70 mm film

70 mm film (or 65 mm film) is a wide high-resolution film gauge for motion picture photography, with negative area nearly 3.5 times larger than the standard 35 mm motion picture film format.[1] As used in cameras, the film is 65 mm (2.6 in) wide. For projection, the original 65 mm film is printed on 70 mm (2.8 in) film. The additional 5 mm are for four magnetic strips holding six tracks of stereophonic sound. Although later 70 mm prints use digital sound encoding (specifically the DTS format), the vast majority of existing and surviving 70 mm prints predate this technology. Each frame is five perforations tall, with an aspect ratio of 2.2:1.[2] With regards to exhibition, 70 mm film was always considered a specialty format reserved for epics and spectacle films shot on 65mm and blockbuster films that were released both in 35 mm and as 70 mm blow-ups. While few venues were equipped to screen this special format, at the height of its popularity most major markets and cites had a theater that could screen it.[3] Some venues continue to screen 70 mm to this day or have even had 70 mm projectors permanently or temporarily installed for more recent 70 mm releases.[4]

70mm film print
Example of a 70mm film print with a 6 track magnetic soundtrack


Faded vintage 70 mm positive film with four magnetic strips containing six-channel stereophonic sound

Films formatted with a width of 70 mm have existed since the early days of the motion picture industry. The first 70 mm format film was most likely footage of the Henley Regatta, which was projected in 1896 and 1897, but may have been filmed as early as 1894. It required a specially built projector built by Herman Casler in Canastota, New York and had a ratio similar to full frame, with an aperture of 2.75 inches (70 mm) by 2 inches (51 mm). There were also several film formats of various sizes from 50 to 68 mm which were developed from 1884 onwards, including Cinéorama (not to be confused with the entirely distinct "Cinerama" format), started in 1900 by Raoul Grimoin-Sanson. In 1914 the Italian Filoteo Alberini invented a panoramic film system utilising a 70 mm wide film called Panoramica.[5]

Fox Grandeur

In 1928, William Fox of the Fox Film Corporation, in personal partnership with Theodore Case as the Fox-Case Corporation, began working on a wide film format using 70 mm film which they named Grandeur. Cameras were ordered by Fox-Case from Mitchell Camera Corp, with the first 70mm production cameras, designated as the Mitchell Model FC camera, delivered to Fox-Case in May 1929. This was one of a number of wide-film processes developed by some of the major film studios at about that time. However, due to the financial strains of the Great Depression, along with strong resistance from movie theater owners, who were in the process of equipping their theaters for sound, none of these systems became commercially successful. Fox dropped Grandeur in 1930.[6]


Producer Mike Todd had been one of the founders of Cinerama, a wide-screen movie process that was launched in 1952. Cinerama employed three 35 mm film projectors running in synchronism to project a wide (2.6:1) image onto a deeply curved screen. Although the results were impressive, the system was expensive, cumbersome and had some serious shortcomings due to the need to match up three separate projected images. Todd left the company to develop a system of his own which, he hoped, would be as impressive as Cinerama, yet be simpler and cheaper and avoid the problems associated with three-strip projection; in his own words, he wanted "Cinerama out of one hole".

In collaboration with the American Optical company, Todd developed a system which was to be called "Todd-AO". This uses a single 70 mm wide film and was introduced with the film Oklahoma! in October 1955. The 70 mm film is perforated at the same pitch (0.187 inch, 4.75mm) as standard 35 mm film. With a five-perforation pull-down, the Todd-AO system provides a frame dimension of 1.912 inch (48.56mm) by 0.816 inch (20.73mm) giving an aspect ratio of 2.3:1.

The original version of Todd-AO used a frame rate of 30 per second, 25% faster than the 24 frames per second that was (and is) the standard; this was changed after the second film – Around the World in 80 Days - because of the need to produce (24 frame/sec) 35 mm reduction prints from the Todd-AO 65mm negative. The Todd-AO format was originally intended to use a deeply curved Cinerama-type screen but this failed to survive beyond the first few films.[7] However, in the 1960s and 70s, such films as The Sound of Music (which had been filmed in Todd-AO) and Patton (which had been filmed in a copycat process known as Dimension 150) were shown in some Cinerama cinemas, which allowed for deeply curved screens.[8]

Todd-AO adopted a similar multi-channel magnetic sound system to the one developed for Cinemascope two years earlier, recorded on "stripes" of magnetic oxide deposited on the film. However Todd-AO has six channels instead of the four of Cinemascope and due to the wider stripes and faster film speed provides superior audio quality. Five of these six channels are fed to five speakers spaced behind the screen, and the sixth is fed to surround speakers around the walls of the auditorium.

