Tsangyang Gyatso (Tibetan: ཚངས་དབྱངས་རྒྱ་མཚོ, Wylie: tshangs-dbyangs rgya-mtsho, ZYPY: Cangyang Gyamco; 1 March 1683 – 15 November 1706) was the 6th Dalai Lama. He was a Monpa by ethnicity and was born at Urgelling Monastery, 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) from Tawang, India and not far from the large Tawang Monastery in the northwestern part of present-day Arunachal Pradesh.
He had grown up a youth of high intelligence, liberal to a fault, fond of pleasure, alcohol, and women, and later led a playboy lifestyle. He disappeared near Qinghai, possibly murdered, on his way to Beijing in 1706. The 6th Dalai Lama composed poems and songs that have become popular not only in modern-day Tibet, but all across China.
|Title||6th Dalai Lama|
|Born||1 March 1683|
|Died||15 November 1706 (aged 23)|
Qinghai (presumed, last appearance)
|Period in office||1697–1706|
|Predecessor||Ngawang Lobsang Gyatso|
|Chinese||倉央嘉措 and 宕桑汪波|
Tsangyang was born on 1 March 1683 in Mon Tawang (in modern Arunachal Pradesh, India) to Lama Tashi Tenzin of Urgelling, a descendant of the treasure revealer Pema Lingpa, and Tsewang Lhamo, a Monpa girl hailing from a royal family of Bekhar Village.
There are many stories about the life and death of Tsangyang Gyatso.
There are several legendary tales about the birth of Tsangyang. Apparently, His mother, Tsewang, had experienced a few miracles prior to the birth of Tsangyang Gyamtso. One day, within the first month of her pregnancy, she was husking paddy in the stone mortar. To her surprise, water started accumulating in the mortar. On another occasion, when Tsewang drank water at a nearby place, milk started gushing out in place of water. Since then, this stream was known as Oma-Tsikang, literally known as milky water.
In the course of time, Tsewang gave birth to a boy who was named Sanje Tenzin, with Tsangyang's grandfather and Nawang Norbu with his father. Due to this fact, legend said that he would not drink his mother's milk from the day after their birth. One day, when his face began to swell from an infection, Tsangyang could hardly open his eye, two local diviners were summoned. They prescribed purifactory rite and said that his name should be changed to Ngawang Gyamtso.
His recovery was credited by the regent to the intervention of the Dalai Lama's own guardian deity, Dorje Dakpa. The grandfather dreamt that the child was constantly being protected by heavenly beings. The mother dreamt, as she took a rest from her weaving, that a great company had arrived to take him off. His paternal grandmother dreamt of two suns shining in the sky.
Although the 5th Dalai Lama had died in 1682, the Regent Desi Sangye Gyatso (Wylie: sangs rgyas rgya mtsho) kept his death a secret – partly to continue the stable administration, and partly to gain time for the completion of the Potala Palace. The monks concentrated their search to the region of Tibet to find the next incarnation, but later came to conclude that 6th Dalai Lama was born outside the Tibetan territory in a valley whose name ended with "ling". They searched all places ending with "ling", including three in Tawang – Urgyanling, Sangeling and Tsorgeling.
The Potala authorities took the Dalai Lama from his mother in 1697 from Urgyanling. The journey to Pota Lhasa from Tawang was 7 days, and they spend first night in Tsona (near Cuona Lake, China) where he slept with girls. Responding to the strict rules of the Tibetans, he constantly opposed laws which overruled him, and eventually became a drunk. After arriving to Tibet, Sangye Gyatso sent a delegation to the Kangxi Emperor of Qing China in 1697 to announce that the 5th Dalai Lama had died and the 6th had been discovered.
The regent invited Lobsang Yeshe, 5th Panchen Lama to administer the vows of a śrāmaṇera (novice monk) on the young man at Nankartse and named him Tsang Gyatso. In October 1697, Tsangyang Gyatso was enthroned as the 6th Dalai Lama.
