Year 731 (DCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. The denomination 731 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Millennium: 1st millennium
731 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar731
Ab urbe condita1484
Armenian calendar180
Assyrian calendar5481
Balinese saka calendar652–653
Bengali calendar138
Berber calendar1681
Buddhist calendar1275
Burmese calendar93
Byzantine calendar6239–6240
Chinese calendar庚午(Metal Horse)
3427 or 3367
    — to —
辛未年 (Metal Goat)
3428 or 3368
Coptic calendar447–448
Discordian calendar1897
Ethiopian calendar723–724
Hebrew calendar4491–4492
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat787–788
 - Shaka Samvat652–653
 - Kali Yuga3831–3832
Holocene calendar10731
Iranian calendar109–110
Islamic calendar112–113
Japanese calendarTenpyō 3
Javanese calendar624–625
Julian calendar731
Korean calendar3064
Minguo calendar1181 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar−737
Seleucid era1042/1043 AG
Thai solar calendar1273–1274
Tibetan calendar阳金马年
(male Iron-Horse)
857 or 476 or −296
    — to —
(female Iron-Goat)
858 or 477 or −295
Pope Gregory III Illustration
Pope Gregory III (731–741)


By place




By topic






  1. ^ David Nicolle (2008). Poitiers AD 732, Charles Martel turns the Islamic tide (p. 41). ISBN 978-184603-230-1
  2. ^ David Nicolle (2008). Poitiers AD 732, Charles Martel turns the Islamic tide (p. 19). ISBN 978-184603-230-1
  3. ^ Blankinship (1994), pp. 156, 157
  4. ^ Kennedy (2001), p. 29
  5. ^ Kennedy (2007), p. 285
  6. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope St. Gregory III" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  7. ^ Treadgold, p. 354
700 (number)

700 (seven hundred) is the natural number following 699 and preceding 701.

It is the sum of four consecutive primes (167 + 173 + 179 + 181). It is a Harshad number.

731 Naval Air Squadron

731 Naval Air Squadron (731 NAS) was a Naval Air Squadron of the Royal Navy's Fleet Air Arm.

Adoptive Couple v. Baby Girl

Adoptive Couple v. Baby Girl, 570 U.S. ___ (2013), was a decision of the Supreme Court of the United States that held that several sections of the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) do not apply to Native American (Indian) biological fathers who are not custodians of an Indian child. The court held that the procedures required by the ICWA to end parental rights do not apply when the child has never lived with the father. Additionally, the requirement to make extra efforts to preserve the Indian family also does not apply, nor is the preferred placement of the child in another Indian family required when no other party has formally sought to adopt the child.

In 2009, a couple from South Carolina, Matthew and Melanie Capobianco, sought to adopt a child whose father, Dusten Brown, was an enrolled member of the Cherokee Nation and whose mother, Christina Maldonado, was predominantly Hispanic. Brown contested the adoption on the grounds that he was not properly notified in accordance with the ICWA, and won both in trial court and on appeal to the South Carolina Supreme Court, and in December 2011, the father was given custody of the child. The case received extensive coverage in the national media, and spurred calls for Congress to review and make amendments to the 1978 law.

In October 2012, the adoptive couple petitioned the Supreme Court of the United States to review the case. In January 2013, the court granted certiorari and heard the case in April. In June, the Supreme Court issued a 5–4 decision, holding that a non-custodial father did not have rights under the ICWA, and sent the case back to the South Carolina courts for further hearings on the issue. In July 2013, the South Carolina trial court finalized the adoption of the child to the adoptive couple, but this was prohibited in August by the Oklahoma Supreme Court. The stay was lifted in September 2013, and the child was turned over to the Capobiancos the same month.

Area code 731

Area code 731 is an area code in the U.S. state of Tennessee.

The 731 area code covers West Tennessee, excluding the greater Memphis area, which is assigned to area code 901. Cities located in area code 731 include Dyersburg, Tiptonville, Savannah, Union City, Jackson, Lexington, Ripley, Martin, Brownsville, Paris, and Bolivar.

Battle of Hill 731

The Battle of Hill (Height) 731 (Greek: Μάχη του υψώματος 731), was a fierce battle fought during World War II in southern Albania, part of the Greco-Italian War. It began in the early morning of 9 March 1941, when Fascist Italy launched an assault (Operation Primavera) against Greece, aimed at capturing the critical mountain pass leading into the Kalpaki valley. Hill 731, strategically located 20 km north of Klisura (Këlcyrë) at the feet of Mount Trebeshinë, stood at the heart of the Greek defensive line. Despite being repeatedly and heavily attacked by superior Italian forces for over two weeks, Hill 731 was not captured, contributing to the failure of the Primavera offensive and the repulsion of Italians.