Panavision and the 65/70mm format

Panavision developed their own 65/70mm system that was technically compatible and virtually identical to Todd-AO. Monikered as Super Panavision 70, it used spherical lenses and the same 2.2:1 aspect ratio at 24 frames per second. Panavision also had another 65mm system, (Ultra Panavision 70), which sprang from the MGM Camera 65 system they helped develop for MGM that was used to film Raintree County and Ben-Hur. Both Ultra Panavision 70 and MGM Camera 65 employed an anamorphic lens with a 1.25x squeeze on a 65mm negative (as opposed to 35mm CinemaScope which used a 2x compression, or 8-perf, horizontally filmed 35mm Technirama which used a 1.5x compression). When projected on a 70mm print, a 1.25x anamorphic projection lens was used to decompress the image to an aspect ratio of 2.76:1, one of the widest ever used in commercial cinema.

Decline and Resurgence

Due to the high cost of 70 mm film and the expensive projection system and screen required to use the stock, distribution for films using the stock was limited, although this did not always hurt profits. Most 70 mm films were also re-released on 35mm film for a wider distribution after the initial debut of the film. South Pacific (1958), Lawrence of Arabia (1962), My Fair Lady (1964), and The Sound of Music (1965) are well-known films widely shown in 70 mm format with a general release in 35 mm format. 70 mm film received a brief resurgence in the 1980s when it became popular to make "blow-up" prints of 35 mm titles. It had another resurgence in the mid-2010s with the release of The Hateful Eight, Dunkirk and The Master, with a small number of venues getting temporary or permanent installations of 70 mm film projectors in order to be able to screen these titles.[4]


70mm film print with digital DTS sound
Example of a modern 70mm blow-up print with DTS sound

The 35mm to 70mm "blow-up" or process produces 70mm release prints from 35mm negatives, so that films shot on the smaller format could benefit from 70mm image and sound quality. This process began in the 1960s with titles like The Cardinal(1963)[9] and continues up until the present day, with the height of the its popularity being in the 1980s. These enlargements often provided richer colors, and a brighter, steadier and sharper (though often grainier) image, but the main benefit was the ability to provide 6-channel stereophonic sound as most theaters before the mid-70s (before the advent of Dolby A were screening 35mm prints with single channel monaural sound.[1] However these "blow-ups" rarely used the full six channels of the Todd-AO system and instead used the four-track mixes made for 35 mm prints, the additional half-left and half-right speakers of the Todd-AO layout being fed with a simple mix of the signals intended for the adjacent speakers (known as a "spread") or simply left blank.[10] If a 70mm film was shown in a Cinerama theatre, the Cinerama sound system was used. From 1976 onwards many 70 mm prints used Dolby noise reduction on the magnetic tracks but Dolby disapproved of the "spread" and instead re-allocated the 6 available tracks to provide for left, center and right screen channels, left and right surround channels plus a "low-frequency enhancement" channel to give more body to low-frequency bass.[11] This layout came to be known as "5.1" (the "point one" is the low-frequency enhancement channel) and was subsequently adopted for digital sound systems used with 35 mm.

In the 1980s the use of these "blow-ups" increased with large numbers of 70 mm prints being made of some blockbusters of the period such as the 125 70 mm prints made of The Empire Strikes Back (1980).[10] However the early 1990s saw the advent of digital sound systems (Dolby Digital, DTS and SDDS) for 35 mm prints which meant that 35 mm could finally match 70 mm for sound quality but at a far lower cost. Coupled with the rise of the multiplex cinema, which meant that audiences were increasingly seeing films on relatively small screens rather than the giant screens of the old "Picture Palaces", this meant that the expensive 70 mm format went out of favour again. The DTS digital sound-on-disc system was adapted for use with 70 mm film, thus saving the significant costs of magnetic striping, but this has not been enough to stop the decline, and 70 mm prints were rarely made.

