68th United States Congress

The Sixty-eighth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1923, to March 4, 1925, during the last months of Warren G. Harding's presidency, and the first years of the administration of his successor, Calvin Coolidge. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Thirteenth Decennial Census of the United States in 1910. Both chambers had a Republican majority.

68th United States Congress
67th ←
→ 69th
USCapitol1906
March 4, 1923 – March 4, 1925
Senate PresidentCalvin Coolidge (R)
until August 2, 1923
Vacant
from August 2, 1923
Senate President pro temAlbert B. Cummins (R)
House SpeakerFrederick H. Gillett (R)
Members96 senators
435 members of the House
5 non-voting delegates
Senate MajorityRepublican
House MajorityRepublican
Sessions
1st: December 3, 1923 – June 7, 1924
2nd: December 1, 1924 – March 3, 1925

Major events

Major legislation

Constitutional amendments

Party summary

The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this Congress, and includes members from vacancies and newly admitted states, when they were first seated. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section??.?%

Senate

Party
(shading shows control)
Total Vacant
Democratic
(D)
Farmer–Labor
(FL)
Republican
(R)
End of the previous congress 37 0 59 96 0
Begin 42 1 53 96 0
End 2 52
Final voting share 43.8% 2.1% 54.2%
Beginning of the next congress 40 1 55 96 0

House of Representatives

Party
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
Total
Republican Democratic Farmer–Labor Socialist Vacant
End of the previous Congress 302 131 0 1 435 0
Begin 225 207 2 1 435 0
End 222 208 2 1 433 2
Final voting share 51.3% 48.0% 0.5% 0.2%
Beginning of the next Congress 247 183 3 1 435 0

Leadership

Senate president
Calvin Coolidge, bw head and shoulders photo portrait seated, 1919
Calvin Coolidge (R)
President pro tempore
Albert B Cummins
Albert B. Cummins (R)

Senate

Majority (Republican) leadership

Minority (Democratic) leadership

House of Representatives

Majority (Republican) leadership

Minority (Democratic) leadership

Members

This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed by class, and Representatives are listed by district.

Skip to House of Representatives, below

Senate

Senators were elected every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began in this Congress, requiring re-election in 1928; Class 2 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring re-election in 1924; and Class 3 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring re-election in 1926.

68th US Senate composition
Senate composition, by party

House of Representatives

The names of members of the House of Representatives elected statewide on the general ticket or otherwise at-large, are preceded by their district numbers.

68 us house membership
House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80+% to 100% Democratic
  80+% to 100% Republican
  60+% to 80% Democratic
  60+% to 80% Republican
  Up to 60% Democratic
  Up to 60% Republican

Changes in membership

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.

Senate

State Senator Reason for Vacancy Successor Date of Successor's Installation
Colorado
(3)
Samuel D. Nicholson (R) Died March 24, 1923. Successor was appointed. Alva B. Adams (D) May 17, 1923
Minnesota
(2)
Knute Nelson (R) Died April 28, 1923. Successor was elected. Magnus Johnson (FL) July 16, 1923
Vermont
(3)
William P. Dillingham (R) Died July 12, 1923. Successor was elected. Porter H. Dale (R) November 7, 1923
Rhode Island
(2)
LeBaron Bradford Colt (R) Died August 18, 1924. Successor was elected. Jesse H. Metcalf (R) November 5, 1924
Connecticut
(3)
Frank B. Brandegee (R) Died October 14, 1924. Successor was elected. Hiram Bingham III (R) January 8, 1925[3]
Massachusetts
(1)
Henry Cabot Lodge (R) Died November 9, 1924. Successor was appointed. William M. Butler (R) November 13, 1924
Colorado
(3)
Alva B. Adams (D) Interim appointment. Successor was elected. Served until November 30, 1924. Rice W. Means (R) December 1, 1924
Illinois
(2)
Joseph M. McCormick (R) Died February 25, 1925.
Successor was appointed, having already been elected to the next term.
Charles S. Deneen (R) February 26, 1925