In 1705 Lha-bzang Khan, a Mongol king, had the Regent, Sangye Gyatso, killed. This greatly upset the young Dalai Lama, who left his studies and even visited the 5th Panchen Lama in Shigatse to renounce his śrāmaṇera vows.
As a Dalai Lama, Tsangyang had composed excellent works of songs and poems, but often went against the principles of the Gelug School of Tibetan Buddhism. For example, he decided to give getsul vows to Lobsang Yeshe, 5th Panchen Lama at eighteen instead of taking the full gelong vows normal for his age.
Tsangyang Gyatso enjoyed a lifestyle that included drinking, the company of women and men, and writing love songs. He visited the 5th Panchen Lama in Shigatse and, requesting his forgiveness, renounced the vows of a novice monk. He ordered the building of the Tromzikhang palace in Barkhor, Lhasa.
Tsangyang Gyatso had always rejected life as a monk, although this did not mean the abdication of his position as the Dalai Lama. Wearing the clothes of a normal layman and preferring to walk than to ride a horse or use the state palanquin, Tsangyang only kept the temporal prerogatives of the Dalai Lama. He also visited the parks and spent nights in the streets of Lhasa, drinking wine, singing songs and having amorous relations with girls. Tsangyang retreated to live in a tent in the park near the northern escarpment of Potala Palace. Tsangyang finally gave up his discourses in public parks and places in 1702, which he had been required to do as part of his training.
Using the Dalai Lama's behaviour as an excuse and with the approval of his ally, China's Kangxi Emperor, Lha-bzang Khan, khan of the Khoshut, killed the regent and kidnapped the Sixth Dalai Lama. On 28 June 1706, Lha-bzang Khan deposed Tsangyang; he later installed a 21-year-old lama, Ngawang Yeshey Gyatso, as the "true" 6th Dalai Lama in 1707, claiming that he, not Tsangyang, was the true rebirth of the 5th Dalai Lama. The Gelugpa dignitaries and the Tibetan people rejected Lha-bzang Khan's installation of Ngawang Yeshey Gyatso and continued to recognise Tsangyang's title. However, Ngawang Yeshey Gyatso is considered by Tibetans to have been an incarnation of Avalokiteśvara.
While being taken out of Tibet, Tsangyang composed a poem which some say foretold of his next birth. "White crane lend me your wings. I will not fly far. From Lithang I shall return." Tsangyang disappeared mysteriously near Qinghai on 15 November 1706, which is why there is no tomb for him in the Potala Palace. Rumours persisted he had escaped and lived in secrecy somewhere between China and Mongolia.
Tsangyang was succeeded by Kelsang Gyatso, who was born in Lithang, as the 7th Dalai Lama.
Ngawang Lobsang Gyatso
| Dalai Lama
Recognized in 1688
Nationality words link to articles with information on the nation's poetry or literature (for instance, Irish or France).1706 in poetry
Nationality words link to articles with information on the nation's poetry or literature (for instance, Irish or France).4th Dalai Lama
Yonten Gyatso or Yon-tan-rgya-mtsho (1589–1617), was a jinong and the 4th Dalai Lama, born in Mongolia on the 30th day of the 12th month of the Earth-Ox year of the Tibetan calendar. (Other sources, however, say he was born in the 1st month of the Earth Ox Year).
As the son of the Khan of the Chokur tribe, Tsultrim Choeje, and great-grandson of Altan Khan of the Tümed Mongols and his second wife PhaKhen Nula, Yonten Gyatso was a Mongolian, making him the only non-Tibetan to be recognized as Dalai Lama other than the 6th Dalai Lama, who was a Monpa—but Monpas can be seen either as a Tibetan subgroup or a closely related people.
The Nechung, state oracle of Tibet, and Lamo Tsangpa, another oracle, had both predicted the next reincarnation would be born in Mongolia. About this time, the chief attendant of the Third Dalai Lama, Tsultrim Gyatso, sent a letter informing the authorities in Tibet that the reincarnation had been born and details of some of the wonders accompanying his birth.