Among some of the more recent 70 mm blow-up titles are Paul Thomas Anderson's Inherent Vice (2014)[1] and Phantom Thread (2017), Patty Jenkins's Wonder Woman (2017)[12], and Steven Spielberg's Ready Player One (2018)[13].

Current use

70mm film print with DTS sound
Example of a modern 70mm film print with DTS sound

In the late 20th century, the usage of 65 mm negative film drastically reduced, in part due to the high cost of 65 mm raw stock and processing. Some of the few films since 1990 shot entirely on 65 mm stock are Kenneth Branagh's Hamlet (1996), Ron Fricke's Baraka (1992), and its sequel Samsara (2011), Paul Thomas Anderson's The Master (2012), Quentin Tarantino's The Hateful Eight (2015), Christopher Nolan's Dunkirk (2017) (almost 80 minutes, about 75% of the film, were shot on 65 mm IMAX film, while the rest was shot on regular 65mm film), and Kenneth Branagh's Murder on the Orient Express (2017). Other films used 65 mm cameras sparingly, for selected scenes or special effects. Films with limited 65 mm footage include Terrence Malick's The New World (2005) and Christopher Nolan's previous four movies, The Dark Knight (featured 28 minutes of IMAX footage), Inception,[14] The Dark Knight Rises (over an hour in IMAX) and Interstellar.

Since the 2010s most of the movie theater have converted to digital projection systems, resulting in the removal of both 35 mm (the previous industry standard) projectors and 70 mm projectors.[15]However some venues and organizations remain committed to screening 70mm film, seeing the special format as something that can set them apart and be an audience draw in an industry where most movies are screened digitally.[16]

70mm film festivals continue to take place regularly at venues such as the The Somerville Theatre in Somerville, MA,[17] The Music Box Theatre in Chicago, IL,[18] the Cinerama in Seattle WA,[19] the American Cinematheque's Aero and Egyptian Theaters in Los Angeles,[20] the Museum of the Moving Image in New York City,[21] the TIFF Bell Lightbox in Toronto,[22] and others.

Home media

For home theater, VHS and DVD did not offer enough resolution to carry the full image quality captured by 70 mm film, and VHS and DVD video transfers were usually prepared from 35 mm reduction elements. The high-definition Blu-ray format, in contrast, can potentially reveal the quality advantage of 70 mm productions. Although telecine machines for 70 mm scanning are uncommon, high-resolution transfers from high-quality full-gauge elements can reveal impressive technical quality.

Uses of 70 mm

Ultra Panavision

An anamorphic squeeze combined with 65 mm film allowed for extremely wide aspect ratios to be used while still preserving quality. This was used in the 1957 film Raintree County and to incredible success in the 1959 film Ben-Hur and the 2015 film The Hateful Eight, which was filmed with the MGM Camera 65 process at an aspect ratio of 2.76:1. It required the use of a 1.25x anamorphic lens to horizontally compress the image, and a corresponding lens on the projector to uncompress it.

Special effects

Limited use of 65 mm film was revived in the late 1970s for some of the visual effects sequences in films like Close Encounters of the Third Kind, mainly because the larger negative did a better job than 35 mm negative of minimizing visible film grain during optical compositing. Since the 1990s, a handful of films (such as Spider-Man 2) have used it for this purpose, but the usage of digital intermediate for compositing has largely negated these issues. Digital intermediate offers other benefits such as lower cost and a greater range of available lenses and accessories to ensure a consistent look to the footage.


A horizontal variant of 70 mm, with an even bigger picture area, is used for the high-performance IMAX format which uses a frame that is 15 perforations wide on 70 mm film. The Dynavision and Astrovision systems each use slightly less film per frame and vertical pulldown to save print costs while being able to project onto an IMAX screen. Both were rare, with Astrovision largely used in Japanese planetariums. In the 2014 movie Interstellar, a significant amount was shot in the IMAX format. Other scenes were shot in either 35 mm or in the standard 'vertical' 5-perf 65 mm format. IMAX introduced a digital projection system in the late 2000s and most IMAX venues have migrated to digital setup.[23]

70 mm 3D early use

The first commercial introduction of 70 mm single projector 3D was the 1967 release of Con la muerte a la espalda, a Spanish/French/Italian co-production which used a process called Hi-Fi Stereo 70, itself based on a simplified, earlier developed soviet process called Stereo-70. This process captured two anamorphic images, one for each eye, side by side on 65 mm film. A special lens on a 70 mm projector added polarization and merged the two images on the screen. The 1971 re-release of Warner Bros.' House of Wax used the side-by-side StereoVision format and was distributed in both anamorphically squeezed 35 mm and deluxe non-anamorphic 70 mm form. The system was developed by Allan Silliphant and Chris Condon of StereoVision International Inc., which handled all technical and marketing aspects on a five-year special-royalty basis with Warner Bros. The big screen 3D image was both bright and clear, with all the former sync and brightness problems of traditional dual 35 mm 3D eliminated. Still, it took many years more before IMAX began to test the water for big-screen 3D, and sold the concept to Hollywood executives.