House of Representatives

  • replacements: 22
  • deaths: 15
  • resignations: 6
  • contested election: 0
  • Total seats with changes: 24
District Vacator Reason for Vacancy Successor
Illinois 2nd Vacant Rep. James R. Mann died during previous congress Morton D. Hull (R) April 3, 1923
California 10th Vacant Rep. Henry Z. Osborne died during previous congress John D. Fredericks (R) May 1, 1923
New York 16th Vacant Rep. William Bourke Cockran died during previous congress John J. O'Connor (D) November 6, 1923
Alabama 2nd John R. Tyson (D) Died March 27, 1923 Lister Hill (D) August 14, 1923
Michigan 3rd John M. C. Smith (R) Died March 30, 1923 Arthur B. Williams (R) June 19, 1923
Iowa 8th Horace M. Towner (R) Resigned April 1, 1923, after being appointed Governor of Puerto Rico Hiram K. Evans (R) June 4, 1923
New York 11th Daniel J. Riordan (D) Died April 28, 1923 Anning S. Prall (D) November 6, 1923
Illinois 4th John W. Rainey (D) Died May 4, 1923 Thomas A. Doyle (D) November 6, 1923
Arkansas 6th Lewis E. Sawyer (D) Died May 5, 1923 James B. Reed (D) October 6, 1923
Washington 5th J. Stanley Webster (R) Resigned May 8, 1923, after being appointed to United States District Court for the Eastern District of Washington Samuel B. Hill (D) September 25, 1923
North Carolina 2nd Claude Kitchin (D) Died May 31, 1923 John H. Kerr (D) November 6, 1923
New York 32nd Luther W. Mott (R) Died July 10, 1923 Thaddeus C. Sweet (R) November 6, 1923
Vermont 2nd Porter H. Dale (R) Resigned August 11, 1923, after becoming a candidate for the US Senate Ernest Willard Gibson (R) November 6, 1923
Kentucky 7th J. Campbell Cantrill (D) Died September 2, 1923 Joseph W. Morris (D) November 30, 1923
New York 24th James V. Ganly (D) Died September 7, 1923 Benjamin L. Fairchild (R) November 6, 1923
Mississippi 3rd Benjamin G. Humphreys II (D) Died October 16, 1923 William Y. Humphreys (D) November 27, 1923
Kentucky 9th William J. Fields (D) Resigned December 11, 1923 Fred M. Vinson (D) January 24, 1924
Louisiana 2nd H. Garland Dupré (D) Died February 21, 1924 James Z. Spearing (D) April 22, 1924
Illinois 14th William J. Graham (R) Resigned June 7, 1924, after being appointed to the United States Court of Customs Appeals Seat remained vacant until next Congress
Kansas 2nd Edward C. Little (R) Died June 27, 1924 Ulysses S. Guyer (R) November 4, 1924
North Dakota 2nd George M. Young (R) Resigned September 2, 1924, after being appointed to the Board of General Appraisers Thomas Hall (R) November 4, 1924
Massachusetts 15th William S. Greene (R) Died September 22, 1924 Robert M. Leach (R) November 4, 1924
Maryland 5th Sydney E. Mudd II (R) Died October 11, 1924 Stephen W. Gambrill (D) November 4, 1924
California 4th Julius Kahn (R) Died December 18, 1924 Seat remained vacant until next Congress

Committees

Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members (House and Senate) of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link (5 links), in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate, House (Standing with Subcommittees, Select and Special) and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.