"He was recognized by a delegation from his Drêpung monastery and the princes of Ü, which had gone to Kweisui (Köke Qoto, Inner Mongolia) to meet him 1601."Yonten Gyatso left for Tibet in 1599 when he was already ten years old, with his father, Tibetan monks and officials, and a thousand Mongol cavalry. They arrived in 1603 after stopping at all the major monasteries on the route.When he reached Lhasa he was enthroned as the Fourth Dalai Lama and initiated by Sangen Rinchen, the principal holder of Tsonkapa's lineage and ex-abbot of Gaden monastery.He began studies at Drepung Monastery, where he was a student of the Fourth Panchen Lama Lobsang Chökyi Gyaltsen, and in 1614 he received the full ordination of a monk from him.Yonten Gyatso became the abbot of Drepung and, later, Sera monasteries.Many Tibetans did not recognize him and there were several attempts to retake power from him, supported by the Kagyupa order. In 1605 one of the princes supporting the Kagyu invaded Lhasa and drove the Mongol cavalrymen out. When he was twenty-one warriors attacked Drepung monastery and Yonten Gyatso had to flee.
In 1616 he made a retreat in the caves above Sangyib Hot Springs, famous for the footprint Padmasambhava left there on the cliff face when he empowered the site in the 8th century CE.He died under suspicious circumstances (some say he was poisoned – but evidence is lacking) in the 12th month of the Fire Dragon Year (January 1617) at the age of 27.
His chief attendant was Sonam Rapten (Sonam Choephel), who later discovered "the Chong-Gya boy" to be the Fifth Dalai Lama and who was the regent of the fifth Dalai Lama, the Desi.Beer in Tibet
The production of beer in Tibet is a relatively recent phenomenon in Tibetan cuisine. The Chinese established the Lhasa Brewery Company in 1988, which is located in Lhasa. It is the highest brewery in the world.Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama (UK: , US: ; Standard Tibetan: ཏཱ་ལའི་བླ་མ་, Tā la'i bla ma, [táːlɛː láma]) is a title given by the Tibetan people for the foremost spiritual leader of the Gelug or "Yellow Hat" school of Tibetan Buddhism, the newest of the classical schools of Tibetan Buddhism. The 14th and current Dalai Llama is Tenzin Gyatso.
The Dalai Llama is also considered to be the successor in a line of tulkus who are believed to be incarnations of Avalokiteśvara, a Bodhisattva of Compassion. The name is a combination of the Mongolic word dalai meaning "ocean" or "big" (coming from Mongolian title Dalaiyin qan or Dalaiin khan, translated as Gyatso in Tibetan) and the Tibetan word བླ་མ་ (bla-ma) meaning "master, guru".The Dalai Llama figure is important for many reasons. Since the time of the 5th Dalai Lama in the 17th century, his personage has always been a symbol of unification of the state of Tibet, where he has represented Buddhist values and traditions. The Dalai Lama was an important figure of the Geluk tradition, which was politically and numerically dominant in Central Tibet, but his religious authority went beyond sectarian boundaries. While he had no formal or institutional role in any of the religious traditions, which were headed by their own high lamas, he was a unifying symbol of the Tibetan state, representing Buddhist values and traditions above any specific school. The traditional function of the Dalai Lama as an ecumenical figure, holding together disparate religious and regional groups, has been taken up by the present fourteenth Dalai Lama. He has worked