Hollywood has released films shot on 35 mm as IMAX blow-up versions. Many 3D films were shown in the 70 mm IMAX format. The Polar Express in IMAX 3D 70 mm earned 14 times as much, per screen, as the simultaneous 2D 35 mm release of that film in the fall of 2004.

In 2011 IMAX introduced a 3D Digital camera based on two Phantom 65 cores. The camera has been used for documentaries as well as Hollywood films, the first being the 2014 release of Transformers: Age of Extinction.

Technical specifications

Standard 65 mm (5/70) (Todd-AO, Super Panavision)

  • spherical lenses
  • 5 perforations/frame (1 perforation = 0.1875", thus 1 frame of 70mm = 0.9375" or 15/16")
  • 42 frames/meter (12.8 frames/ft)
  • 34.29 meters/minute (112.5 ft/minute)
  • vertical pulldown
  • 24 frames/second
  • camera aperture: 52.63 by 23.01 mm (2.072 by 0.906 in)[24]
  • projection aperture: 48.56 by 22.10 mm (1.912 by 0.870 in)[24]
  • 305 m (1000 feet), about 9 minutes at 24 frame/s = 4.5 kg (10 pounds) in can
  • aspect ratio: 2.2:1

Ultra Panavision 70 (MGM Camera 65)

Same as Standard 65mm except

  • projection aperture: 48.59 by 22.05 mm (1.913 by 0.868 in)[24]
  • MGM Camera 65 lenses built by Panavision employed a square-shaped, double wedge-prism anamorphic attachment in front of a shperical objective lens. By the time of Mutiny on the Bounty (1962) Panavision had developed a new set of Ultra Panavision 70 lenses that used a high quality cylindrical anamorphic element in front of the objective lens. These new lenses were far superior to the prism anamorphics—they were lighter, transmitted more light and suffered from less spherical and chromatic aberration.
  • 1.25x squeeze factor, projected aspect ratio 2.76:1


Same as Standard 65 mm except

  • 60 frames per second

IMAX (15/70)

  • spherical lenses
  • 70mm film, 15 perforations per frame
  • horizontal rolling loop movement, from right to left (viewed from emulsion side)
  • 24 frames per second
  • camera aperture: 70.41 mm × 52.63 mm (2.772 in × 2.072 in)
  • projection aperture: at least 2 mm (0.079 in) less than camera aperture on the vertical axis and at least 0.41 mm (0.016 in) less on the horizontal axis
  • aspect ratio: 1.43:1
  • DMR aspect ratio: 1.89:1, 2.39:1


Same as IMAX except

  • fisheye lens
  • lens optically centered 9.4 mm (0.37 in) above film horizontal center line
  • projected elliptically on a dome screen, 20° below and 110° above perfectly centered viewers

Omnivision Cinema 180

same as standard 65/70 except:

  • photographed and projected with special fisheye lenses matched to large 180 degree dome screen
  • Theatres upgraded from 70 mm 6track analog sound to DTS digital sound in 1995.

Omnivision started in Sarasota, Florida. Theatres were designed to compete with Omnimax but with much lower startup and operating costs. Most theatres were built in fabric domed structures designed by Seaman Corporation. The last known OmniVision theatres to exist in USA are The Alaska Experience Theatre in Anchorage, Alaska, built in 1981 (closed in 2007, reopened in 2008), and the Hawaii Experience Theatre in Lahaina, Hawaii (closed in 2004). Rainbow's End (Theme Park) in NZ had the only remaining permanent Cinema 180 attraction until May 2015 when it was demolished.

One of the few producers of 70 mm films for Cinema 180 was the German company Cinevision (today AKPservices GmbH, Paderborn).