Senate

House of Representatives

Joint committees

  • Banking and Currency
  • Conditions of Indian Tribes (Special)
  • Determine what Employment may be Furnished Federal Prisoners
  • Disposition of (Useless) Executive Papers
  • Federal Reserve System
  • Investigate Congressional Salaries
  • Investigation of Northern Pacific Railroad Land Grants
  • Postal Service
  • Reorganization
  • Reorganization of the Administrative Branch of the Government

Caucuses

Employees

Senate

House of Representatives

See also

References

  1. ^ Huckabee, David C. (September 30, 1997). "Ratification of Amendments to the U.S. Constitution" (PDF). Congressional Research Service reports. Washington D.C.: Congressional Research Service, The Library of Congress.
  2. ^ "Four amendments that almost made it into the constitution". Constitution Daily. Philadelphia: The National Constitution Center. March 23, 2014. Retrieved March 3, 2017.
  3. ^ "A chronological list of senators since the First Congress in 1789" (PDF). United States Senate.
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1982). The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.

External links

1923 United States Senate special election in Minnesota

The 1923 United States Senate special election in Minnesota took place on July 16, 1923. The election was held to fill, for the remainder of the unexpired term, the seat in the United States Senate left vacant by Republican U.S. Senator Knute Nelson, who died in office on April 28, 1923. State Senator Magnus Johnson of the Farmer-Labor Party of Minnesota defeated Governor J. A. O. Preus of the Republican Party of Minnesota, and State Senator James A. Carley of the Minnesota Democratic Party, which, together with Henrik Shipstead's victory in 1922, brought both of Minnesota's seats in the United States Senate into the hands of the Farmer-Labor Party for the first time in history.

Johnson's victory marked the first time, since Morton S. Wilkinson took office in 1859, that neither of Minnesota's seats in the United States Senate were held by a Republican. It also marked the first time, since Wilkinson's assumption of the office, that the person holding Minnesota's Class 2 U.S. Senate seat was not a Republican, and Johnson became just the second non-Republican to ever hold that seat (the first being the Democrat James Shields, whose term of office ended when Wilkinson's began).

1923 United States Senate special election in Vermont

The 1923 United States Senate special election in Vermont took place on November 6, 1923. Republican Porter H. Dale was elected to the United States Senate to serve the remainder of the deceased William P. Dillingham's term, defeating Democratic candidate Park H. Pollard.

Anti-Heroin Act of 1924

Anti-Heroin Act of 1924 is a United States federal law prohibiting the importation and possession of opium for the chemical synthesis of an addictive narcotic known as diamorphine or heroin. The Act of Congress amended the Smoking Opium Exclusion Act of 1909 which authorized the importation of the poppy plant for medicinal purposes utilizing an opium pipe or vaporization to consume the euphoric opiate.The H.R. 7079 legislation was passed by the 68th United States Congressional session and enacted into law by the 30th President of the United States Calvin Coolidge on June 7, 1924.

Arthur B. Williams

Arthur Bruce Williams (January 27, 1872 – May 1, 1925) was a politician from the U.S. state of Michigan.

Clarke–McNary Act

The Clarke–McNary Act of 1924 (ch. 348, 43 Stat. 653, enacted June 7, 1924) was one of several pieces of United States federal legislation and was named for Representative John D. Clarke and Senator Charles McNary.

The 1911 Weeks Act had allowed the purchase of land to enlarge the National Forest System. Two years after the Weeks Act was passed, over 700,000 acres (2,800 km²) had been purchased for the National Forest system in the Eastern United States. More than 2 million acres (8,000 km²) of land had been purchased by 1920.

The Clarke–McNary Act made it much easier for the Forest Service to buy land from willing sellers within predetermined national forest boundaries. It enabled the Secretary of Agriculture to work cooperatively with State officials for better forest protection, chiefly in fire control and water resources. It also provided for continuous production of timber. Additionally, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) began working with private forestland owners in reforestation. That was done by broadening the cooperative efforts to include producing and distributing tree seedlings and providing forestry assistance to farmers.

The laws also gave a strong impetus to states to establish and to support state forestry agencies. All 50 states now have a state forestry agency or forestry extension agency.

