The Sixty-eighth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1923, to March 4, 1925, during the last months of Warren G. Harding's presidency, and the first years of the administration of his successor, Calvin Coolidge. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Thirteenth Decennial Census of the United States in 1910. Both chambers had a Republican majority.
|68th United States Congress|
United States Capitol (1906)
|March 4, 1923 – March 4, 1925|
|Senate President||Calvin Coolidge (R) |
until August 2, 1923
from August 2, 1923
|Senate President pro tem||Albert B. Cummins (R)|
|House Speaker||Frederick H. Gillett (R)|
435 members of the House
5 non-voting delegates
|1st: December 3, 1923 – June 7, 1924|
2nd: December 1, 1924 – March 3, 1925
The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this Congress, and includes members from vacancies and newly admitted states, when they were first seated. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section??.?%
(shading shows control)
|End of the previous congress||37||0||59||96||0|
|Final voting share||43.8%||2.1%||54.2%|
|Beginning of the next congress||40||1||55||96||0|
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
|End of the previous Congress||302||131||0||1||435||0|
|Final voting share||51.3%||48.0%||0.5%||0.2%|
|Beginning of the next Congress||247||183||3||1||435||0|
Calvin Coolidge (R)
President pro tempore
Albert B. Cummins (R)
This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed by class, and Representatives are listed by district.
Senators were elected every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began in this Congress, requiring re-election in 1928; Class 2 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring re-election in 1924; and Class 3 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring re-election in 1926.
The names of members of the House of Representatives elected statewide on the general ticket or otherwise at-large, are preceded by their district numbers.
The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.
|State||Senator||Reason for Vacancy||Successor||Date of Successor's Installation|
|Samuel D. Nicholson (R)||Died March 24, 1923. Successor was appointed.||Alva B. Adams (D)||May 17, 1923|
|Knute Nelson (R)||Died April 28, 1923. Successor was elected.||Magnus Johnson (FL)||July 16, 1923|
|William P. Dillingham (R)||Died July 12, 1923. Successor was elected.||Porter H. Dale (R)||November 7, 1923|
|LeBaron Bradford Colt (R)||Died August 18, 1924. Successor was elected.||Jesse H. Metcalf (R)||November 5, 1924|
|Frank B. Brandegee (R)||Died October 14, 1924. Successor was elected.||Hiram Bingham III (R)||January 8, 1925|
|Henry Cabot Lodge (R)||Died November 9, 1924. Successor was appointed.||William M. Butler (R)||November 13, 1924|
|Alva B. Adams (D)||Interim appointment. Successor was elected. Served until November 30, 1924.||Rice W. Means (R)||December 1, 1924|
|Joseph M. McCormick (R)||Died February 25, 1925.
Successor was appointed, having already been elected to the next term.
|Charles S. Deneen (R)||February 26, 1925|
|District||Vacator||Reason for Vacancy||Successor|
|Illinois 2nd||Vacant||Rep. James R. Mann died during previous congress||Morton D. Hull (R)||April 3, 1923|
|California 10th||Vacant||Rep. Henry Z. Osborne died during previous congress||John D. Fredericks (R)||May 1, 1923|
|New York 16th||Vacant||Rep. William Bourke Cockran died during previous congress||John J. O'Connor (D)||November 6, 1923|
|Alabama 2nd||John R. Tyson (D)||Died March 27, 1923||Lister Hill (D)||August 14, 1923|
|Michigan 3rd||John M. C. Smith (R)||Died March 30, 1923||Arthur B. Williams (R)||June 19, 1923|
|Iowa 8th||Horace M. Towner (R)||Resigned April 1, 1923, after being appointed Governor of Puerto Rico||Hiram K. Evans (R)||June 4, 1923|
|New York 11th||Daniel J. Riordan (D)||Died April 28, 1923||Anning S. Prall (D)||November 6, 1923|
|Illinois 4th||John W. Rainey (D)||Died May 4, 1923||Thomas A. Doyle (D)||November 6, 1923|
|Arkansas 6th||Lewis E. Sawyer (D)||Died May 5, 1923||James B. Reed (D)||October 6, 1923|
|Washington 5th||J. Stanley Webster (R)||Resigned May 8, 1923, after being appointed to United States District Court for the Eastern District of Washington||Samuel B. Hill (D)||September 25, 1923|
|North Carolina 2nd||Claude Kitchin (D)||Died May 31, 1923||John H. Kerr (D)||November 6, 1923|