Dynavision (8/70)

  • fisheye or spherical lenses, depending on if projecting for a dome or not
  • vertical pulldown
  • 24 or 30 frames per second
  • camera aperture: 52.83 by 37.59 mm (2.080 by 1.480 in)

Astrovision (10/90)

  • vertical pulldown
  • normally printed from an Omnimax negative
  • projected onto a dome
  • almost exclusively in use only by Japanese planetariums
  • the only 70 mm format without sound, hence the only one with perforations next to the edges

See also


  1. ^ a b c "'Inherent Vice' Will Screen in 70mm in Select Theaters. But is Bigger Always Better?". IndieWire. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  2. ^ John. "Widescreen.org". www.widescreen.org. Retrieved 2018-10-12.
  3. ^ "TIFF showcases the rarity and resurgence of 70mm film". The Gate. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  4. ^ a b "Warner Bros. Prepping 'Dunkirk' for One of the Largest 70mm Releases of Last 25 Years". Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  5. ^ "Preserving Wide Film History" Grant Lobban, Journal of the BKSTS Vol 67 No.4 April 1985
  6. ^ "Preserving Wide Film History" Grant Lobban, Journal of the BKSTS Vol 67 No.4 (April 1985)
  7. ^ "In the Splendour of 70 mm Part 1" Grant Lobban, Journal of the BKSTS Vol68 No.12 December 1986
  8. ^ "Atlanta Theatre". Cinema Treasures. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
  9. ^ "The Beginning of the End". in70mm. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  10. ^ a b "Mixing Dolby Stereo Film Sound" Larry Blake Recording Engineer/Producer Vol12 No.1 Feb 1981
  11. ^ The CP200 – A Comprehensive Cinema Theater Audio Processor David Robinson Journal of the SMPTE Sept 1981
  12. ^ "70mm Blow Ups 2017". in70mm. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  13. ^ "'Ready Player One' in 70mm Film Opens on 22 Screens". Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  14. ^ Weintraub, Steve 'Frosty' (25 March 2010). "Christopher Nolan and Emma Thomas Interview Inception – They Talk 3D, What Kind of Cameras They Used, Pre-Viz, WB, and a Lot More!". Collider. Archived from the original on 27 March 2010. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
  15. ^ Barraclough, Leo (23 June 2013). "Digital Cinema Conversion Nears End Game". Variety. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
  16. ^ "The Film Stays in the Picture: A Guide to 70mm Film Projection". Consequence of Sound. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  17. ^ Feedore, Elliott. "70mm Film Festival Celebrates Cinematic Classics | Scout Somerville". scoutsomerville.com. Retrieved 2017-05-19.
  18. ^ Sobczynski, Peter. ""70mm Film Festival: The Ultimate Edition" Arrives at Chicago's Music Box Theater | Balder and Dash | Roger Ebert". www.rogerebert.com. Retrieved 2017-05-19.
  19. ^ "Seattle Cinerama Big Screen 70MM Festival". www.in70mm.com. Retrieved 2017-05-19.
  20. ^ "The Return of 70mm". American Cinematheque Blog. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  21. ^ "See it Big! 70mm". Museum of the Moving Image - Programs. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  22. ^ "TIFF showcases the rarity and resurgence of 70mm film". The Gate. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  23. ^ Frazer, Bryant (24 October 2013). "Film Loses More Ground As Imax Switches Flagship Theaters to Digital". Studio Daily. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
  24. ^ a b c "Film Frame Dimensions". The American WideScreen Museum. Retrieved 1 December 2015.

External links

70 mm Grandeur film

70 mm Grandeur film, also called Fox Grandeur or Grandeur 70, is a 70mm widescreen film format developed by Fox Film Corporation and used commercially on a small scale in 1929–31.

Apollo 11 (2019 film)

Apollo 11 is a 2019 documentary film directed by Todd Douglas Miller. It focuses on the 1969 Apollo 11 mission, the first spaceflight to land people on the moon. The film consists solely of archival footage shot in 70 mm film that was previously unreleased to the public, and does not feature narration or interviews.

The film premiered at the Sundance Film Festival on January 24, 2019, and will be released theatrically by Neon later in 2019.

Cine film

Ciné film (sometimes Cine, no acute accent) is the term commonly used in the UK to refer to the 9.5 mm, 16 mm, 8 mm and Super 8 motion picture film formats used for home movies. It is not normally used to refer to professional formats such as 35 mm or 70 mm film, and is incorrect if applied to any video format. In the US, "movie film" is the common informal term for all formats and "motion picture film" the formal one.

