720p

720p (1280×720 px; also called HD Ready or standard HD) is a progressive HDTV signal format with 720 horizontal lines and an aspect ratio (AR) of 16:9, normally known as widescreen HDTV (1.78:1). All major HDTV broadcasting standards (such as SMPTE 292M) include a 720p format, which has a resolution of 1280×720; however, there are other formats, including HDV Playback and AVCHD for camcorders, that use 720p images with the standard HDTV resolution. The frame rate is standards-dependent, and for conventional broadcasting appears in 50 progressive frames per second in former PAL/SECAM countries (Europe, Australia, others), and 59.94 frames per second in former NTSC countries (North America, Japan, Brazil, others).

The number 720 stands for the 720 horizontal scan lines of image display resolution (also known as 720 pixels of vertical resolution).[1] The p stands for progressive scan, i.e. non-interlaced. When broadcast at 60.00 frames/s[note 1] frames per second, 720p features the highest temporal resolution possible under the ATSC and DVB standards. The term assumes a widescreen aspect ratio of 16:9, thus implying a resolution of 1280×720 px (0.9 megapixels).

720i (720 lines interlaced) is an erroneous term found in numerous sources and publications. Typically, it is a typographical error in which the author is referring to the 720p HDTV format. However, in some cases it is incorrectly presented as an actual alternative format to 720p.[3] No proposed or existing broadcast standard permits 720 interlaced lines in a video frame at any frame rate.[4]

Vector Video Standards8
This chart shows the most common display resolutions, 720p being one of the 16:9 formats shown in blue.

Comparison with 1080i

Progressive scanning reduces the need to prevent flicker by anti-aliasing single high contrast horizontal lines.[5][6] It is also easier to perform high-quality 50↔60 Hz conversion and slow-motion clips with progressive video.

A 720p60 (720p at 59.94 Hz) video has advantage over 480i and 1080i60 (29.97/30 frame/s, 59.94/60 Hz) in that it comparably reduces the number of 3:2 artifacts introduced during transfer from 24 frame/s film. However, 576i and 1080i50 (25 frame/s, 50 Hz), which are common in Europe, generally do not suffer from pull down artifacts as film frames are simply played at 25 frames and the audio pitch corrected by 25/24. As a result, 720p60 is used for U.S. broadcasts while European HD broadcasts often use 1080i50 24* frame, with a horizontal resolution of 1920 or 1440 depending on bandwidth constraints. However, some European broadcasters do use the 720p50 format, such as German broadcasters ARD and ZDF, the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation (NRK) and Spanish Radio and Television Corporation (TVE HD). Arte, a dual-language French-German channel produced in collaboration by ARD, ZDF and France Télévisions, broadcasts in German at 720p50 but in French at 1080i50. The Flemish Broadcasting Company (VRT) in Belgium was using 720p50, but switched to 1080i50 a few years ago.

Resolutions

Standard Resolution Aspect Ratio
720p Widescreen 1280×720 16:9
Standard TV 720p 960×720 4:3

resolution 720p

Notes

  1. ^ It is however more commonly broadcast at (60/1.001), or precisely 59.940059 frames/sec, matching the NTSC SDTV field rate; this and the 50.00 Hz of PAL are still the second and third highest standard framerates.[2]

See also

References

  1. ^ "720p - AfterDawn: Glossary of technology terms & acronyms".
  2. ^ Hoffner, Randy (2008-01-09). "Will the End of NTSC Be the End of 59.94?". TVTechnology. Retrieved 2010-10-08.
  3. ^ Briere, Daniel; Patrick Hurley (2006). HDTV for Dummies. For Dummies. p. 13.
  4. ^ "ATSC Standard: Video System Characteristics of AVC in the ATSC Digital Television System" (PDF). 2008-07-29. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-10-04. Retrieved 2011-07-24.
  5. ^ "720p". AfterDawn. 2010-08-10. Retrieved 2010-10-08.
  6. ^ "720p". CNET Glossary. Archived from the original on 2010-09-30. Retrieved 2010-10-08.