|New York 32nd||Luther W. Mott (R)||Died July 10, 1923||Thaddeus C. Sweet (R)||November 6, 1923|
|Vermont 2nd||Porter H. Dale (R)||Resigned August 11, 1923, after becoming a candidate for the US Senate||Ernest Willard Gibson (R)||November 6, 1923|
|Kentucky 7th||J. Campbell Cantrill (D)||Died September 2, 1923||Joseph W. Morris (D)||November 30, 1923|
|New York 24th||James V. Ganly (D)||Died September 7, 1923||Benjamin L. Fairchild (R)||November 6, 1923|
|Mississippi 3rd||Benjamin G. Humphreys II (D)||Died October 16, 1923||William Y. Humphreys (D)||November 27, 1923|
|Kentucky 9th||William J. Fields (D)||Resigned December 11, 1923||Fred M. Vinson (D)||January 24, 1924|
|Louisiana 2nd||H. Garland Dupré (D)||Died February 21, 1924||James Z. Spearing (D)||April 22, 1924|
|Illinois 14th||William J. Graham (R)||Resigned June 7, 1924, after being appointed to the United States Court of Customs Appeals||Seat remained vacant until next Congress|
|Kansas 2nd||Edward C. Little (R)||Died June 27, 1924||Ulysses S. Guyer (R)||November 4, 1924|
|North Dakota 2nd||George M. Young (R)||Resigned September 2, 1924, after being appointed to the Board of General Appraisers||Thomas Hall (R)||November 4, 1924|
|Massachusetts 15th||William S. Greene (R)||Died September 22, 1924||Robert M. Leach (R)||November 4, 1924|
|Maryland 5th||Sydney E. Mudd II (R)||Died October 11, 1924||Stephen W. Gambrill (D)||November 4, 1924|
|California 4th||Julius Kahn (R)||Died December 18, 1924||Seat remained vacant until next Congress|
Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members (House and Senate) of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link (5 links), in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate, House (Standing with Subcommittees, Select and Special) and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.
The 1923 United States Senate special election in Minnesota took place on July 16, 1923. The election was held to fill, for the remainder of the unexpired term, the seat in the United States Senate left vacant by Republican U.S. Senator Knute Nelson, who died in office on April 28, 1923. State Senator Magnus Johnson of the Farmer-Labor Party of Minnesota defeated Governor J. A. O. Preus of the Republican Party of Minnesota, and State Senator James A. Carley of the Minnesota Democratic Party, which, together with Henrik Shipstead's victory in 1922, brought both of Minnesota's seats in the United States Senate into the hands of the Farmer-Labor Party for the first time in history.
Johnson's victory marked the first time, since Morton S. Wilkinson took office in 1859, that neither of Minnesota's seats in the United States Senate were held by a Republican. It also marked the first time, since Wilkinson's assumption of the office, that the person holding Minnesota's Class 2 U.S. Senate seat was not a Republican, and Johnson became just the second non-Republican to ever hold that seat (the first being the Democrat James Shields, whose term of office ended when Wilkinson's began).1923 United States Senate special election in Vermont
The 1923 United States Senate special election in Vermont took place on November 6, 1923. Republican Porter H. Dale was elected to the United States Senate to serve the remainder of the deceased William P. Dillingham's term, defeating Democratic candidate Park H. Pollard.Anti-Heroin Act of 1924
Anti-Heroin Act of 1924 is a United States federal law prohibiting the importation and possession of opium for the chemical synthesis of an addictive narcotic known as diamorphine or heroin. The Act of Congress amended the Smoking Opium Exclusion Act of 1909 which authorized the importation of the poppy plant for medicinal purposes utilizing an opium pipe or vaporization to consume the euphoric opiate.The H.R. 7079 legislation was passed by the 68th United States Congressional session and enacted into law by the 30th President of the United States Calvin Coolidge on June 7, 1924.Arthur B. Williams
Arthur Bruce Williams (January 27, 1872 – May 1, 1925) was a politician from the U.S. state of Michigan.Clarke–McNary Act
The Clarke–McNary Act of 1924 (ch. 348, 43 Stat. 653, enacted June 7, 1924) was one of several pieces of United States federal legislation and was named for Representative John D. Clarke and Senator Charles McNary.
