7

7 (seven) is the natural number following 6 and preceding 8.

← 6 7 8 →
-1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Cardinalseven
Ordinal7th
(seventh)
Numeral systemseptenary
Factorizationprime
Prime4th
Divisors1, 7
Greek numeralΖ´
Roman numeralVII
Roman numeral (unicode)Ⅶ, ⅶ
Binary1112
Ternary213
Quaternary134
Quinary125
Senary116
Octal78
Duodecimal712
Hexadecimal716
Vigesimal720
Base 36736
Greek numeralZ, ζ
Amharic
Arabic٧
Persian & Kurdish٧
Urdu۷
Bengali
Chinese numeral
Devanāgarī
Telugu
Tamil
Hebrewז
Khmer
Thai
Kannada

Mathematics

In fact, if one sorts the digits in the number 142,857 in ascending order, 124578, it is possible to know from which of the digits the decimal part of the number is going to begin with. The remainder of dividing any number by 7 will give the position in the sequence 124578 that the decimal part of the resulting number will start. For example, 628 ÷ 7 = 89 5/7; here 5 is the remainder, and would correspond to number 7 in the ranking of the ascending sequence. So in this case, 628 ÷ 7 = 89.714285. Another example, 5238 ÷ 7 = 748 2/7, hence the remainder is 2, and this corresponds to number 2 in the sequence. In this case, 5238 ÷ 7 = 748.285714.
Dice Distribution (bar)
Graph of the probability distribution of the sum of 2 six-sided dice

Basic calculations

Multiplication 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 15 25 50 100 1000
7 × x 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70 105 175 350 700 7000
Division 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
11 12 13 14 15
7 ÷ x 7 3.5 2.3 1.75 1.4 1.16 1 0.875 0.7 0.7
0.63 0.583 0.538461 0.5 0.46
x ÷ 7 0.142857 0.285714 0.428571 0.571428 0.714285 0.857142 1 1.142857 1.285714 1.428571
1.571428 1.714285 1.857142 2 2.142857
Exponentiation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
7x 7 49 343 2401 16807 117649 823543 5764801 40353607 282475249
x7 1 128 2187 16384 78125 279936 823543 2097152 4782969 10000000
Radix 1 5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
110 120 130 140 150 200 250 500 1000 10000 100000 1000000
x7 1 5 137 217 267 347 427 557 1017 1147 1307 1437 1567 2027
2157 2317 2447 2607 3037 4047 5057 13137 26267 411047 5643557 113333117

Evolution of the glyph

SevenGlyph

In the beginning, various Hindus wrote 7 more or less in one stroke as a curve that looks like an uppercase J vertically inverted. The western Ghubar Arabs' main contribution was to make the longer line diagonal rather than straight, though they showed some tendencies to making the character more rectilinear. The eastern Arabs developed the character from a 6 lookalike into an uppercase V lookalike. Both modern Arab forms influenced the European form, a two-stroke character consisting of a horizontal upper line joined at its right to a line going down to the bottom left corner, a line that is slightly curved in some font variants. As is the case with the European glyph, the Cham and Khmer glyph for 7 also evolved to look like their glyph for 1, though in a different way, so they were also concerned with making their 7 more different. For the Khmer this often involved adding a horizontal line above the glyph.[9] This is analogous to the horizontal stroke through the middle that is sometimes used in handwriting in the Western world but which is almost never used in computer fonts. This horizontal stroke is, however, important to distinguish the glyph for seven from the glyph for one in writings that use a long upstroke in the glyph for 1. In some Greek dialects of early 12th century the longer line diagonal was drawn in a rather semicircular transverse line.

Sevens
Digital77

On the seven-segment displays of pocket calculators and digital watches, 7 is the number with the most common glyph variation (1, 6 and 9 also have variant glyphs). Most calculators use three line segments, but on Sharp, Casio, and a few other brands of calculators, 7 is written with four line segments because, in Japan, Korea and Taiwan 7 is written as ① in the illustration to the right.

While the shape of the 7 character has an ascender in most modern typefaces, in typefaces with text figures the character usually has a descender, as, for example, in TextFigs078.svg.

Most people in Continental Europe,[10] and some in Britain and Ireland as well as Latin America, write 7 with a line in the middle ("7"), sometimes with the top line crooked. The line through the middle is useful to clearly differentiate the character from the number one, as the two can appear similar when written in certain styles of handwriting. This glyph is used in official handwriting rules for primary school in Russia, Ukraine, Bulgaria, Poland, other Slavic countries,[11] France, Italy, Belgium, Finland,[12] Romania, Germany, Greece,[13] and Hungary.[14]

Automotive and transportation

Classical world

Classical antiquity

Commerce and business

Food and beverages

  • 7 Up is the name of a popular soft drink.

Media and entertainment

Film

Characters

  • James Bond's secret agent number is 007.
  • Star Trek: Voyager features a character named Seven of Nine.
  • The Star Trek: The Original Series episode "Assignment: Earth" features a character named Gary Seven.

Titles

Games

  • Lotto Super 7, a Canadian-lottery game that had its final drawing September 18, 2009.
  • Sevens, a card game.
  • Seven is the sum of any two opposite sides on a standard six-sided die.
  • In the game of craps, a dice roll of 7 on the come-out constitutes a "natural" and the Pass line wins immediately. However, if the shooter (dice thrower) rolls a 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, or 10 on the come-out roll, that number becomes his "point'. Now, the shooter must repeat his point before he throws a seven. If he repeats his point, the Pass line wins. If he rolls a seven, not only does the Pass line lose, the shooter loses control of the dice. This is called a "seven-out".

Video games

  • The 7th Guest, produced by Trilobyte and released by Virgin Games in 1993, is an FMV-based puzzle horror video game.
  • "The 7" are a group of deadly mercenaries that kidnap the protagonist's family in the video game Kane & Lynch: Dead Men.
  • In the Killer7 game, the number of individual personalities serving Harman Smith as part of the group of assassins called the Killer7.
  • In 999: Nine Hours, Nine Persons, Nine Doors, one of the characters goes by the code name "Seven".
  • In the Fallen London story Seeking Mr. Eaten's Name, the number 7 is a recurring theme.
  • In the racing video game Mario Kart 7, there is an item called the Lucky Seven.