Cine film literally means "moving" film; deriving from the Greek "kine" for motion; it also has roots in the Anglo-French word cinematograph, meaning moving picture.

Although there had been earlier attempts, typically employing larger formats, the introduction of the 9.5 mm and 16 mm formats in the early 1920s finally succeeded in introducing the practice of showing rented "play-at-home" copies of professionally made films, which, in the case of feature-length films, were usually much shortened from the originals.

More significantly, these new cine film gauges were the first truly practical formats for making casual amateur "home movies" of vacation trips, family gatherings, and important events such as weddings. Amateur dramas and comedies were sometimes filmed, usually just for fun and without any aspiration to artistic merit. On occasion, professional filmmakers employed cine film for cost-saving reasons or to evoke a particular aesthetic effect.

Amateur 16 mm film-making was an expensive hobby limited to the affluent. The 9.5 mm format made more efficient use of film and was not quite so costly. The 8 mm format, introduced in 1932, consumed only one-quarter as much film as 16 mm and finally made home movies a reasonably affordable luxury for the many. Eventually, the 16 mm format came to be used mostly for commercial, educational and industrial purposes as a cost-cutting, compact alternative to 35 mm film that produced an acceptably sharp and bright image on smaller screens.

Cine film, being commonly available, was used to record scientific data, such as observations of animal behaviour and human gait. In some cases, such as studies of fluid dynamics, recording was done onto cine film at higher speeds than those used in home movies.In the mid-1970s, Betamax and VHS home videocassette recorders were introduced. Color video cameras, previously beyond the financial reach of all but the richest amateurs, gradually became cheaper and smaller. Battery-powered camcorders combined the recorder and the camera into one portable and increasingly compact and affordable unit. By the early 1980s an hour of blank videotape cost no more than a three-minute 50-foot roll of 8 mm film with processing. The writing was on the wall for cine film as a mass market item, though even in the early 2010s all the film formats mentioned above are still supported with new film stock and processing, albeit only from a very few specialist suppliers.

Since cine film is now an obsolete format, some companies offer a service whereby these films are converted to modern formats such as DVD, and hobbyists have devised ways of performing the transfer with do-it-yourself equipment.


Cinerama is a widescreen process that originally projected images simultaneously from three synchronized 35 mm projectors onto a huge, deeply curved screen, subtending 146° of arc. The trademarked process was marketed by the Cinerama corporation. It was the first of a number of novel processes introduced during the 1950s, when the movie industry was reacting to competition from television. Cinerama was presented to the public as a theatrical event, with reserved seating and printed programs, and audience members often dressed in their best attire for the evening.

The Cinerama projection screen, rather than being a continuous surface like most screens, is made of hundreds of individual vertical strips of standard perforated screen material, each about ​7⁄8 inch (~22 mm) wide, with each strip angled to face the audience, so as to prevent light scattered from one end of the deeply curved screen from reflecting across the screen and washing out the image on the opposite end. The display is accompanied by a high-quality, seven-track discrete, directional, surround-sound system.

The original system involved shooting with three synchronized cameras sharing a single shutter. This process was later abandoned in favor of a system using a single camera and 70mm prints. The latter system lost the 146° field of view of the original three-strip system, and its resolution was markedly lower. Three-strip Cinerama did not use anamorphic lenses, although two of the systems used to produce the 70mm prints (Ultra Panavision 70 and Super Technirama 70) did employ anamorphics. Later, 35mm anamorphic reduction prints were produced for exhibition in theatres with anamorphic CinemaScope-compatible projection lenses.

IMAX Magic Carpet

IMAX Magic Carpet is a large format film system, using two IMAX 15/70 mm film format projectors. One of the projectors projects onto a screen in front of the audience, the second projector projects onto a screen under the audience, which is visible through a transparent floor. The system was demonstrated in Osaka in 1990, and two films were produced for the format; Flying Raft and Flowers in the Sky.