External links

1080i

1080i (also known as Full HD or BT.709) is an abbreviation referring to a combination of frame resolution and scan type, used in high-definition television (HDTV) and high-definition video. The number "1080" refers to the number of horizontal lines on the screen. The "i" is an abbreviation for "interlaced"; this indicates that only the odd lines, then the even lines of each frame (each image called a video field) are drawn alternately, so that only half the number of actual image frames are used to produce video. A related display resolution is 1080p, which also has 1080 lines of resolution; the "p" refers to progressive scan, which indicates that the lines of resolution for each frame are "drawn" in on the screen sequence.

The term assumes a widescreen aspect ratio of 16:9 (a rectangular TV that is wider than it is tall), so the 1080 lines of vertical resolution implies 1920 columns of horizontal resolution, or 1920 pixels × 1080 lines. A 1920 pixels × 1080 lines screen has a total of 2.1 megapixels (2.1 million pixels) and a temporal resolution of 50 or 60 interlaced fields per second. This format is used in the SMPTE 292M standard.

The choice of 1080 lines originates with Charles Poynton, who in the early 1990s pushed for "square pixels" to be used in HD video formats.

1080p

1080p (1920×1080 px; also known as Full HD or FHD and BT.709) is a set of HDTV high-definition video modes characterized by 1,920 pixels displayed across the screen horizontally and 1,080 pixels down the screen vertically; the p stands for progressive scan, i.e. non-interlaced. The term usually assumes a widescreen aspect ratio of 16:9, implying a resolution of 2.1 megapixels. It is often marketed as full HD, to contrast 1080p with 720p resolution screens.

1080p video signals are supported by ATSC standards in the United States and DVB standards in Europe. Applications of the 1080p standard include television broadcasts, Blu-ray Discs, smartphones, Internet content such as YouTube videos and Netflix TV shows and movies, consumer-grade televisions and projectors, computer monitors and video game consoles. Small camcorders, smartphones and digital cameras can capture still and moving images in 1080p resolution.

576p

576p is the shorthand name for a video display resolution. The p stands for progressive scan, i.e. non-interlaced, the 576 for a vertical resolution of 576 pixels, usually with a horizontal resolution of 720 or 704 pixels. The frame rate can be given explicitly after the letter.

Digital subchannel

In broadcasting, digital subchannels are a method of transmitting more than one independent program stream simultaneously from the same digital radio or television station on the same radio frequency channel. This is done by using data compression techniques to reduce the size of each individual program stream, and multiplexing to combine them into a single signal. The practice is sometimes called "multicasting".

HDV

HDV is a format for recording of high-definition video on DV cassette tape. The format was originally developed by JVC and supported by Sony, Canon, and Sharp. The four companies formed the HDV consortium in September 2003.

Conceived as an affordable high definition format for digital camcorders, HDV quickly caught on with many amateur and professional videographers due to its low cost, portability, and image quality acceptable for many professional productions.

HDV and HDV logo are trademarks of JVC and Sony.

High-definition television

High-definition television (HDTV) is a television system providing an image resolution that is of substantially higher resolution than that of standard-definition television. This can be either analog or digital. HDTV is the current standard video format used in most broadcasts: terrestrial broadcast television, cable television, satellite television, Blu-rays, and streaming video.

HDTV may be transmitted in various formats:

720p 1280×720p: 923,600 pixels (~0.92 MP) per frame

1080i 1920×1080i: 1,036,800 pixels (~1.04 MP) per field or 2,073,600 pixels (~2.07 MP) per frame

1080p 1920×1080p: not a broadcast standard for ATSC 1.0

Some countries also use a non-standard CEA resolution, such as 1440×1080i: 777,600 pixels (~0.78 MP) per field or 1,555,200 pixels (~1.56 MP) per frameThe letter "p" here stands for progressive scan, while "i" indicates interlaced.

When transmitted at two megapixels per frame, HDTV provides about five times as many pixels as SD (standard-definition television). The increased resolution provides for a clearer, more detailed picture. In addition, progressive scan and higher frame rates result in a picture with less flicker and better rendering of fast motion. HDTV as is known today first started official broadcasting in 1989 in Japan, under the MUSE/Hi-Vision analog system. HDTV was widely adopted worldwide in the late 2000s.