Literature

  • As You Like It by William Shakespeare's contains the 7 Ages of Man theory of medieval philosophy.
  • In Beloved, the novel by Toni Morrison, the number seven seems to have recurring significance. "Beloved" has seven letters, 124 adds up to seven, each chapter begins on a number containing seven, and the second chapter contains seven parts.
  • The original British version of Anthony Burgess' novel A Clockwork Orange is split into three sections of seven chapters.
  • In the first of the three Deltora Quest series of books by Emily Rodda, the protagonist must collect the seven gems of the fabled Belt of Deltora: topaz, ruby, opal, lapis lazuli, emerald, amethyst, and diamond. Each of the seven gems are guarded by one of seven guardians located in one of the seven locations around Deltora: The Forests of Silence, Lake of Tears, City of the Rats, The Shifting Sands, Dread Mountain, Maze of the Beast, and Valley of the Lost.
  • In the Dragon Ball series, there are seven crystalline spheres known as the Dragon balls. Each Dragon ball has a certain number of stars on it displaying its respective number in the set.
  • The manga Eureka Seven, based on the anime series.
  • In Fist of the North Star (Hokuto no Ken), the main character, Kenshiro, is also known as "the man with seven wounds" for the seven scars on his body in the shape of the Big Dipper.
  • In the Fushigi Yuugi manga series, the four beast gods each have seven warriors, the Genbu Seven, the Byakko Seven, the Seiryuu Seven, and the Suzaku Seven.
  • In the Harry Potter series of novels by J.K. Rowling, seven is said to be the most powerfully magical number. There are a number of references to seven in Harry Potter: there are a total of seven books in the series; Ginny Weasley is the seventh child and only daughter of the Weasley family; Harry Potter was born in July, the seventh month of the year; Wizarding students must complete seven years of school at Hogwarts; There are seven secret passages leading out of Hogwarts; Seven is also the number on the back of Harry Potter's Quidditch robes (Prisoner of Azkaban movie). Professor Moody was also hidden in a chest with an underground cubby, which was locked with seven locks Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. In Quidditch each team consists of seven players. Chapter four of Book 7 is titled "The Seven Potters". Lord Voldemort planned on making six Horcruxes (objects containing parts of his soul), so that his soul would exist in seven parts, but made an extra one, making a total of seven Horcruxes.
  • In the InuYasha series, the Shichinintai are, as their name says, a band of seven mercenaries.
  • The Seven Rings of the Vongola Family in Katekyo Hitman Reborn: Sky, Storm, Rain, Sun, Thunder, Mist, and Cloud.
  • In The Lost Years of Merlin series, a book is titled "The Seven Songs of Merlin".
  • The character 7 (Nana) and the organization Septimal Moon in Loveless (manga)
  • In the Nana manga series, there are many recurrent instances of the number seven ("nana" is Japanese for "seven"), including the name of both main characters.
  • Team 7 consists of the main characters in Naruto: Naruto Uzumaki, Sasuke Uchiha, Sakura Haruno, and Kakashi Hatake. Later in the series, Sai joins Team 7 (now called Team Kakashi) after Sasuke left Konohagakure.
  • One of the Tailed Beasts, in the unnamed Naruto universe, which is the Seven-Tailed beast, and a giant Kabutomushi, was revealed to be named Chōmei, and the jinchuriki host to the young kunoichi Fū. Has six dragonfly-like wings that makes up six of its tails, and a long stem that also makes up its actual tail.
  • In the One Piece series, the Shichibukai (literally, "Seven Military Seas", known in the English versions as the "Seven Warlords of the Sea") are seven powerful pirates who work for the government.
  • The Saga of Seven Suns, a series of seven novels by Kevin J. Anderson.
  • In Neil Gaiman's Sandman series, there are 7 Endless: Destiny, Death, Dream, Destruction, Despair, Desire and Delirium.
  • The Secret Seven, name of a children's adventure book by Enid Blyton.
  • In the Septimus Heap series, Septimus is the seventh son of a seventh son, 7 is believed to be the most magical number. There will also be seven books in the series, along with many other things relating to the number 7.
  • Aleksis Kivi's Seven Brothers, the most famous book of Finnish literature.
  • The Seven Dials Mystery by Agatha Christie.
  • The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People, a book by Stephen Covey.
  • Seven Pillars of Wisdom, a book written by T.E. Lawrence.
  • The book Seven Years in Tibet.
  • The novel Seven Days in May, written by Fletcher Knebel.
  • In The Silmarillion, also a Tolkien work, there are seven Lords of the Valar, and seven Ladies of the Valar; Fëanor, a central character, has seven sons: Maedhros, Maglor, Celegorm, Curufin, Caranthir, Amrod, and Amras.
  • In George R.R. Martin's A Song of Ice and Fire, seven gods, the Mother, the Father, the Warrior, the Crone, the Smith, the Maiden, and the Stranger, are worshipped in the land of Westeros, which is made up of seven former kingdoms and often called the Seven Kingdoms. The Seven are the primary deities of Westeros.
  • In W.E.B. Du Bois's book The Souls of Black Folk, he refers to "the Negro" as "the seventh son".
  • In The Tales of Alvin Maker, an alternate history fantasy series by Orson Scott Card, seventh sons are imbued with special powers, referred to as "knacks", over the physical world. The powers of a seventh son of a seventh son, the birthright of the series' main character, Alvin Smith, are especially pronounced. Men who wield these powers to create are referred to as "Makers".
  • In Toaru Majutsu no Index, there are a total of seven Level 5 espers: Accelerator, Kakine Teitoku, Misaka Mikoto, Mugino Shizuri, Shokuhou Misaki, an unknown esper and Sogiita Gunha.
  • In The Two Towers, the second volume of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings, the following poem appears: "Tall ships and tall kings/Three times three/What brought they from the foundered land/Over the flowing sea?/Seven stars and seven stones/And one white tree." The "foundered land" is Númenor, and the "Seven Stars" are unknown, but they may refer to a constellation, the Sickle of the Valar. The Seven Stones are the palantíri, the seeing-stones. The number seven was also significant to Dwarvish culture as portrayed by Tolkien: there were seven fathers of the Dwarves (as recounted in The Silmarillion) and the Dwarves were later given seven rings by Sauron (according to The Lord of the Rings).
  • David Eastis authored two books about the popular number seven both with the title "7".
  • Jackie Leo wrote "Seven".
  • We are Seven by William Wordsworth.
  • Marina or Number Seven is a character in the book series The Lorien Legacies.
  • The Revenge of Seven by Pittacus Lore.
  • In Rick Riordan's series The Heroes of Olympus there are seven heroes of the Great Prophecy: Percy Jackson, Annabeth Chase, Jason Grace, Piper McLean, Leo Valdez, Hazel Levesque, and Frank Zhang.