In the Labyrinth (film)

In the Labyrinth (French: Dans le labyrinthe) was a groundbreaking multi-screen presentation at the Labyrinth pavilion at Expo 67 in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. It used 35 mm and 70 mm film projected simultaneously on multiple screens and was the precursor of today's IMAX format.The film split elements across the five screens and also combined them for a mosaic of a single image. It was hailed as a "stunning visual display" by Time magazine, which concludes: "such visual delights as Labyrinth ... suggest that cinema—the most typical of 20th century arts—has just begun to explore its boundaries and possibilities."In the Labyrinth was co-directed by Roman Kroitor, Colin Low and Hugh O'Connor and produced by the National Film Board of Canada. Kroitor left the NFB shortly after to co-found Multi-Screen Corporation, which later became IMAX Corporation.NFB animator Ryan Larkin also designed animated sequences for the film.It inspired Canadian filmmaker Norman Jewison to apply similar techniques to his film The Thomas Crown Affair.

List of IMAX venues

This is a list of IMAX venues which feature either 15/70 mm film projectors or IMAX with Laser projectors. Not included are IMAX venues with solely 2K resolution digital xenon projectors.

Traditional 15/70 mm IMAX locations use 70 mm film projectors, with the film running through the projector(s) horizontally, each frame being 15 perforations wide. 3D presentations are shown using two projectors and either linear polarized or LCD shutter glasses. These locations are capable of displaying aspect ratios as tall as 1.43:1. IMAX with Laser locations use two 4K resolution digital projectors with laser light sources, with 3D content using wavelength multiplex visualization in a similar fashion to Dolby 3D. They are capable of displaying aspect ratios as tall as 1.43:1.

All cinemas feature 3D projection unless noted otherwise.

Low-frequency effects

The low-frequency effects (LFE) channel is the name of an audio track specifically intended for deep, low-pitched sounds ranging from 3-120 Hz. This track is normally sent to a speaker that is specially designed for low-pitched sounds called the subwoofer. While LFE channels originated in Dolby Stereo 70 mm film prints, they became commonplace in the 1990s and 2000s in home theater systems used to reproduce film soundtracks for DVDs and Blu-ray discs.

Lunar Orbiter program

The Lunar Orbiter program was a series of five unmanned lunar orbiter missions launched by the United States from 1966 through 1967. Intended to help select Apollo landing sites by mapping the Moon's surface, they provided the first photographs from lunar orbit and photographed both the Moon and Earth.

All five missions were successful, and 99 percent of surface of the Moon was mapped from photographs taken with a resolution of 60 meters (200 ft) or better. The first three missions were dedicated to imaging 20 potential manned lunar landing sites, selected based on Earth-based observations. These were flown at low-inclination orbits. The fourth and fifth missions were devoted to broader scientific objectives and were flown in high-altitude polar orbits. Lunar Orbiter 4 photographed the entire nearside and nine percent of the far side, and Lunar Orbiter 5 completed the far side coverage and acquired medium (20 m (66 ft)) and high (2 m (6 ft 7 in)) resolution images of 36 preselected areas. All of the Lunar Orbiter spacecraft were launched by Atlas-Agena-D launch vehicles.

The Lunar Orbiters had an ingenious imaging system, which consisted of a dual-lens camera, a film processing unit, a readout scanner, and a film handling apparatus. Both lenses, a 610 mm (24 in) narrow angle high resolution (HR) lens and an 80 mm (3.1 in) wide angle medium resolution (MR) lens, placed their frame exposures on a single roll of 70 mm film. The axes of the two cameras were coincident so the area imaged in the HR frames were centered within the MR frame areas. The film was moved during exposure to compensate for the spacecraft velocity, which was estimated by an electro-optical sensor. The film was then processed, scanned, and the images transmitted back to Earth.

During the Lunar Orbiter missions, the first pictures of Earth as a whole were taken, beginning with Earth-rise over the lunar surface by Lunar Orbiter 1 in August, 1966. The first full picture of the whole Earth was taken by Lunar Orbiter 5 on 8 August 1967. A second photo of the whole Earth was taken by Lunar Orbiter 5 on 10 November 1967.


Padayottam is a 1982 Indian Malayalam-language epic historical film directed by Jijo Punnoose and produced by Navodaya Appachan. The screenplay was influenced by the novel The Count of Monte Cristo by Alexandre Dumas. It stars Prem Nazir, Madhu, Thikkurissy Sukumaran Nair, Mammootty, Mohanlal, Shankar, Lakshmi, and Poornima Jayaram. It was the first Indian film to be indigenously shot in the 70 mm film format.