High-definition television in the United States

High-definition television (HDTV) in the United States was introduced in 1998 and has since become increasingly popular and dominant in the television market. Hundreds of HD channels are available in millions of homes and businesses both terrestrially and via subscription services such as satellite, cable and IPTV. HDTV has quickly become the standard, with about 85% of all TVs used being HD as of 2018. In the US, the 720p and 1080i formats are used for linear channels, while 1080p is available on a limited basis, mainly for pay-per-view and video on demand content.

High-definition video

High-definition video is video of higher resolution and quality than standard-definition. While there is no standardized meaning for high-definition, generally any video image with considerably more than 480 vertical lines (North America) or 576 vertical lines (Europe) is considered high-definition. 480 scan lines is generally the minimum even though the majority of systems greatly exceed that. Images of standard resolution captured at rates faster than normal (60 frames/second North America, 50 fps Europe), by a high-speed camera may be considered high-definition in some contexts. Some television series shot on high-definition video are made to look as if they have been shot on film, a technique which is often known as filmizing.

Interlaced video

Interlaced video (also known as Interlaced scan) is a technique for doubling the perceived frame rate of a video display without consuming extra bandwidth. The interlaced signal contains two fields of a video frame captured at two different times. This enhances motion perception to the viewer, and reduces flicker by taking advantage of the phi phenomenon.

This effectively doubles the time resolution (also called temporal resolution) as compared to non-interlaced footage (for frame rates equal to field rates). Interlaced signals require a display that is natively capable of showing the individual fields in a sequential order. CRT displays and ALiS plasma displays are made for displaying interlaced signals.

Interlaced scan refers to one of two common methods for "painting" a video image on an electronic display screen (the other being progressive scan) by scanning or displaying each line or row of pixels. This technique uses two fields to create a frame. One field contains all odd-numbered lines in the image; the other contains all even-numbered lines.

A Phase Alternating Line (PAL)-based television set display, for example, scans 50 fields every second (25 odd and 25 even). The two sets of 25 fields work together to create a full frame every 1/25 of a second (or 25 frames per second), but with interlacing create a new half frame every 1/50 of a second (or 50 fields per second). To display interlaced video on progressive scan displays, playback applies deinterlacing to the video signal (which adds input lag).

The European Broadcasting Union has argued against interlaced video in production and broadcasting. They recommend 720p 50 fps (frames per second) for the current production format—and are working with the industry to introduce 1080p 50 as a future-proof production standard. 1080p 50 offers higher vertical resolution, better quality at lower bitrates, and easier conversion to other formats, such as 720p 50 and 1080i 50. The main argument is that no matter how complex the deinterlacing algorithm may be, the artifacts in the interlaced signal cannot be completely eliminated because some information is lost between frames.

Despite arguments against it, television standards organizations continue to support interlacing. It is still included in digital video transmission formats such as DV, DVB, and ATSC. New video compression standards like High Efficiency Video Coding are optimized for progressive scan video, but sometimes do support interlaced video.

List of Sony Cyber-shot cameras

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List of Windows 10 Mobile devices

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Processors supported are Qualcomm's Snapdragon 210, 212, 410, 617, 800, 801, 808, 810 and 820 as well as Rockchip's RK3288.

Moto G6

Moto G6 (stylized by Motorola as moto g6) is a series of Android smartphones developed by Motorola Mobility, a subsidiary of Lenovo; it is the sixth generation of the Moto G family. There are three models, g6, g6 plus and g6 play. Only the g6 and g6 Play will be available in the United States.

Nikon 1 V3

The Nikon 1 V3 is a digital mirrorless camera announced by Nikon on March 13, 2014.

Compared to its predecessor, the Nikon 1 V2, it has a higher resolution sensor (18 megapixels, up from 14 megapixels), built-in Wifi, FullHD video at 60 frames per second (non-interpolated), up to 120 frames per second video at 720p resolution, 20fps continuous AF, and 171 focus points, which Nikon claims gives better tracking autofocus than even DSLR cameras.