Music

  • The number of notes in the traditional Western diatonic scale (major or minor).
  • In music, the Roman numeral vii is the leading tone (vii°) or subtonic (VII) scale degree, chord (leading-tone seventh chord or secondary leading-tone chord), or diatonic function, when distinguished V = major and v = minor.
  • The original diameter in inches of the 45rpm format gramophone record.
  • There are seven musicians in a septet or a septuor.
  • There are seven basic swaras [saptaswaras] in Indian Carnatic music.
  • "7" is a song by Prince and The New Power Generation, from the 1992 Love Symbol Album.
  • 7 is a 2003 Enrique Iglesias album.
  • 7 (Mick Thompson) is one of the guitarists for popular metal band Slipknot.
  • Sweet 7 is an album by Sugababes.
  • The number of dastgahs in Persian traditional music.
  • Seventh son of a Seventh son is the 7th album of the English heavy metal band Iron Maiden, brought out in 1988.
  • Sevens is the 7th album by Country singer Garth Brooks, released in 1997, consisting of 14 songs(2 sets of 7).
  • "Seven" is a song by Megadeth on their 1999 album Risk.
  • UK-based alt-rock band, Take The Seven (TTVII).
  • "The Munificent Seven" is the appended parenthetical title for the song "Love Is Stronger Than Justice" on Sting's 1993 album Ten Summoner's Tales.
  • "Seven" is a song on David Bowie's album Hours.
  • Seven Swans is the name of the 2004 album by Sufjan Stevens.
  • 7 is an alias of Mexican musician Juan Son.
  • 7 (O.S.T.R. album) is the seventh album of O.S.T.R.

Sports

  • A heptathlon is a combined event of seven running, jumping and throwing disciplines for both men's and women's athletics.
  • Rugby sevens is a variant of union and league that contains only seven players per side instead of the standard 15 (union) or 13 (league).
  • In the standard rugby union bonus points system, a team is awarded a bonus point in the league standings if it loses a game by 7 or fewer points.
  • In baseball:
    • For baseball scoring, seven represents the left fielder's position.
    • There are seven ways that a batter can reach base (safe hit, base on balls, fielder's error, fielder's choice, hit by pitch, catcher's interference, and dropped third strike).
    • The 7th Inning stretch was attributed to the 27th U.S. President, William Howard Taft.
  • In basketball:
    • The standard ball used for full-court men's play is designated as "size 7".
    • In the rule sets used for US college men's play and US high schools for both sexes, a team begins shooting bonus free throws once its opponent has committed 7 personal fouls in a half.
Jersey numbers
  • In association football, the right midfielder traditionally wears the number 7.
  • In rugby league, the jersey number 7 is worn by the starting scrum-half/halfback in most competitions (but not in the Super League, which uses static squad numbering).
  • In rugby union, the jersey number 7 is worn by the starting openside flanker. (Some teams use "left" and "right" flankers instead of "openside" and "blindside", with 7 being worn by the starting right flanker.)
Number of players
  • In cross country running, a team traditionally consists of seven athletes.
  • In team handball, the number of players on each team including the goalkeeper.
  • In netball, each team has seven players on the court.
  • In Ultimate, each team has seven players on the field.
  • In water polo, each team is allowed to have a maximum of seven players, one of them a goalkeeper, in the playing area of the pool at any given time.

Television

Networks and stations

  • The circle 7 logo used by numerous ABC network O&O stations in the U.S. (In the late 1940s, ABC arranged for its five original, founding O&O TV stations to broadcast on channel 7.)
  • Maximum number of VHF broadcast channels available in any TV market in the United States of America; they are channels 2, 4, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 13 in the Greater New York City and Los Angeles-Long Beach SMSAs.
  • ProSieben (sieben being German for seven), a television network in Germany
  • Seven Network, a television network in Australia.
  • Trans7 (formerly TV7 before taken over by Trans Corporation), a television network in Indonesia.
  • GMA 7 (DZBB-TV channel 7 In Metro Manila) a television network in the Philippines.

Programs

  • 7 Days, a comedy gameshow based on news stories from New Zealand.
  • The name of a television show 7th Heaven.
  • The name of a The Adventures of Super Mario Bros. 3 cartoon episode, "7 Continents for 7 Koopas".
  • Blake's 7 was a BBC science fiction series that ran from 1978 to 1981.
  • Eureka Seven, a science fiction and romance anime.
  • In Red Dwarf II episode "Parallel Universe", Holly forgets the number 7 in a countdown for the Holly Hop Drive. After Rimmer reminds him, he admits he has "a blind spot for sevens".
  • Seven, an episodic character from the sitcom Married... with Children.
  • In the Seinfeld episode "The Seven", Seven is the name George Costanza desires to give his first-born, having allegedly promised this to the widow of baseball great Mickey Mantle (whose uniform number was 7). George is enraged, however, when his fiancé's cousin and spouse copy the idea and give the name to their child.
  • Seven Days, a science fiction show about the NSA using time travel.
  • The name of one of the monsters in the cartoon television show Seven Little Monsters.
  • In Star Trek: Voyager, Seven of Nine (also called Seven for short) is one of the crewmembers.
  • The Ultra Series has two heroes with "Seven" in their name: Ultra Seven and Ultra Seven-21.
  • Ultra Seven, a television series aired in 1967, and the superhero of the same name. He is the honorary seventh member of the Ultra Garrison.
  • In House of Anubis (on Nickelodeon), the "chosen one" has to be born on 7/7 (July 7) at 7:00am.
  • George Carlin in what is perhaps his best-known routine, "Seven Words You Can Never Say on Television".
  • Lucky 7: Short-lived ABC TV series (premiered 2013) about seven people who win the lottery.
  • The last episode of American Horror Story: Coven is named The Seven Wonders, after the seven great powers a witch should perform to become the leader or "Supreme" of the generation: Telekinesis, Concilium, Descensum, Divination, Transmutation, Vitalum Vitalis and Pyrokinesis.
  • In the anime series Yu-Gi-Oh! Duel Monsters, there are seven magical ancient Egyptian artefacts, known as the Millennium Items (Puzzle, Eye, Ring, Key, Scale, Rod and Necklace), which play a significant role in the storyline of the show throughout its duration.
  • The number 7 is the racing number of Herbie's girlfriend, Giselle, in the movie Herbie Goes to Monte Carlo.
  • The number 7 plays a significant role in HBO's Game of Thrones. There are seven Kingdoms in the land of Westeros. There are seven Hells and Heavens, seven deities in the major religion, the holy text of said religion is referred to as "The Seven Pointed Star. Seven heroes embark North of the Wall to capture a wight in Season 7. A Song of Ice and Fire, the series the Television show is based on will contain seven books after Author George R.R. Martin is finished writing the series.

Places

  • The traditional count of Basque provinces as expressed in the slogan Zazpiak Bat, translates as "the seven [are] one" and refers to the seven Basque traditional provinces.
  • The figurative number of seas.
  • The Seven Virgins mountain range in Sri Lanka, which was the scene of an air disaster on December 4, 1974, involving a DC-8 Series 55F passenger jetliner operated by the charter company Martinair, which left 191 dead.
  • The Sevens (sometimes typeset as "7he Sevens"), a rugby union stadium in Dubai, UAE and home to the Dubai Sevens tournament.

