. In 1940 he was elected to the 77th United States Congress representing Wisconsin's 3rd congressional district. He was reelected to the following three congresses as well serving from January 3, 1941 till January 3, 1949. Stevenson died in La Crosse and was buried in Onalaska, Wisconsin.

United States Congresses (and year convened)

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