Federal Arbitration Act

The United States Arbitration Act (Pub.L. 68–401, 43 Stat. 883, enacted February 12, 1925, codified at 9 U.S.C. ch. 1), more commonly referred to as the Federal Arbitration Act or FAA, is an act of Congress that provides for judicial facilitation of private dispute resolution through arbitration. It applies in both state courts and federal courts, as was held constitutional in Southland Corp. v. Keating. It applies where the transaction contemplated by the parties "involves" interstate commerce and is predicated on an exercise of the Commerce Clause powers granted to Congress in the U.S. Constitution.

The FAA provides for contractually based compulsory and binding arbitration, resulting in an arbitration award entered by an arbitrator or arbitration panel as opposed to a judgment entered by a court of law. In an arbitration, the parties give up the right to an appeal on substantive grounds to a court.

Once an award is entered by an arbitrator or arbitration panel, it must be "confirmed" in a court of law; and once confirmed, the award is reduced to an enforceable judgment, which may be enforced by the winning party in court, like any other judgment. Under the FAA, an award must be confirmed within one year, and any objection to an award must be challenged by the losing party within three months. An arbitration agreement may be entered "prospectively" (ie., in advance of any actual dispute), or may be entered into by the disputing parties once a dispute has arisen.

Federal Corrupt Practices Act

The Federal Corrupt Practices Act, also known as the Publicity Act, was a federal law of the United States that was enacted in 1910 and amended in 1911 and 1925. It remained the nation's primary law regulating campaign finance in federal elections until the passage of the Federal Election Campaign Act in 1971. The Act of Congress was enacted on June 25, 1910 by US President William Howard Taft.

The Federal Corrupt Practices Act was codified at 2 U.S.C. Section 241. It built upon the prohibition on corporate contributions in the Tillman Act of 1907.

The Federal Corrupt Practices Act established campaign spending limits for political parties in House general elections. It was the first federal law to establish public disclosure of financial spending by political parties but not candidates by requiring the national committees of political parties to file post-election reports on their contributions to individual candidates and their own individual expenditures. However, it covered only single-state political parties and election committees, carried few penalties, and was rarely enforced.

On August 19, 1911, it was amended to extend its requirements to Senate candidates and to primary elections. The amendments also required financial disclosure by candidates for the first time and established limits on the amount of money that candidates were allowed to spend on their campaigns. House campaign expenditures were limited to $5,000 and Senate expenditures to $10,000, but states could lower those amounts.

However, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled, in Newberry v. U.S.

256 U.S. 232 (1921), that Congress's authority to regulate elections did not extend to party primaries or nominations and so struck down the 1911 amendment's spending limits.

On February 28, 1925, the Act was revised and strengthened to extend its coverage to multi-state parties and election committees and to require financial disclosure reports to be made quarterly. Any contribution over $100 now had to be reported, and the Senate campaign spending limit was raised to $25,000.

However, the stronger version failed to provide for adequate regulation of campaign finance. The law provided for no regulatory authority to establish the manner of reporting or its disclosure to the public, and it set no penalties for failure to comply. The law did not regulate total contributions, which encouraged parties and donors to set up multiple committees and make multiple donations, all under $100, to evade the law's limits. Enforcement was left up to Congress, which rarely acted.

The US Supreme Court upheld the reporting requirements in Burroughs v. U.S. 290 U.S. 534 (1934).

In 1941, the Supreme Court, in United States v. Classic, 313 U.S. 299 (1941), upheld the spending limits in federal elections. It limited its ruling, however, by concluding that Congress's power to regulate extended only if state law made primaries and nominations part of the election and/or the primary effectively determined the outcome of the election.

The Act was repealed by the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 and stopped being in force on April 8, 1972.

Fred Sisson

Frederick James Sisson (March 31, 1879 – October 20, 1949) was a United States Representative from New York. Born in Wells Bridge, Otsego County, New York, he attended the public schools at Unadilla and was graduated from Hamilton College in 1904. He was principal of Vernon High School from 1904 to 1910, studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1911 and commenced practice in Utica. He was sheriff's attorney in 1913 and corporation counsel for the city of Utica in 1914; in 1922 he was an unsuccessful candidate for election to the 68th United States Congress and in 1928 to the 71st United States Congress. He was member of the Whitesboro Board of Education from 1925 to 1933, serving as president from 1926 to 1930.