Religion and mythology

Old Testament

  • Seven Hebrew words of Bereishit 1:1 / Genesis 1:1 (28 letters).
Seven Days of Creation - 1765
Seven Days of Creation - 1765 book

The number seven in the seven days of Creation is typological and the number seven appears commonly elsewhere in the Bible. These include:

  • Seven days of Creation (Genesis 1) e.g., God rested on and sanctified the seventh day (Sabbath).
  • Anyone who dares to kill Cain "will suffer vengeance seven times over" (Genesis 4:15).
  • Lamech in his "Song of the Sword" claims that "if Cain shall be avenged sevenfold", he himself shall be "seventy-sevenfold" (Genesis 4:24).
  • Noah is commanded to bring seven pairs of every clean animal onto the ark (Genesis 7:2).
  • Seven years of plenty and seven years of famine in Pharaoh's dream (Genesis 41).
  • In regards to the sin sacrifice, the anointed priest was to sprinkle the bullock's blood seven times before the LORD (Leviticus 4:6).
  • Seven days of the feast of Passover (Exodus 13:3–10).
  • Seven-day week and the pattern concerning distribution and use of manna (Exodus 16).
  • The Menorah (Hebrew: מנורה‎), is a seven-branched candelabrum lit by olive oil in the Tabernacle and the Temple in Jerusalem (Exodus 25).
  • Seven-year cycle around the years of Jubilee (Leviticus 25).
  • Jericho's walls fall on the seventh day after seven priests with seven trumpets march around the city seven times (Joshua 6:8).
  • King David had seven older brothers (1 Samuel 16).
  • The child sneezed seven times after Elisha raised him from the dead (2 Kings 4:35).
  • Seven things that are detestable to the LORD (Proverbs 6:16–19).
  • Seven Pillars of the House of Wisdom (Proverbs 9:1).
  • The woman with seven sons in 2 Maccabees.
  • Gad, whose name means good luck, is the seventh son of Jacob. Areli is the seventh son of Gad (Genesis 46:16). Chronicles lists David as the seventh son of Jesse (1 Chronicles 2:15). An unnamed eighth individual appeared among the seven in 1 Samuel 16, then David as the youngest is brought before Samuel.

New Testament

Schnorr von Carolsfeld Bibel in Bildern 1860 236
Seven lampstands in The Vision of John on Patmos by Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld, 1860.
  • Seven loaves multiplied into seven basketfuls of surplus (Matthew 15:32–37).
  • Peter asked Jesus if he should forgive up to seven times; Jesus responded by saying to forgive them "seventy times seven times", alluding to the Curse of Cain and the Song of Lamech in Genesis 4.[16]
  • Seven demons were driven out of Mary Magdelene (Luke 8:2).
  • The seven last sayings of Jesus on the cross.
  • Seven men of honest report, full of the Holy Ghost and wisdom (Acts 6:3).
  • In the Book of Revelation, seven is a central figure of quantities: Seven Spirits of God, Seven Churches (to which the book is addressed);
  • Seven of the following appear in Revelation: golden lampstands (1:12), stars (1:16), torches of fire (4:5) Seven Seals (5:1), angels and their trumpets (8:2), last plagues (15:1), golden bowls (15:7), thunders (10:3), horns and eyes (5:6), diadems (12:3) and kings (17:10). See Category:Seven in the Book of Revelation.

Other sevens in Christian knowledge and practice include:

Hinduism

  • The Sanskrit word sapta refers to number seven.
  • Indian Music has "Saptak Swaras", seven octats (sa re ga ma pa dha ni) which are basics of music, using which hundreds of Ragas are composed.
  • Celestial group of seven stars (7 Classical Planets) are named as "Sapta Rishi" based on the seven great saints.
  • Seven Promises [Saptapadi], Seven Rounds in Hindu Wedding and Seven Reincarnation.
  • According to Hinduism, there are seven worlds in the universe, seven seas in the world and seven Rishies (seven gurus) called sapta rishis.
  • Seven hills at tirumala also known as Yedu Kondalavadu [in Telugu], ezhu malaiyan [in Tamil] means "Sevenhills God".
  • The seven virgin goddesses (or Saptha Kannimar ) are worshipped in temples in Tamil Nadu, India.
  • There are 7 Chakras in the basic model used in various eastern traditions and philosophies.

Islam

  • The number of ayat in surat al-Fatiha.
  • The number of heavens.
  • The number of hells.
  • The number of circumambulations that are made around the Kaaba.
  • The number of walks between Al-Safa and Al-Marwah pilgrims perform during the Hajj and the Umrah.
  • The number of doors to hell is seven (for heaven the number of doors is eight).
  • In Verse 12:46 (see Islamic view of Joseph) of the Quran, Joseph (Yusef) is asked to interpret the King's dream where seven fat cows were dreamt to have been devoured by seven skinny cows and seven green spikes, and others shrivelled.
  • The number of the big sins or vices is seven which are from a Hadith of the prophet Mohamed: "Avoid the seven sins polytheism, witchcraft, the killing of the soul which Allah has forbidden except by right, consuming riba, consuming the wealth of the orphan, to escape from the battles and slandering chaste women".
  • A naming ceremony is held for babies on their seventh day of life.

Judaism

  • Shiv`a (another pronunciation of the Hebrew word for 7—(Hebrew: שבעה, "seven")), is the number of days of mourning. Hence, one sits Shiva. As in Shiva (Judaism).
  • The weekly Torah portion is divided into seven aliyahs, and seven Jewish men (or boys over the age of 13 who are considered men; Bar Mitzvah) are called up for the reading of these aliyahs during Shabbat morning services.
  • Seven blessings are recited under the chuppah during a Jewish wedding ceremony.
  • A Jewish bride and groom are feted with seven days of festive meals after their wedding, known as Sheva Berachot ("Seven Blessings").
  • The number of Ushpizzin (also known as the "Seven Shepherds") who visit the sukkah during the holiday of Sukkot: Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Moses, Aaron, and David.
  • The number of nations God told the Israelites they would displace when they entered the land of Israel (Deut. 7:1): the Hittite, the Girgashite, the Amorite, the Canaanite, the Perizzite, the Hivite, and the Jebusite.
  • In Breslov tradition, the seven orifices of the face (2 eyes, 2 nostrils, 2 ears, and the mouth) are called "The Seven Candles."
  • The 7 Sephirot of primary conscious emotion that are attributes of the creator.

Chinese Taoism

  1. Golden Star
  2. White Clouds
  3. Blue (Heaven) Sky
  4. B-lack (of Colors) Moon Empty Infinity Space / Earth (where grown Trees)
  5. Green Wood
  6. Red (Hell) Fire

Astrology

  • The number of daughters of Atlas in the Pleiades (also called the "Seven Sisters").
  • The number of saints appearing in a constellation called "Saptharishi Mandalam" in Indian astronomy.