The 1911 Weeks Act had allowed the purchase of land to enlarge the National Forest System. Two years after the Weeks Act was passed, over 700,000 acres (2,800 km²) had been purchased for the National Forest system in the Eastern United States. More than 2 million acres (8,000 km²) of land had been purchased by 1920.
The Clarke–McNary Act made it much easier for the Forest Service to buy land from willing sellers within predetermined national forest boundaries. It enabled the Secretary of Agriculture to work cooperatively with State officials for better forest protection, chiefly in fire control and water resources. It also provided for continuous production of timber. Additionally, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) began working with private forestland owners in reforestation. That was done by broadening the cooperative efforts to include producing and distributing tree seedlings and providing forestry assistance to farmers.
The laws also gave a strong impetus to states to establish and to support state forestry agencies. All 50 states now have a state forestry agency or forestry extension agency.Federal Arbitration Act
The United States Arbitration Act (Pub.L. 68–401, 43 Stat. 883, enacted February 12, 1925, codified at 9 U.S.C. ch. 1), more commonly referred to as the Federal Arbitration Act or FAA, is an act of Congress that provides for judicial facilitation of private dispute resolution through arbitration. It applies in both state courts and federal courts, as was held constitutional in Southland Corp. v. Keating. It applies where the transaction contemplated by the parties "involves" interstate commerce and is predicated on an exercise of the Commerce Clause powers granted to Congress in the U.S. Constitution.
The FAA provides for contractually based compulsory and binding arbitration, resulting in an arbitration award entered by an arbitrator or arbitration panel as opposed to a judgment entered by a court of law. In an arbitration, the parties give up the right to an appeal on substantive grounds to a court.
Once an award is entered by an arbitrator or arbitration panel, it must be "confirmed" in a court of law; and once confirmed, the award is reduced to an enforceable judgment, which may be enforced by the winning party in court, like any other judgment. Under the FAA, an award must be confirmed within one year, and any objection to an award must be challenged by the losing party within three months. An arbitration agreement may be entered "prospectively" (ie., in advance of any actual dispute), or may be entered into by the disputing parties once a dispute has arisen.Federal Corrupt Practices Act
The Federal Corrupt Practices Act, also known as the Publicity Act, was a federal law of the United States that was enacted in 1910 and amended in 1911 and 1925. It remained the nation's primary law regulating campaign finance in federal elections until the passage of the Federal Election Campaign Act in 1971. The Act of Congress was enacted on June 25, 1910 by US President William Howard Taft.
The Federal Corrupt Practices Act was codified at 2 U.S.C. Section 241. It built upon the prohibition on corporate contributions in the Tillman Act of 1907.
The Federal Corrupt Practices Act established campaign spending limits for political parties in House general elections. It was the first federal law to establish public disclosure of financial spending by political parties but not candidates by requiring the national committees of political parties to file post-election reports on their contributions to individual candidates and their own individual expenditures. However, it covered only single-state political parties and election committees, carried few penalties, and was rarely enforced.
On August 19, 1911, it was amended to extend its requirements to Senate candidates and to primary elections. The amendments also required financial disclosure by candidates for the first time and established limits on the amount of money that candidates were allowed to spend on their campaigns. House campaign expenditures were limited to $5,000 and Senate expenditures to $10,000, but states could lower those amounts.
However, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled, in Newberry v. U.S.
256 U.S. 232 (1921), that Congress's authority to regulate elections did not extend to party primaries or nominations and so struck down the 1911 amendment's spending limits.
On February 28, 1925, the Act was revised and strengthened to extend its coverage to multi-state parties and election committees and to require financial disclosure reports to be made quarterly. Any contribution over $100 now had to be reported, and the Senate campaign spending limit was raised to $25,000.
However, the stronger version failed to provide for adequate regulation of campaign finance. The law provided for no regulatory authority to establish the manner of reporting or its disclosure to the public, and it set no penalties for failure to comply. The law did not regulate total contributions, which encouraged parties and donors to set up multiple committees and make multiple donations, all under $100, to evade the law's limits. Enforcement was left up to Congress, which rarely acted.
The US Supreme Court upheld the reporting requirements in Burroughs v. U.S. 290 U.S. 534 (1934).