Sisson was elected as a Democrat to the 73rd and 74th Congresses, holding office from March 4, 1933 to January 3, 1937. He was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1936 to the 75thCongress and continued the practice of law in Utica and Washington, D.C. until his retirement in 1945. In 1949 he died in Washington, D.C.; interment was in Mount Olivet Cemetery in Whitesboro.

Grant M. Hudson

Grant Martin Hudson (July 23, 1868 – October 26, 1955) was a politician from the U.S. state of Michigan.

Hudson was born in Eaton Township, Lorain County, Ohio. He attended the common schools and graduated from Kalamazoo College, Kalamazoo, Michigan. He also attended the University of Chicago. He was a minister at Dowagiac, Michigan, 1894–1896, and engaged in mercantile pursuits in Schoolcraft, Michigan, in 1896. He was a member of the Michigan House of Representatives, 1905–1909, and was president of the village of Schoolcraft, 1909–1911. He was a member of the State industrial accident compensation commission in 1920 and 1921.

Hudson was elected as a Republican from Michigan's 6th congressional district to the 68th United States Congress and to the three succeeding Congresses, serving from March 4, 1923 to March 3, 1931). He served as chairman, Committee on Alcoholic Liquor Traffic in the 69th Congress. He was an unsuccessful candidate for renomination in 1930, losing to Seymour H. Person in the Republican primary election.

Hudson engaged in the insurance business in Lansing, Michigan. He was State purchasing agent in 1939 and State tax commissioner in 1940. Hudson died in Kalamazoo and was interred in Mount Hope Cemetery in Lansing.

Helium Act of 1925

Helium Act of 1925, 50 USC § 161, is a United States statute drafted for the purpose of conservation, exploration, and procurement of helium gas. The Act of Congress authorized the condemnation, lease, or purchase of acquired lands bearing the potential of producing helium gas. The Act empowered the United States Department of the Interior and United States Bureau of Mines with the jurisdiction for the experimentation, production, repurification, and research of the lighter than air gas. The Title 50 codified law provided the authority for the creation of the National Helium Reserve.

Immigration Act of 1924

The Immigration Act of 1924, or Johnson–Reed Act, including the Asian Exclusion Act and National Origins Act (Pub.L. 68–139, 43 Stat. 153, enacted May 26, 1924), was a United States federal law that prevented immigration from Asia, set quotas on the number of immigrants from the Eastern Hemisphere, and provided funding and an enforcement mechanism to carry out the longstanding ban on other immigrants.

The 1924 act supplanted earlier acts to effectively ban all immigration from Asia and set a total immigration quota of 165,000 for countries outside the Western Hemisphere, an 80% reduction from the pre-World War I average. Quotas for specific countries were based on 2% of the U.S. population from that country as recorded in 1890. As a result, populations poorly represented in 1890 were prevented from immigrating in proportionate numbers—especially affecting Italians, Jews, Greeks, Poles, and Slavs. According to the U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian, the purpose of the act was "to preserve the ideal of U.S. homogeneity." Congressional opposition was minimal.

A key element of the act was its provisions for enforcement. The act provided funding and legal instructions to courts of deportation for immigrants whose national quotas were exceeded. The act was revised in the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 and replaced by the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965.

Indian Citizenship Act

The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924, also known as the Snyder Act, was proposed by Representative Homer P. Snyder (R) of New York and granted full U.S. citizenship to the indigenous peoples of the United States, called "Indians" in this Act. While the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution defines as citizens any persons born in the U.S. and subject to its jurisdiction, the amendment had been interpreted to not apply to Native people. The act was signed into law by President Calvin Coolidge on June 2, 1924. It was enacted partially in recognition of the thousands of Indians who served in the armed forces during the First World War.