Others

Deity, being, or character
  • The Seven Lucky Gods refer to the seven gods of good fortune in Japanese mythology.
  • The number of archangels according to some systems.
  • In Buddhism, Buddha walked 7 steps at his birth.
  • In Khasi mythology, the seven divine women who were left behind on earth and became the ancestresses of all humankind.
  • The number of sleeping men in the Christian myth of the "Seven Sleepers".
  • The number of sages in Hindu mythology; their wives are the deities referred to as the Sapta Matrka or "Seven Mothers".
  • In Iran,[18] German, Spanish, and other cultures that speak Romance Languages, cats are said to have seven lives as opposed to English, where cats are said to have nine lives.
  • In Irish mythology, the epic hero Cúchulainn is associated with the number 7. He has seven fingers on each hand, seven toes on each foot, and seven pupils in each eye. In the Irish epic Táin Bó Cúailnge, Cúchulainn is 7 years old when he receives his first weapons and defeats the armies of the Ulaidh and his son Connla is 7 years old when he is slain by Cúchulainn in "The Death of Aife's Only Son".
  • In Galician folklore, a seventh son will be a werewolf. In other folklores, after six daughters, the seventh child is to be a son and a werewolf. In other European folklores, the seventh son of a seventh son will be a child with special powers of healing and clairvoyant seeing, and in other cultures that seventh son of a seventh son would be a vampire.
  • In Guaraní mythology, the number of prominent legendary monsters.
  • In the eponymous British folk tale, Thomas the Rhymer went to live in the faerie kingdom for seven years.
  • Mahatma Gandhi's list of the destructive Seven Blunders of the World that cause violence: Wealth without work, pleasure without conscience, knowledge without character, commerce without morality, science without humanity, religion without sacrifice and politics without principle.
  • The cosmogony of Urantia[19] gives an explanation to the sacredness of the number 7 in some religions, including those based on a triple deity: 7 indeed is the number of all the possible combinations of three elements taken one by one, two by two, or by three. It therefore expresses all the associative possibilities of the three fundamental aspects of the absolute (Christian Trinity, for example, or Trimurti in Hinduism) which organizes the Creation. The seventh of these combinations being the one that combines the three aspects, 7 therefore also expresses spiritual achievement.
Place
  • The number of main islands of mythological Atlantis.
  • The number of gateways traversed by Inanna during her descent into the underworld.
  • Cibola was one of the legendary Seven Cities of Gold the Spanish thought existed.
  • In the Bahá'í faith, the text The Seven Valleys, by the Prophet-Founder Bahá'u'lláh, relates the journey of the soul through the seven "valleys" of Search, Love, Knowledge, Unity, Contentment, Wonderment, and finally True Poverty and Absolute Nothingness.
Scripture
Thing, concept, or symbol
Time

Science

Astronomy

Biology

Chemistry

The periodic table has 7 rows of known elements

The periodic table has 7 rows of known elements
  • The number of periods, or horizontal rows of elements, in the periodic table (as of 2016).
  • The number of principal energy levels for electrons around the nucleus.
  • The number of crystal systems: triclinic, monoclinic, orthorhombic, tetragonal, trigonal, hexagonal, and cubic.
  • The number of crystal lattice systems: cubic (or isometric), hexagonal, tetragonal, rhombohedral, orthorhombic, monoclinic and triclinic.

Physics

Rainbow-diagram-ROYGBIV
Isaac Newton's 7 colors of the rainbow

Psychology

Software

Temporal, seasonal and holidays

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Sloane's A088165 : NSW primes". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2016-06-01.
  2. ^ "Sloane's A050918 : Woodall primes". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2016-06-01.
  3. ^ "Sloane's A088054 : Factorial primes". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2016-06-01.
  4. ^ "Sloane's A031157 : Numbers that are both lucky and prime". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2016-06-01.
  5. ^ "Sloane's A035497 : Happy primes". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2016-06-01.
  6. ^ "Sloane's A003173 : Heegner numbers". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2016-06-01.
  7. ^ Bryan Bunch, The Kingdom of Infinite Number. New York: W. H. Freeman & Company (2000): 82
  8. ^ "Sloane's A003215 : Hex (or centered hexagonal) numbers". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2016-06-01.
  9. ^ Georges Ifrah, The Universal History of Numbers: From Prehistory to the Invention of the Computer transl. David Bellos et al. London: The Harvill Press (1998): 395, Fig. 24.67
  10. ^ Eeva Törmänen (September 8, 2011). "Aamulehti: Opetushallitus harkitsee numero 7 viivan palauttamista". Tekniikka & Talous (in Finnish).
  11. ^ "Education writing numerals in grade 1." Archived 2008-10-02 at the Wayback Machine(Russian)
  12. ^ Elli Harju (August 6, 2015). ""Nenosen seiska" teki paluun: Tiesitkö, mistä poikkiviiva on peräisin?". Iltalehti (in Finnish).
  13. ^ "Μαθηματικά Α' Δημοτικού" [Mathematics for the First Grade] (PDF) (in Greek). Ministry of Education, Research, and Religions. p. 33. Retrieved May 7, 2018.
  14. ^ "Example of teaching materials for pre-schoolers"(French)
  15. ^ Mark, Joshua. "Pharaoh". Ancient History Encyclopedia. Retrieved 25 January 2017.
  16. ^ 21Then Peter came to Jesus and asked, "Lord, how many times shall I forgive my brother when he sins against me? Up to seven times?" 22Jesus answered, "I tell you, not seven times, but seventy times seven."
  17. ^ "Sermon Illustrations". Bible.org. Retrieved 2012-09-07.
  18. ^ "''Encyclopædia Britannica'' "Number Symbolism"". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2012-09-07.
  19. ^ "Chapter I. The Creative Thesis of Perfection by William S. Sadler, Jr. - Urantia Book - Urantia Foundation". www.urantia.org. 17 August 2011.
  20. ^ Bellos, Alex (8 April 2014). "'Seven' triumphs in poll to discover world's favourite number". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 February 2017.
  21. ^ "Is seven your favorite number? We thought so. Here's what it says about you". Public Radio International. 2014-04-08. Retrieved 9 February 2017.
  22. ^ "SI brochure, The seven SI base units". Archived from the original on 2009-10-01. Retrieved 2009-09-11.
  23. ^ "SI brochure, SI derived units". Archived from the original on 2009-10-01. Retrieved 2009-09-11.

References

External links

2016 NBA Finals

The 2016 NBA Finals was the championship series of the National Basketball Association (NBA) 2015–16 season and conclusion of the 2016 playoffs. The Eastern Conference champion Cleveland Cavaliers defeated the defending NBA champion and Western Conference champion Golden State Warriors 4–3 in a rematch of the 2015 NBA Finals. It was the 14th rematch of the previous NBA Finals in history, and the first Finals since 2008 in which the number one seed in each conference met. It was the second straight rematch in back-to-back years, as the Miami Heat and San Antonio Spurs played each other in 2013 and 2014.

Golden State, which earned home-court advantage with setting the NBA regular season wins record (73–9), jumped to a 2–0 lead in the series while recording the largest combined margin of victory (48) through two games in NBA Finals history. Cleveland returned home and responded with a 120–90 win in Game 3, but the Warriors won Game 4 to take a 3–1 series lead. The Cavaliers won the next three games to become the first team in Finals history to successfully overcome a 3–1 deficit. It also marked the first time since 1978 that Game 7 was won by the road team.