Pentax 645

The Pentax 645 is a medium format single-lens reflex system camera manufactured by Pentax. It was introduced in 1984, along with a complementary line of lenses. It captures images nominally 6 cm × 4.5 cm on 120, 220, and 70 mm film, though the actual size of the images is 56 mm × 41.5 mm.


Showscan is a cinematic process developed by Douglas Trumbull. It uses 70mm film, but photographs and projects it at 60 frames per second – 2.5 times the standard speed of movie film.

Super Panavision 70

Super Panavision 70 was the marketing brand name used to identify movies photographed with Panavision 70 mm spherical optics between 1959 and 1983.

Super Technirama 70

Super Technirama 70 was the marketing name for films which were photographed in the 35 mm 8-perf Technirama process and optically un-squeezed and enlarged to 70 mm 5-perf prints for deluxe exhibition.

A few of the Super Technirama 70 films (including Circus World and Custer of the West) were presented in 70 mm Cinerama at some venues. Special optics were used to project the 70 mm prints onto a deeply curved screen to mimic the effect of the original 3-strip Cinerama process.

Symbiosis (film)

Symbiosis was a 70 mm film shown from October 1982 to January 1995 in the Harvest Theater at The Land pavilion at Epcot at the Walt Disney World Resort in Lake Buena Vista, Florida. It was directed by Paul Gerber and narrated by veteran voice-actor Philip L. Clarke.

The movie focused on the balance between technological expansion and the protection of the environment. The film showed environmental damage caused by humans and what is being done to fix the damage created.

It closed on January 1, 1995 and was replaced by Circle of Life: An Environmental Fable. The new film featured some re-edited footage from Symbiosis.

The film has since been shown at film festivals specialising in the 70 mm film format; at the National Media Museum in 1998, and in Karlsruhe, Germany in 2012.

The Hateful Eight

The Hateful Eight (often marketed as The H8ful Eight) is a 2015 American Western film written and directed by Quentin Tarantino. It stars Samuel L. Jackson, Kurt Russell, Jennifer Jason Leigh, Walton Goggins, Demián Bichir, Tim Roth, Michael Madsen, and Bruce Dern as eight strangers who seek refuge from a blizzard in a stagecoach stopover some time after the American Civil War.

Tarantino announced The Hateful Eight in November 2013. He conceived it as a novel and sequel to his previous film Django Unchained (2012) before deciding to make it a standalone film. After the script leaked in January 2014, he cancelled the film, directed a live reading at the United Artists Theater in Los Angeles, then announced that he had changed his mind. Filming began on December 8, 2014, near Telluride, Colorado. The original score was Italian composer Ennio Morricone's first for a Tarantino film, his first complete Western score in 34 years, and his first for a high-profile Hollywood production since Brian De Palma's Mission to Mars in 2000.

Distributed by The Weinstein Company in the United States, The Hateful Eight was released on December 25, 2015, in a roadshow release in 70 mm film. The film had a wide digital release on December 30, 2015. It received generally positive reviews, with Leigh's performance being singled out for praise. For his work on the score, Morricone won the Golden Globe and his first Academy Award for Best Original Score. The film also earned Academy Award nominations for Best Supporting Actress (Leigh) and Best Cinematography (Robert Richardson).


Todd-AO is an American post-production company founded in 1953, providing sound-related services to the motion picture and television industries. The company operates three facilities in the Los Angeles area. Todd-AO is also the name of the widescreen, 70 mm film format that was developed by Mike Todd and the American Optical Company in the mid-1950s. Todd-AO had been founded to promote and distribute this system.

Ultra Panavision 70

Ultra Panavision 70 and MGM Camera 65 were, from 1957 to 1966, the marketing brands that identified motion pictures photographed with Panavision's anamorphic movie camera lenses. The 70 mm film gauge actually used 65 mm wide film in the camera to capture images in these processes. The projection print, however, was 70 mm film stock. The extra 5 mm on the positive projection print was used to accommodate six-track stereo sound. Ultra Panavision 70 and MGM Camera 65 were shot at 24 frames per second (fps) using anamorphic camera lenses. Ultra Panavision 70 and MGM Camera 65's anamorphic lenses compressed the image 1.25 times, yielding an extremely wide aspect ratio of 2.76:1 (when a 70 mm projection print was used).

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