to overcome sectarian and other divisions in the exiled community and has become a symbol of Tibetan nationhood for Tibetans both in Tibet and in exile.From 1642 until 1705 and from 1750 to the 1950s, the Dalai Llamas or their regents headed the Tibetan government (or Ganden Phodrang) in Lhasa which governed all or most of the Tibetan Plateau with varying degrees of autonomy under the Qing Dynasty of China, in which Tibet had been under non-Tibetan suzerainty, and a period of disputed "defacto independance" between 1913 to 1951. This Tibetan government also enjoyed the patronage and protection of firstly Mongol kings of the Khoshut and Dzungar Khanates (1642–1720) and then of the emperors of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty (1720–1912). In 1913, several Tibetan representatives including Agvan Dorzhiev signed a treaty between Tibet and Mongolia, proclaiming mutual recognition and their independence from China, however the legitimacy of the treaty and declared independance of Tibet was rejected by both the Republic of China and the current People's Republic of China. The Dalai Lamas headed the Tibetan government afterwards despite that, until 1951.Desi Sangye Gyatso
Desi Sangye Gyatso (1653–1705) was the sixth regent (desi) of the 5th Dalai Lama (1617–1682), who founded the School of Medicine and Astrology called Men-Tsee-Khang on Chagspori (Iron Mountain) in 1694 and wrote the Blue Beryl (Blue Sapphire) treatise. The name is sometimes written Sangye Gyamtso.By some erroneous accounts, Sangye Gyatso is believed to be the son of the "Great Fifth". He could not be the son of the Fifth Dalai Lama because he was born near Lhasa in September 1553, when the Dalai Lama had been absent on his trip to China for the preceding sixteen months. He ruled as regent, hiding the death of the Dalai Lama, while the infant 6th Dalai Lama was growing up, for 16 years. During this period, he oversaw the completion of the Potala Palace and warded off Chinese politicking.He is also known for harboring disdain for Tulku Dragpa Gyaltsen, although this lama died in 1656, when Sangye Gyatso was only three years old. According to Lindsay G. McCune in her thesis (2007), Desi Sangye Gyamtso refers in his Vaidurya Serpo to the Lama as the "pot-bellied official" (nang so grod lhug) and states that, following his death, he had an inauspicious rebirth.Guangzong Temple (Inner Mongolia)
Guangzong Temple (simplified Chinese: 广宗寺; traditional Chinese: 廣宗寺; pinyin: Guǎngzōng Sì), more commonly known as the Southern Temple (南寺), is a Buddhist temple located in Bieli Town of Alxa Left Banner, Inner Mongolia, China.List of Dalai Lamas
This is a list of Dalai Lamas of Tibet. There have been 14 recognised incarnations of the Dalai Lama. In addition, there was one unofficial Dalai Lama named Yeshe Gyatso (declared in 1707) as a pretender for the position of the 6th Dalai Lama, but was never accepted as the true Dalai Lama by a majority of the population.Lobsang Yeshe, 5th Panchen Lama
Lobsang Yeshe (Tibetan: བློ་བཟང་ཡེ་ཤེས་, Wylie: Blo-bzang Ye-shes, ZYPY: Lobsang Yêxê; also written Lobsang Yeshi) (1663–1737) was the fifth Panchen Lama of Tibet.
He was born of a well-known and noble family in the province of Tsang. His father's name was De-chhen-gyalpo and his mother's Serab-Drolma. He was soon recognised as the true incarnation of Lobsang Chökyi Gyaltsen, (1570–1662), the Fourth Panchen Lama of Tibet, and was installed with great ceremony at Tashilhunpo Monastery.