For the first time since 2004, a new scheduling format was instituted for the Finals. In previous years, the Finals were played in a Thursday–Sunday–Tuesday scheme. However, the league changed its scheduling to ensure an extra day off for both teams, which have to travel from one city to another during the series. This, along with the designated travel day, took place after Games 2, 4, 5, and 6.

The win by the Cavaliers was the first major professional sports championship won by a team based in Cleveland since 1964, and the first-ever championship won by the Cavaliers franchise. NBA Finals MVP winner LeBron James propelled the Cavaliers to the historic comeback. James had a historically great Finals performance, becoming the first player in NBA history to lead all players in a playoff series in points, rebounds, assists, steals and blocks.

2019 ATP Tour

The 2019 ATP Tour is the global elite men's professional tennis circuit organised by the Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) for the 2019 tennis season. The 2019 ATP Tour calendar comprises the Grand Slam tournaments (supervised by the International Tennis Federation (ITF)), the ATP Tour Masters 1000, the ATP Tour 500 series, the ATP Tour 250 series, the Davis Cup (organised by the ITF), and the ATP Finals. Also included in the 2019 calendar are the Hopman Cup, the Laver Cup and the Next Gen ATP Finals which do not distribute ranking points. For the Masters series events the ATP introduced a shot clock. Players have a minute to come on court, 5 minutes to warmup, and then a minute to commence play, as well as 25 seconds between points.

7-Eleven

7-Eleven Inc. is a Japanese-owned American international chain of convenience stores, headquartered in Dallas, Texas. The chain was founded in 1927 as Tote'm Stores until it was renamed in 1946. Its parent company since 2005, Seven-Eleven Japan Co., Ltd., operates, franchises, and licenses 68,236 stores in 17 countries as of June 2019. Seven-Eleven Japan is headquartered in Chiyoda, Tokyo and held by Seven & I Holdings Co., Ltd.. The most recent franchise agreement gives up to 59% of a franchise's gross profit to the company.

7 July 2005 London bombings

The 7 July 2005 London bombings, often referred to as 7/7, were a series of coordinated Islamist terrorist suicide attacks in London, England that targeted commuters travelling on the city's public transport system during the morning rush hour.

Four radical Islamic terrorists separately detonated three homemade bombs in quick succession aboard London Underground trains across the city and, later, a fourth on a double-decker bus in Tavistock Square. The train bombings occurred on the Circle line near Aldgate and at Edgware Road, and on the Piccadilly line near Russell Square.

52 people of 18 different nationalities, all of whom were UK residents, were killed, and more than 700 were injured in the attacks, making it Britain's deadliest terrorist incident since the 1988 bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 near Lockerbie, Scotland, and England's deadliest since the 1974 Birmingham pub bombings, as well as the country's first Islamist suicide attack.

The explosions were caused by triacetone triperoxide IEDs packed into backpacks. The bombings were followed two weeks later by a series of attempted attacks that failed to cause injury or damage. The 7 July attacks occurred the day after London had won its bid to host the 2012 Olympic Games.

Demographics of India

India is the second most populated country in the world with nearly a fifth of the world's population. According to the 2017 revision of the World Population Prospects, the population stood at 1,324,171,354.

During 1975–2010 the population doubled to 1.2 billion. The Indian population reached the billion mark in 1998. India is projected to be the world's most populous country by 2024, surpassing the population of China. It is expected to become the first political entity in history to be home to more than 1.5 billion people by 2030, and its population is set to reach 1.7 billion by 2050. Its population growth rate is 1.13%, ranking 112th in the world in 2017.India has more than 50% of its population below the age of 25 and more than 65% below the age of 35. It is expected that, in 2020, the average age of an Indian will be 29 years, compared to 37 for China and 48 for Japan; and, by 2030, India's dependency ratio should be just over 0.4.India has more than two thousand ethnic groups, and every major religion is represented, as are four major families of languages (Indo-European, Dravidian, Austroasiatic and Sino-Tibetan languages) as well as two language isolates (the Nihali language spoken in parts of Maharashtra and the Burushaski language spoken in parts of Jammu and Kashmir (Kashmir).

Further complexity is lent by the great variation that occurs across this population on social parameters such as income and education. Only the continent of Africa exceeds the linguistic, genetic and cultural diversity of the nation of India.The sex ratio is 944 females for 1000 males (2016) (940 per 1000 in 2011) This ratio has been showing an upwards trend for the last two decades after a continuous decline in the last century.

Eurovision Song Contest 2019

The Eurovision Song Contest 2019 was the 64th edition of the Eurovision Song Contest. The contest took place in Tel Aviv, Israel, following Israel's victory at the 2018 contest in Lisbon, Portugal, with the song "Toy", performed by Netta. This was the third time Israel has hosted the contest, having previously hosted in 1979 and 1999. This was also the first time the contest was held outside of Jerusalem when Israel was hosting. The contest was held at Expo Tel Aviv, the city's convention centre; it consisted of two semi-finals on 14 and 16 May, and the final on 18 May 2019. The three live shows were hosted by Erez Tal, Bar Refaeli, Assi Azar and Lucy Ayoub. The event was organised by the European Broadcasting Union and hosted by the Israeli Public Broadcasting Corporation.

Forty-one countries took part in the contest, with Bulgaria and Ukraine absent. Bulgaria withdrew due to members of the delegation being moved to other projects, while Ukraine had originally planned to participate in the contest but withdrew due to the controversy that surrounded their national final.

The winner was the Netherlands with the song "Arcade", performed by Duncan Laurence and written by Laurence, Joel Sjöö, Wouter Hardy and Will Knox. This was the Netherlands' fifth victory in the contest, following their wins in 1957, 1959, 1969 and 1975; Italy, Russia, Switzerland and Sweden rounded out the top five. Further down the table, North Macedonia and San Marino achieved their best results to date, finishing seventh and nineteenth, respectively. This was North Macedonia's first Top 10 finish since joining the competition in 1998. Israel finished in 23rd place in the final, making it the fourth time since 2015 that the host country ranked in the bottom five.

There was an error in the voting at the contest: a wrongful counting of the jury votes by the Belarusian delegation caused the televised results to be amended three days later. The discrepancy was not large enough to change the order of the originally announced top 4 in the final result, which combines the jury voting and televoting by the public, but this update saw North Macedonia as the new jury winner instead of Sweden as shown on TV, and there were also minor changes in lower positions.

The EBU reported that the contest had an audience of 182 million viewers across 40 markets all around Europe, which saw an increase by two percent in the 15–24 year old age range.