Garrett TFE731

The Garrett TFE731 (now Honeywell TFE731) is a family of geared turbofan engines commonly used on business jet aircraft. Garrett AiResearch originally designed and built the engine, which due to mergers was later produced by AlliedSignal and now Honeywell Aerospace.

Since the engine was introduced in 1972, over 11,000 engines have been built, flying over 100 million flight-hours.

German submarine U-731

German submarine U-731 was a Type VIIC U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II. The submarine was laid down on 1 October 1941 at the Schichau-Werke yard at Danzig, launched on 25 July 1942, and commissioned on 3 October 1942 under the command of Oberleutnant zur See Werner Techand.

Attached to 8th U-boat Flotilla based at Kiel, U-731 completed her training period on 30 April 1943 and was assigned to front-line service.

Jalan Arsat

Jalan Arsat, Federal Route 731, is a major federal roads in Federal Territory of Labuan, Malaysia.

List of Tajikistani detainees at Guantanamo Bay

On May 15, 2006, the United States Department of Defense acknowledged that there have been 12 Tajik detainees held in Guantanamo.

The Guantanamo Bay detainment camps were opened on January 11, 2002, at the Guantanamo Bay Naval Base, in Cuba.

List of former state roads in Florida

In the mid-1970s, the Florida Department of Transportation (formerly the State Road Department) started a sequence of events that eventually resulted in the transferral of hundred of miles of roadway from State of Florida maintenance to county control. The first step was the addition of an "S-" or "C-" prefix onto the original FDOT designation ("S" represented "secondary"; "C" represented "county"). State Road signs started disappearing from the "C" roads and were replaced by blue pentagonal county road signs in the early 1980s; the transition of "S" roads to county control took a bit longer (some state road signs with S-prefixes remain standing two decades after the transfer to county control). Many roads that were decommissioned in later years skipped the prefix step.

While the transition occurred throughout the State of Florida, the area most dramatically affected by this process was Florida south of State Road 70 (SR 70) (which runs from Bradenton to Fort Pierce). While other state roads had portions turned into county control (for example, SR 29, SR 31, SR 78, SR 707, SR 780, SR 880, SR 884, and SR 951), entire state roads in southern Florida disappeared from the FDOT lists. Many decommissioned roads in the Treasure Coast and Space Coast occurred in sparsely-populated areas, including orange groves and wetlands.

Some state road numbers (like SR 609) were reused after decommissioning. Lettered state road numbers (like SR 15A) are sometimes used for several discontinuous sections of state roads.

List of state highways in Maryland shorter than one mile (700–799)

The following is a list of state highways in Maryland shorter than one mile (1.6 km) in length with route numbers between 700 and 799. Most of these highways act as service roads, old alignments of more prominent highways, or connectors between one or more highways. Many of these highways are unsigned and have multiple segments with the same number. Several of these highways have their own articles; those highways are summarized here and a link is provided to the main article. This list does not include highways where at least one highway of that number is at least one mile in length. All highways at least one mile in length have their own article. The highways shorter than one mile with the same number are covered in the main article for the highway.

March Engineering

March Engineering was a Formula One constructor and manufacturer of customer racing cars from the United Kingdom. Although only moderately successful in Grand Prix competition, March racing cars enjoyed much better achievement in other categories of competition, including Formula Two, Formula Three, IndyCar and IMSA GTP sportscar racing.

Misty (satellite)

Misty is reportedly the name of a classified project by the United States National Reconnaissance Office to operate stealthy reconnaissance satellites. The satellites are conjectured to be photo reconnaissance satellites and the program has been the subject of atypically public debates about its worthiness in the defense budget since December 2004. The estimated project costs in 2004 dollars are US$9.5 billion (inflation adjusted US$12.3 billion in 2019).

National Highway 731 (India)

National Highway 731 (NH 731) is a National Highway in India.

Pope Gregory II

Pope Gregory II (Latin: Gregorius II; 669 – 11 February 731) was Pope from 19 May 715 to his death in 731. His defiance of the Byzantine emperor Leo III the Isaurian as a result of the iconoclastic controversy in the Eastern Empire prepared the way for a long series of revolts, schisms and civil wars that eventually led to the establishment of the temporal power of the popes.

Saskatchewan Highway 731

Highway 731 is a highway in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. It runs from Highway 20 near Strasbourg to Highway 310 near Ituna. Highway 731 is about 118 km (73 mi.) long.