Judiciary Act of 1925

The Judiciary Act of 1925 (43 Stat. 936), also known as the Judge's Bill or Certiorari Act, was an act of the United States Congress that sought to reduce the workload of the Supreme Court of the United States.

List of United States Senators in the 68th Congress by seniority

This is a complete list of members of the United States Senate during the 68th United States Congress listed by seniority, from March 4, 1923, to March 3, 1925.

Order of service is based on the commencement of the senator's first term. Behind this is former service as a senator (only giving the senator seniority within his or her new incoming class), service as vice president, a House member, a cabinet secretary, or a governor of a state. The final factor is the population of the senator's state.Senators who were sworn in during the middle of the Congress (up until the last senator who was not sworn in early after winning the November 1924 election) are listed at the end of the list with no number.

List of members of the United States House of Representatives in the 68th Congress by seniority

This is a complete list of members of the United States House of Representatives during the 68th United States Congress listed by seniority.As an historical article, the districts and party affiliations listed reflect those during the 68th Congress (March 4, 1923 – March 3, 1925). Current seats and party affiliations on the List of current members of the United States House of Representatives by seniority will be different for certain members.Seniority depends on the date on which members were sworn into office. Since many members are sworn in on the same day, subsequent ranking is based on previous congressional service of the individual and then by alphabetical order by the last name of the congressman.

Committee chairmanship in the House is often associated with seniority. However, party leadership is typically not associated with seniority.

Note: The "*" indicates that the representative/delegate may have served one or more non-consecutive terms while in the House of Representatives of the United States Congress.

Oil Pollution Act of 1924

Oil Pollution Act of 1924 is a United States federal statute establishing regulations for coastal navigable waters with regards to intentional fossil fuel discharges from seagoing vessels. The Act of Congress grants the Secretary of War authority to evaluate the oil volume discharge from a vessel while assessing if coastal navigable waters have a potential toxicity posing a deleterious condition for human health and seafood contamination. The 1924 United States statute provides judicial penalties encompassing civil and criminal punishment for violations of the prescribed regulations as stated in the Act.

The legislation was passed by the 68th United States Congressional session and confirmed as a federal law by the 29th President of the United States Warren G. Harding on June 7, 1924.

Revenue Act of 1924

The United States Revenue Act of 1924 (43 Stat. 253) (June 2, 1924), also known as the Mellon tax bill cut federal tax rates and established the U.S. Board of Tax Appeals, which was later renamed the United States Tax Court in 1942. The bill was named after U.S. Secretary of the Treasury Andrew Mellon.

The Revenue Act was applicable to incomes for 1924.The bottom rate, on income under $4,000, fell from 1.5% to 1.125% (both rates are after reduction by the "earned income credit").

A parallel act, the Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 (43 Stat. 253, Ch. 233 (1924)), granted all non-citizen resident Indians citizenship. Thus the Revenue Act declared that there were no longer any "Indians, not taxed" to be not counted for purposes of United States Congressional apportionment.

President Calvin Coolidge signed the bill into law.

Both a normal Tax and a surtax were levied against the net income of individuals, as shown in the following table:

Exemption of $1,000 for single filers and $2,500 for married couples and heads of family. A $400 exemption for each dependent under 18.

Rogers Act

The Rogers Act of 1924, often referred to as the Foreign Service Act of 1924, is the legislation that merged the United States diplomatic and consular services into the United States Foreign Service. It defined a personnel system under which the United States Secretary of State is authorized to assign and rotate diplomats abroad. It merged the low-paid high prestige diplomatic service with the higher paid, middle class consul service. The act provided a merit-based career path, with guaranteed rotations and better pay.

World War Adjusted Compensation Act

The World War Adjusted Compensation Act, or Bonus Act, was a United States federal law passed on May 19, 1924, that granted a benefit to veterans of American military service in World War I.

United States Congresses (and year convened)

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