Furious 7

Fast & Furious 7 (alternatively known as Furious 7 or Fast Seven) is a 2015 American action film directed by James Wan and written by Chris Morgan and Reilly Sutherland. It is the seventh installment in The Fast and the Furious franchise. The film stars Vin Diesel, Paul Walker, Dwayne Johnson, Michelle Rodriguez, Tyrese Gibson, Chris "Ludacris" Bridges, Jordana Brewster, Djimon Hounsou, Kurt Russell, and Jason Statham. Furious 7 follows Dominic Toretto (Diesel), Brian O'Conner (Walker), and the rest of their team, who have returned to the United States to live normal lives after securing amnesty for their past crimes in Fast & Furious 6 (2013), until Deckard Shaw (Statham), a rogue special forces assassin seeking to avenge his comatose younger brother, puts the team in danger once again.

With the previous three installments set between 2 Fast 2 Furious (2003) and The Fast and the Furious: Tokyo Drift (2006), Furious 7 is the first installment in the franchise to take place after Tokyo Drift. The film also marks the final film appearance of Walker, who died in a single-vehicle crash on November 30, 2013 with filming only half-completed. Following Walker's death, filming was delayed for script rewrites, and his brothers, Caleb and Cody, were used as stand-ins to complete his remaining scenes. These script rewrites completed the story arcs for both Walker and Brewster's characters, which were subsequently retired.

Plans for a seventh installment were first announced in February 2012 when Johnson stated that production on the film would begin after the completion of Fast & Furious 6. In April 2013, Wan, predominantly known for horror films, was announced to direct the film in place of Justin Lin, who left the franchise after directing the previous four installments. Casting began in the same month with the returns of Diesel and Walker, and an initial release date was set. Principal photography began in Atlanta, Georgia, in September 2013, resumed in April 2014 and ended in July 2014, with other filming locations including Los Angeles, Colorado, Abu Dhabi, and Tokyo.

Furious 7 premiered in Los Angeles on April 1, 2015, and was theatrically released in the United States on April 3, 2015, playing in 3D, IMAX 3D, and 4DX internationally. Upon release, the film became a critical and blockbuster success, with praise being aimed at the film's action sequences and its emotional tribute to Walker. The film grossed $397.6 million worldwide during its opening weekend, which is the sixth highest-grossing opening of all time. The film has grossed over $1.5 billion worldwide, making it the highest-grossing film of the franchise after just twelve days, the third highest-grossing film of 2015 and the eighth highest-grossing film of all time.

A sequel, The Fate of the Furious, was released on April 14, 2017.

List of Grand Slam men's singles champions

This article details the list of men's singles Grand Slam tournaments tennis champions. Some major changes have taken place in history and have affected the number of titles that have been won by various players. These have included the opening of the French national championships to international players in 1925, the elimination of the challenge round in 1922, and the admission of professional players in 1968 (the start of the Open era).Note: All of these tournaments have been listed since they began, rather than when they officially became majors. The Australian and US tournaments have only been officially regarded as majors by the ILTF (now the ITF) since 1924 (though many regarded the US Championships as a major before then). The French Championships have only been a major since 1925 (when it became open to all amateurs internationally).

Before 1924 (since 1912/1913 to 1923) there were 3 official majors: Wimbledon, the World Hard Court Championships (played on clay) and the World Covered Court Championships (played on an indoor wood surface).

List of busiest airports by passenger traffic

The world's busiest airports by passenger traffic are measured by total passengers (data from Airports Council International), defined as passengers enplaned plus passengers deplaned plus direct-transit passengers. Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport has been the world's busiest airport every year since 2000; with all airports combined London has the world's busiest city airport system by passenger count. As of 2018, seven countries have at least two airports in the top 50: the United States has 15, Greater China has 10, and the United Kingdom, Germany, Spain, and India have two airports each.

List of cities and towns in California

California is a state located in the Western United States. It is the most populous state and the third largest by area after Alaska and Texas. According to the 2010 United States Census, California has 37,253,956 inhabitants and 155,779.22 square miles (403,466.3 km2) of land.California has been inhabited by numerous Native American peoples since antiquity. The Spanish, the Russians, and other Europeans began exploring and colonizing the area in the 16th and 17th centuries, with the Spanish establishing its first California mission at what is now San Diego in 1769. After the Mexican Cession of 1848, the California Gold Rush brought worldwide attention to the area. The growth of the movie industry in Los Angeles and Hollywood, high tech in San Francisco and Silicon Valley, tourism, agriculture, and other areas in the ensuing decades fueled the creation of a $1.85 trillion economy, the ninth-largest in the world.California is divided into 58 counties and contains 482 municipalities. One, San Francisco, is a consolidated city-county. California law makes no distinction between "city" and "town", and municipalities may use either term in their official names. They can be organized as either a charter municipality, governed by its own charter, or a general-law municipality, governed by state law.According to the 2010 Census, 30,908,614 of California's 37,253,956 residents lived in urban areas, accounting for 82.97% of the population. The first municipality to incorporate was Sacramento on February 27, 1850, while the most recent was Jurupa Valley on July 1, 2011. Eight cities were incorporated before the state's September 9, 1850, admission to the Union. The largest municipality by population and land area is Los Angeles with 3,792,621 residents and 468.67 square miles (1,213.8 km2). The smallest by population is Vernon with 112 people, while the smallest by land area is Amador City at 0.31 square miles (0.80 km2).

Long jump

The long jump (historically called the broad jump in the USA) is a track and field event in which athletes combine speed, strength and agility in an attempt to leap as far as possible from a take off point. Along with the triple jump, the two events that measure jumping for distance as a group are referred to as the "horizontal jumps". This event has a history in the Ancient Olympic Games and has been a modern Olympic event for men since the first Olympics in 1896 and for women since 1948.

NBA playoffs

The NBA playoffs are a best-of-seven elimination tournament annually held after the National Basketball Association (NBA)’s regular season to determine the league's champion.

New7Wonders of the World

New7Wonders of the World (2000–2007) was a campaign started in 2000 to choose Wonders of the World from a selection of 200 existing monuments. The popularity poll was led by Canadian-Swiss Bernard Weber and organized by the New7Wonders Foundation based in Zurich, Switzerland, with winners announced on 7 July 2007 in Lisbon.The New7Wonders Foundation said that more than 100 million votes were cast through the Internet or by telephone. Voting via the Internet was limited to one vote for seven monuments per person/identity, but multiple voting was possible through telephone. Hence the poll was considered unscientific. According to John Zogby, founder and current President/CEO of the Utica, New York-based polling organization Zogby International, New7Wonders Foundation drove "the largest poll on record".The program drew a wide range of official reactions. Some countries touted their finalist and tried to get more votes cast for it, while others downplayed or criticized the contest. After supporting the New7Wonders Foundation at the beginning of the campaign by providing advice on nominee selection, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), by its bylaws having to record all and give equal status to world heritage sites, distanced itself from the undertaking in 2001 and again in 2007.The New7Wonders Foundation, established in 2001, relied on private donations and the sale of broadcast rights and received no public funding or taxpayers' money. After the final announcement, New7Wonders said it didn't earn anything from the exercise and barely recovered its investment.Although N7W describes itself as a not-for-profit organization, the company behind it—the New Open World Corporation (NOWC)—is a commercial business. All licensing and sponsorship money is paid to NOWC.