In 1941, the Supreme Court, in United States v. Classic, 313 U.S. 299 (1941), upheld the spending limits in federal elections. It limited its ruling, however, by concluding that Congress's power to regulate extended only if state law made primaries and nominations part of the election and/or the primary effectively determined the outcome of the election.
The Act was repealed by the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 and stopped being in force on April 8, 1972.Fred Sisson
Frederick James Sisson (March 31, 1879 – October 20, 1949) was a United States Representative from New York. Born in Wells Bridge, Otsego County, New York, he attended the public schools at Unadilla and was graduated from Hamilton College in 1904. He was principal of Vernon High School from 1904 to 1910, studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1911 and commenced practice in Utica. He was sheriff's attorney in 1913 and corporation counsel for the city of Utica in 1914; in 1922 he was an unsuccessful candidate for election to the 68th United States Congress and in 1928 to the 71st United States Congress. He was member of the Whitesboro Board of Education from 1925 to 1933, serving as president from 1926 to 1930.
Sisson was elected as a Democrat to the 73rd and 74th Congresses, holding office from March 4, 1933 to January 3, 1937. He was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1936 to the 75thCongress and continued the practice of law in Utica and Washington, D.C. until his retirement in 1945. In 1949 he died in Washington, D.C.; interment was in Mount Olivet Cemetery in Whitesboro.Grant M. Hudson
Grant Martin Hudson (July 23, 1868 – October 26, 1955) was a politician from the U.S. state of Michigan.
Hudson was born in Eaton Township, Lorain County, Ohio. He attended the common schools and graduated from Kalamazoo College, Kalamazoo, Michigan. He also attended the University of Chicago. He was a minister at Dowagiac, Michigan, 1894–1896, and engaged in mercantile pursuits in Schoolcraft, Michigan, in 1896. He was a member of the Michigan House of Representatives, 1905–1909, and was president of the village of Schoolcraft, 1909–1911. He was a member of the State industrial accident compensation commission in 1920 and 1921.
Hudson was elected as a Republican from Michigan's 6th congressional district to the 68th United States Congress and to the three succeeding Congresses, serving from March 4, 1923 to March 3, 1931). He served as chairman, Committee on Alcoholic Liquor Traffic in the 69th Congress. He was an unsuccessful candidate for renomination in 1930, losing to Seymour H. Person in the Republican primary election.
Hudson engaged in the insurance business in Lansing, Michigan. He was State purchasing agent in 1939 and State tax commissioner in 1940. Hudson died in Kalamazoo and was interred in Mount Hope Cemetery in Lansing.Helium Act of 1925
Helium Act of 1925, 50 USC § 161, is a United States statute drafted for the purpose of conservation, exploration, and procurement of helium gas. The Act of Congress authorized the condemnation, lease, or purchase of acquired lands bearing the potential of producing helium gas. The Act empowered the United States Department of the Interior and United States Bureau of Mines with the jurisdiction for the experimentation, production, repurification, and research of the lighter than air gas. The Title 50 codified law provided the authority for the creation of the National Helium Reserve.Immigration Act of 1924
The Immigration Act of 1924, or Johnson–Reed Act, including the Asian Exclusion Act and National Origins Act (Pub.L. 68–139, 43 Stat. 153, enacted May 26, 1924), was a United States federal law that prevented immigration from Asia, set quotas on the number of immigrants from the Eastern Hemisphere, and provided funding and an enforcement mechanism to carry out the longstanding ban on other immigrants.
The 1924 act supplanted earlier acts to effectively ban all immigration from Asia and set a total immigration quota of 165,000 for countries outside the Western Hemisphere, an 80% reduction from the pre-World War I average. Quotas for specific countries were based on 2% of the U.S. population from that country as recorded in 1890. As a result, populations poorly represented in 1890 were prevented from immigrating in proportionate numbers—especially affecting Italians, Jews, Greeks, Poles, and Slavs. According to the U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian, the purpose of the act was "to preserve the ideal of U.S. homogeneity." Congressional opposition was minimal.