He received novice vows when he was 8 (9 by Western reckoning) in Lhasa from Lozang Gyatso, the Great Fifth Dalai Lama (1617 – 1682), when he was given the name of Lobsang Yeshe. At the age of twenty  he was ordained by Kon-chhog Gyal-tsan.When he was thirty-two (in 1696 or 1697), he sent a congratulatory deputation to Beijing. The Kangxi Emperor (1662-1723) invited him to Beijing, but he asked to be excused for fear of smallpox.The Regent, Sangye Gyatso (Sangs-rgyas rgya-mtsho), invited the Fifth Panchen Lama, Lobsang Yeshi to administer the vows of a novice monk on the 6th Dalai Lama, at the town of Nangartse on Lake Yamdrok Yamtso, and named him Tsang Gyatso. In October 1697, Tsangyang Gyatso was enthroned as the Sixth Dalai Lama.In 1701 Lhasang Khan, a Mongol king and ally of the Chinese, had the Regent, Sangye Gyatso, killed. This greatly upset the young Dalai Lama who left his studies who even visited Lobsang Yeshe, the 5th Panchen Lama in Shigatse and renounced his novice monk vows.In 1713 he received a letter written in three different languages, Tibetan, Mongol and Manchu in gold from the Kangxi Emperor, who sent him a large tangka with his title on it.The 7th Dalai Lama was enthroned in the Potala Palace in 1720. He took the novice vows of monk-hood from the 5th Panchen Lama Lobsang Yeshi, who gave him the name Kelzang Gyatso. He took the Gelong vows (full ordination) from Lobsang Yeshi in 1726.In 1728 the Yongzheng Emperor (1723-1736) sent Aliha Ampan to settle the border between the provinces of U and Tsang. There was a civil war at this time, and the Chinese asked the Panchen Lama if he would rule all the territories between Khambala and Mount Kailash. The Panchen Lama refused a few times on the grounds of old age but was finally convinced to take control of the whole of Tibet lying to the west of Panam, and relinquished possession of Phari, Gyantse, and Yardosho and other places to the government in Lhasa.He wrote eighteen volumes of hymns and precepts and died at the age of 75 (74 by Western reckoning), in 1737.
A gilt copper domed tomb, like that of his predecessor, only larger was built for him. Unfortunately, all the tombs from the Fifth to the Ninth Panchen Lamas were destroyed during the Cultural Revolution and have been replaced by the 10th Panchen Lama with a huge tomb at Tashilhunpo Monastery in Shigatse, known as the Tashi Langyar.Monpa people
The Monpa or Mönpa (Tibetan: མོན་པ་, Wylie: mon pa; Hindi: मोनपा, Chinese: 门巴族) are a major ethnic group of Arunachal Pradesh in northeastern India. They are also one of the 56 officially recognized ethnic groups in China.
The origin of the Monpa people is unclear. Like other tribes of Northeast India, the Monpa are believed to have migrated to Tawang, in the westernmost part of Arunachal Pradesh. The Monpa are believed to be the only nomadic tribe in Northeast India - they were totally dependent on animals like sheep, cow, yak, goats and horses and had no permanent settlement or attachment to a particular place. This theory claims that the Monpa might have migrated through the Western Himalayas and Sikkim to the Tawang area. This theory also proposes that the Monpa had connections to the Bhutias who currently live in Sikkhim.
Most Monpas live in the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh, with a population of around 60,000, centered in the districts of Tawang and West Kameng. Around 25,000 Monpas live in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China, in Cona County, Pêlung in Bayi District, and Mêdog County. These places have a low altitude, especially Mêdog County, which has a tropical climate unlike the rest of Tibet. Of the 60,000 Monpas who live in Arunachal Pradesh, about 20,000 of them live in Tawang district, where they constitute about 97% of the district's population, and almost all of the remainder can be found in West Kameng district, where they form about 77% of the district's population. A small number live in East Kameng district near the border with Bhutan.The Monpa share very close affinity with the Sharchops of Bhutan. Their languages have usually been assumed to be a part of the Tibeto-Burman languages separate from the Tibetic cluster. They are written with the Tibetan alphabet.
The Monpa are sub-divided into six sub-groups because of their variations in their language. They are namely:
Panchen MonpaMoonrise (Dadawa album)
Moonrise (月出) is the fifth studio album by Chinese singer Dadawa (朱哲琴), and is the result of a five-month tour of Chinese ethnic minority regions in 2009, investigating minority music. The album is based on and inspired by the music discovered in China's Guizhou province, Yunnan province, Tibet, Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia.
This is her first album without long-term collaborator, He Xuntian and the first to be self-produced.
The album features music mainly written by Inner Mongolian musician Zulan, with lyrics drawn from Chinese classics such as The Book of Songs and ethnic minority folk songs. One track, "Mountain Top" has lyrics by the 6th Dalai Lama.