Nokia N8

The Nokia N8 is a touchscreen-based smartphone developed by Nokia. Announced on 27 April 2010, the Nokia N8 was the first device to run on the Symbian^3 mobile operating system and it was the company's flagship device for the year. It was released on 30 September 2010 at the Nokia Online Store before being released in markets around the world on 1 October 2010.The N8 has a 3.5-inch AMOLED display with 16 gigabytes mass memory, and features a 12-megapixel camera, the second time a camera of such megapixel count was used (the first one being the Sony Ericsson Satio in 2009) with a Xenon flash (like the Nokia N82) and with a very large 1/1.83” sensor size (larger than most point-and-shoot cameras of the time). It also has 720p HD video recording, a pentaband 3.5G radio, and an FM transmitter. Among the connectivity features are an HDMI output, USB On-The-Go, and Wi-Fi 802.11 b/g/n.The N8 was an important device for Nokia in its bid against increasing competition in the smartphone industry, and its revamped Symbian^3 software was also important. The device was delayed several times pushing its release date by several months, which had a negative impact on the company. Despite mixed views on the Symbian software, the N8's hardware build and camera quality were very well received, with many calling it the "best camera phone". The N8 would also become Nokia's last flagship device running Symbian, due to Nokia Lumia 800 in 2011 which ran on Windows Phone software. The N8's Symbian successor, Nokia 808 PureView, appeared in 2012.

Redmi

Redmi is a sub-brand owned by the Chinese electronics company Xiaomi. It was introduced as a budget smartphone line manufactured by Xiaomi, that was first announced in July 2013. It became a sub-brand, separated from Xiaomi, on January 10, 2019. Redmi phones use the Xiaomi MIUI user interface on top of Android. Models can be divided into regular Redmi phones with screens usually up to 5" and Redmi Note series with displays exceeding 5". Only phone besides these two series is Redmi Pro, first introduced in 2016 with Dual Camera system, USB-C and unique for Xiaomi devices OLED display. Redmi A have been marketed in several Asian and European countries.The most significant difference from other Xiaomi smartphones is that it uses less-expensive components and thus is more cost-effective. In August 2014, The Wall Street Journal reported that in the second quarter of the 2014 fiscal year Xiaomi smartphone shipment rankings in China with a market share of 14%. Redmi sales were attributed as a contributing factor toward this gain in shipment rankings.

Roku

Roku players, branded simply as Roku ( ROH-koo), are a series of digital media players manufactured by Roku, Inc. Roku partners provide over-the-top content in the form of channels. The name comes from the Japanese word 六 (roku) meaning "six" and was named so because it was the sixth company that Anthony Wood (founder and CEO since 2002) started. A Roku streaming device receives data (the video stream) via a wired or Wi-Fi connection from an Internet router. The data is output via an audio cable, video cable, or an HDMI connector directly on some of the device models.

Programming and content for the devices are available from a wide variety of global providers.

Samsung Galaxy Tab series

The Samsung Galaxy Tab is a line of Android-based tablet computers produced by Samsung Electronics. The first model in the series, the 7-inch Samsung Galaxy Tab, was presented to the public on 2 September 2010 at the IFA in Berlin. Since then several models have been released, including models with 7.7, 8.9 and 10.1-inch displays. The Wi-Fi versions of the tablet all include a GPS system while the 3G/4G tablets include cellular capability as well.

Samsung i8910 Omnia HD

Samsung GT-i8910 Omnia HD is a smartphone manufactured by Samsung Electronics, first announced at MWC 2009 on February 18, 2009. The device is most noted for being the first phone capable of playing and recording 720p HD video. It runs on the S60 5th Edition (Symbian^1) platform, the only Samsung device to do so.

Sports broadcasting contracts in Kosovo

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Designation
Low,
MP@LL
Standard,
MP@ML
Enhanced,
HMP@HML
High,
MP@HL
Ultra-high

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