USS Douglas County (LST-731)

USS Douglas County (LST-731) was an LST-542-class tank landing ship built for the United States Navy during World War II. Named after counties in 12 states, she was the only U.S. Naval vessel to bear the name.

LST-731 was laid down on 27 December 1943 at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania by the Dravo Corporation of Neville Island; launched on 12 February 1944; sponsored by Mrs. A. J. Ackerman; and commissioned on 30 March 1944 with Ensign K. S. McCann, Jr., in command.

USS Maddox (DD-731)

USS Maddox (DD-731), an Allen M. Sumner-class destroyer was named for Captain William A. T. Maddox, of the United States Marine Corps. She was laid down by the Bath Iron Works Corporation at Bath in Maine on 28 October 1943, launched on 19 March 1944 by Mrs. Harry H. Wilhoit, granddaughter of Captain Maddox, and commissioned on 2 June 1944.

Maddox screened the ships of the Fast Carrier Task Force during strikes against enemy targets in the western Pacific where she was struck by an enemy Japanese kamikaze aircraft off Formosa on 21 January 1945. She also covered the Marine landings at Okinawa, and operated with the 7th Fleet in support of United Nations Forces during the Korean War. Maddox participated in the Blockade of Wonsan, an 861-day siege bombardment of the city.

After 1953, she alternated operations along the west coast of the United States and in Hawaiian waters, with regular deployments to the western Pacific with the Seventh Fleet. Maddox departed Long Beach 13 March 1964. At first steaming with fast carrier groups in the Sea of Japan and the East China Sea, she headed south 18 May and established patrol off the coast of South Vietnam. During August she was involved in a skirmish with North Vietnamese torpedo boats, the Maddox incident, which led to the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution and increased U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War.

Unit 731

Unit 731 (Japanese: 731部隊, Hepburn: Nana-san-ichi Butai) was a covert biological and chemical warfare research and development unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that undertook lethal human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) of World War II. It was responsible for some of the most notorious war crimes carried out by Imperial Japan. Unit 731 was based at the Pingfang district of Harbin, the largest city in the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo (now Northeast China).

It was officially known as the Epidemic Prevention and Water Purification Department of the Kwantung Army (関東軍防疫給水部本部, Kantōgun Bōeki Kyūsuibu Honbu). Originally set up under the Kempeitai military police of the Empire of Japan, Unit 731 was taken over and commanded until the end of the war by General Shirō Ishii, a combat medic officer in the Kwantung Army. The facility itself was built between 1934 and 1939 and officially adopted the name "Unit 731" in 1941.

At least 3,000 men, women, and children—from which at least 600 every year were provided by the Kempeitai were subjected as "logs" to experimentation conducted by Unit 731 at the camp based in Pingfang alone, which does not include victims from other medical experimentation sites, such as Unit 100.Unit 731 participants of Japan attest that most of the victims they experimented on were Chinese while a lesser percentage were Soviet, Mongolian, Korean, and other Allied POWs. The unit received generous support from the Japanese government up to the end of the war in 1945.

Instead of being tried for war crimes after the war, the researchers involved in Unit 731 were secretly given immunity by the U.S. in exchange for the data they gathered through human experimentation. Other researchers that the Soviet forces managed to arrest first were tried at the Khabarovsk War Crime Trials in 1949. The Americans did not try the researchers so that the information and experience gained in bio-weapons could be co-opted into the U.S. biological warfare program, as had happened with German researchers in Operation Paperclip. On 6 May 1947, Douglas MacArthur, as Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces, wrote to Washington that "additional data, possibly some statements from Ishii, can probably be obtained by informing Japanese involved that information will be retained in intelligence channels and will not be employed as 'War Crimes' evidence". Victim accounts were then largely ignored or dismissed in the West as communist propaganda.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 731

UN Security Council Resolution 731, adopted unanimously on 21 January 1992, after recalling resolutions 286 (1970) and 635 (1989) which condemned acts of terrorism, the Council expressed its concern over the results of investigations into the destruction of Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland, and UTA Flight 772 over Chad and Niger which implicated officials from the Government of Libya.

The Council condemned the fact that Libya had not accepted responsibility for the incidents, and urged it to provide a full and effective response to the requests from the investigations with regards to the two aircraft so as to contribute to the elimination of international terrorism. It also urged Member States to encourage the Libyan government to respond. Therefore, the resolution implied that Libya extradite its two accused nationals, Abdelbaset al-Megrahi and Lamin Khalifah Fhimah.Resolution 731 was not legally binding, as it was passed under Chapter VI of the United Nations Charter and makes no reference to Chapter VII, however this would be enforced in Resolution 748.

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