A key element of the act was its provisions for enforcement. The act provided funding and legal instructions to courts of deportation for immigrants whose national quotas were exceeded. The act was revised in the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 and replaced by the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965.Indian Citizenship Act
The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924, also known as the Snyder Act, was proposed by Representative Homer P. Snyder (R) of New York and granted full U.S. citizenship to the indigenous peoples of the United States, called "Indians" in this Act. While the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution defines as citizens any persons born in the U.S. and subject to its jurisdiction, the amendment had been interpreted to not apply to Native people. The act was signed into law by President Calvin Coolidge on June 2, 1924. It was enacted partially in recognition of the thousands of Indians who served in the armed forces during the First World War.Judiciary Act of 1925
The Judiciary Act of 1925 (43 Stat. 936), also known as the Judge's Bill or Certiorari Act, was an act of the United States Congress that sought to reduce the workload of the Supreme Court of the United States.List of United States Senators in the 68th Congress by seniority
This is a complete list of members of the United States Senate during the 68th United States Congress listed by seniority, from March 4, 1923, to March 3, 1925.
Order of service is based on the commencement of the senator's first term. Behind this is former service as a senator (only giving the senator seniority within his or her new incoming class), service as vice president, a House member, a cabinet secretary, or a governor of a state. The final factor is the population of the senator's state.Senators who were sworn in during the middle of the Congress (up until the last senator who was not sworn in early after winning the November 1924 election) are listed at the end of the list with no number.List of members of the United States House of Representatives in the 68th Congress by seniority
This is a complete list of members of the United States House of Representatives during the 68th United States Congress listed by seniority.As an historical article, the districts and party affiliations listed reflect those during the 68th Congress (March 4, 1923 – March 3, 1925). Current seats and party affiliations on the List of current members of the United States House of Representatives by seniority will be different for certain members.Seniority depends on the date on which members were sworn into office. Since many members are sworn in on the same day, subsequent ranking is based on previous congressional service of the individual and then by alphabetical order by the last name of the congressman.
Committee chairmanship in the House is often associated with seniority. However, party leadership is typically not associated with seniority.
Note: The "*" indicates that the representative/delegate may have served one or more non-consecutive terms while in the House of Representatives of the United States Congress.Oil Pollution Act of 1924
Oil Pollution Act of 1924 is a United States federal statute establishing regulations for coastal navigable waters with regards to intentional fossil fuel discharges from seagoing vessels. The Act of Congress grants the Secretary of War authority to evaluate the oil volume discharge from a vessel while assessing if coastal navigable waters have a potential toxicity posing a deleterious condition for human health and seafood contamination. The 1924 United States statute provides judicial penalties encompassing civil and criminal punishment for violations of the prescribed regulations as stated in the Act.
The legislation was passed by the 68th United States Congressional session and confirmed as a federal law by the 29th President of the United States Warren G. Harding on June 7, 1924.Revenue Act of 1924
The United States Revenue Act of 1924 (43 Stat. 253) (June 2, 1924), also known as the Mellon tax bill cut federal tax rates and established the U.S. Board of Tax Appeals, which was later renamed the United States Tax Court in 1942. The bill was named after U.S. Secretary of the Treasury Andrew Mellon.
The Revenue Act was applicable to incomes for 1924.The bottom rate, on income under $4,000, fell from 1.5% to 1.125% (both rates are after reduction by the "earned income credit").
A parallel act, the Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 (43 Stat. 253, Ch. 233 (1924)), granted all non-citizen resident Indians citizenship. Thus the Revenue Act declared that there were no longer any "Indians, not taxed" to be not counted for purposes of United States Congressional apportionment.
President Calvin Coolidge signed the bill into law.
Both a normal Tax and a surtax were levied against the net income of individuals, as shown in the following table:
Exemption of $1,000 for single filers and $2,500 for married couples and heads of family. A $400 exemption for each dependent under 18.Rogers Act
The Rogers Act of 1924, often referred to as the Foreign Service Act of 1924, is the legislation that merged the United States diplomatic and consular services into the United States Foreign Service. It defined a personnel system under which the United States Secretary of State is authorized to assign and rotate diplomats abroad. It merged the low-paid high prestige diplomatic service with the higher paid, middle class consul service. The act provided a merit-based career path, with guaranteed rotations and better pay.World War Adjusted Compensation Act
The World War Adjusted Compensation Act, or Bonus Act, was a United States federal law passed on May 19, 1924, that granted a benefit to veterans of American military service in World War I.
United States Congresses (and year convened)