Dadawa also has guest vocalists on the album for the first time. These are for the most part members of the ethnic minorities which inspired the music. These are referred to as "Ethnic Music Masters" on the album packaging. The album also features samples from the original minority folk music.Qixian Temple (Mount Wutai)
Qixian Temple (simplified Chinese: 栖贤寺; traditional Chinese: 棲賢寺; pinyin: Qīxián Sì), also known as Guanyin Cave (观音洞; 觀音洞; Guānyīn Dòng), is a Buddhist temple located on Mount Wutai of Taihuai Town, in Wutai County, Shanxi, China.Tawang
Tawang is a town in the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh, situated at an elevation of approximately 3,048 metres (10,000 ft) to the east of Bhutan. The town once served as the district headquarters of West Kameng district, and became the district headquarters of Tawang district when it was formed from West Kameng.
The area is part of the wider dispute between India and China concerning Arunachal Pradesh and is claimed by China as a part of Tibet.Tenzin Wangchuk Khan
Tenzin Wangchuk Khan (mongolian: Ванжил хаан Vanjil Khaan, died 1697 or 1703) was the fourth khan of the Khoshut Khanate and protector-king ("Dharma king, Protector of the Faith") of Tibet. He reigned from 1696 to 1697, or from 1701 to 1703, during the age of the 6th Dalai Lama, Tsangyang Gyatso.
Tenzin Wangchuk Khan, also known as Wanggyal, was the elder son of the previous ruler Tenzin Dalai Khan. He succeeded his father at an uncertain date, either 1696 or 1701. Towards the end of his father's life he had a serious disagreement with his younger brother Lhabzang Khan which the envoys of the Dalai Lama regime were not able to bridge. This proved fatal when their father had died. After a brief reign Tenzin Wangchuk was poisoned by Lhabzang Khan who then took the throne. This happened in either 1697 or 1703. According to a new investigation of the documents, by Peter Schwieger, Tenzin Wangchuk did not actually accede to the throne due to his poor health. Rather, the Sixth Dalai Lama proposed the younger brother Lhabzang as successor in 1703. The latter was enthroned, and Tenzin Wangchuk died early the following year.Tromzikhang
Tromzikhang (Tibetan: ཁྲོམ་གཟིགས་ཁང་།; Wylie: khrom gzigs khang), is a historic building in Barkhor, Lhasa in Tibet, China. It is located northwest of Jokhang temple at the corner of the left side of Barkhor Tromshung Jang (street). It was demolished in the 1990s except for the magnificent facade. Today Tromzikhang is a notable market in Lhasa and a housing complex.Upper Mongols
The Upper Mongols (Mongolian: Дээд монгол, Deed mongol, Mongolian script: ᠲᠡᠭᠡᠲᠦᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ), also known as the Köke Nuur Mongols (Mongolian: Хөх нуурын Монгол, Mongolian script: ᠬᠥᠬᠡᠨᠠᠭᠤᠷ ᠤᠨᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ, "Blue lake Mongol") or Qinghai Mongols (Chinese: 青海蒙古), are ethnic Mongol people of Oirat and Khalkha origin who settled around Qinghai Lake in so-called Upper Mongolia. As part of the Khoshut Khanate of Tsaidam and the Koke Nuur they played a major role in Sino–Mongol–Tibetan politics during the 17th and 18th centuries. The Upper Mongols adopted Tibetan dress and jewelry despite still living in the traditional Mongolian ger and writing in the script.Urgelling Monastery
Urgelling Monastery is a Buddhist monastery in Arunachal Pradesh, northeastern India.Yeshe Gyatso
Yeshe Gyatso (Wylie: Ye shes rgya mtsho) (1686-1725) was a pretender for the position of the 6th Dalai Lama of Tibet. Declared by Lha-bzang Khan of the Khoshut Khanate on June 28, 1707, he was the only unofficial Dalai Lama. While praised for his personal moral qualities, he was not recognized by the bulk of the Tibetans and Mongols and is not counted in the official list of the Dalai Lamas.
|Wylie||tshangs dbyangs rgya mtsho|
|Tibetan Pinyin||Cangyang Gyaco|
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