The foundation ran two subsequent programs: New7Wonders of Nature, the subject of voting until 2011, and New7Wonders Cities, which ended in 2014.

OSI model

The Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model) is a conceptual model that characterizes and standardizes the communication functions of a telecommunication or computing system without regard to its underlying internal structure and technology. Its goal is the interoperability of diverse communication systems with standard communication protocols. The model partitions a communication system into abstraction layers. The original version of the model defined seven layers.

A layer serves the layer above it and is served by the layer below it. For example, a layer that provides error-free communications across a network provides the path needed by applications above it, while it calls the next lower layer to send and receive packets that constitute the contents of that path. Two instances at the same layer are visualized as connected by a horizontal connection in that layer.

The model is a product of the Open Systems Interconnection project at the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).

Round-robin tournament

A round-robin tournament (or all-play-all tournament) is a competition in which each contestant meets all other contestants in turn. A round-robin contrasts with an elimination tournament, in which participants are eliminated after a certain number of losses.

Seven Years' War

The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763. It involved every European great power of the time and spanned five continents, affecting Europe, the Americas, West Africa, South Asia, and the Philippines. The conflict split Europe into two coalitions: one was led by the Kingdom of Great Britain and included the Kingdom of Prussia, the Kingdom of Portugal, the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and other small German states; while the other was led by the Kingdom of France and included the Austrian-led Holy Roman Empire, the Russian Empire (until 1762), the Kingdom of Spain, and the Swedish Empire. Meanwhile, in India, some regional polities within the increasingly fragmented Mughal Empire, with the support of the French, tried to crush a British attempt to conquer Bengal.

Although Anglo-French skirmishes over their American colonies had begun with what became the French and Indian War in 1754, the large-scale conflict that drew in most of the European powers was centered on Austria's desire to recover Silesia from the Prussians. Seeing the opportunity to curtail Britain's and Prussia's ever-growing might, France and Austria put aside their ancient rivalry to form a grand coalition of their own, bringing most of the other European powers to their side. Faced with this sudden turn of events, Britain aligned itself with Prussia, in a series of political manoeuvres known as the Diplomatic Revolution. However, French efforts ended in failure when the Anglo-Prussian coalition prevailed, and Britain's rise as among the world's predominant powers destroyed France's supremacy in Europe, thus altering the European balance of power.

Single (music)

In the music industry, a single is a type of release, typically a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record or an album. This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats. In most cases, a single is a song that is released separately from an album, although it usually also appears on an album. Typically, these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular. In other cases a recording released as a single may not appear on an album.

Despite being referred to as a single, singles can include up to as many as three tracks. The biggest digital music distributor, iTunes Store, accepts as many as three tracks less than ten minutes each as a single, as does popular music player Spotify. Any more than three tracks on a musical release or thirty minutes in total running time is either an extended play (EP) or, if over six tracks long, an album.

Historically, when mainstream music was purchased via vinyl records, singles would be released double-sided. That is to say, they were released with an A-side and B-side, on which two singles would be released, one on each side. Moreover, traditionally, only the most popular songs from a previously released album would be released as a single. In more contemporary forms of music consumption, artists release most, if not all, of the tracks on an album as singles.

UEFA Euro 2020 qualifying

The UEFA Euro 2020 qualifying tournament is a football competition that is being played from March 2019 to March 2020 to determine the 24 UEFA member men's national teams that will advance to the UEFA Euro 2020 final tournament. The competition is linked with the 2018–19 edition of the UEFA Nations League, giving countries a secondary route to qualify for the final tournament. For the first time since 1976, no team will automatically qualify for the UEFA European Championship as the host country.There are 55 national teams participating in the qualifying process, with Kosovo taking part for the first time. The draw took place at the Convention Centre Dublin, Republic of Ireland, on 2 December 2018.

Virgil van Dijk

Virgil van Dijk (Dutch pronunciation: [vɑn ˈdɛik]; born 8 July 1991) is a Dutch professional footballer who plays as a centre-back for English Premier League club Liverpool and captains the Netherlands national team.

After beginning his professional career with Groningen, he moved to Celtic in 2013, where he won the Scottish Premiership and was named in the PFA Scotland Team of the Year in both of his seasons with the club, also winning the Scottish League Cup in the latter. In September 2015, he joined Premier League side Southampton before signing for Liverpool in January 2018 for £75 million, a world record transfer fee for a defender. Van Dijk was involved in reaching the 2018 UEFA Champions League Final during his first spring at Liverpool. In his first full season at the club Van Dijk was named the PFA Player of the Year and the Premier League Player of the Season for the 2018–19 season. Van Dijk starred as Liverpool won the 2019 UEFA Champions League Final where he was named man of the match.Van Dijk made his international debut for the Netherlands in 2015 and became captain of his country in 2018. Considered to be one of the best defenders in the world, he is known for his strength, leadership and aerial ability.

Windows 7

Windows 7 is a personal computer operating system that was produced by Microsoft as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems. It was released to manufacturing on July 22, 2009 and became generally available on October 22, 2009, less than three years after the release of its predecessor, Windows Vista. Windows 7's server counterpart, Windows Server 2008 R2, was released at the same time.

Windows 7 was primarily intended to be an incremental upgrade to Microsoft Windows, intended to address Windows Vista's poor critical reception while maintaining hardware and software compatibility. Windows 7 continued improvements on Windows Aero (the user interface introduced in Windows Vista) with the addition of a redesigned taskbar that allows applications to be "pinned" to it, and new window management features. Other new features were added to the operating system, including libraries, the new file sharing system HomeGroup, and support for multitouch input. A new "Action Center" interface was also added to provide an overview of system security and maintenance information, and tweaks were made to the User Account Control system to make it less intrusive. Windows 7 also shipped with updated versions of several stock applications, including Internet Explorer 8, Windows Media Player, and Windows Media Center.

In contrast to Windows Vista, Windows 7 was generally praised by critics, who considered the operating system to be a major improvement over its predecessor due to its increased performance, its more intuitive interface (with particular praise devoted to the new taskbar), fewer User Account Control popups, and other improvements made across the platform. Windows 7 was a major success for Microsoft; even prior to its official release, pre-order sales for 7 on the online retailer Amazon.com had surpassed previous records. In just six months, over 100 million copies had been sold worldwide, increasing to over 630 million licenses by July 2012. As of April 2019, 33.38% of computers running Windows are running Windows 7, which is still the most used version in many countries including one (Eastern) European country, and has more than 50% market share in China (and Asia as a whole) and many countries elsewhere; e.g. most used in Africa at 46.43%.

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