66th United States Congress

The Sixty-sixth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, comprising the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, DC from March 4, 1919, to March 4, 1921, during the last two years of Woodrow Wilson's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Thirteenth Census of the United States in 1910. Both chambers had a Republican majority.

66th United States Congress
65th ←
→ 67th
March 4, 1919 – March 4, 1921
Senate PresidentThomas R. Marshall (D)
Senate President pro temAlbert B. Cummins (R)
House SpeakerFrederick H. Gillett (R)
Members96 senators
435 members of the House
5 non-voting delegates
Senate MajorityRepublican
House MajorityRepublican
1st: May 19, 1919 – November 19, 1919
2nd: December 1, 1919 – June 5, 1920
3rd: December 6, 1920 – March 3, 1921

Major Legislation

  • June 30, 1919: Navy Appropriations Act of 1919
  • June 30, 1919: Hastings Amendment
  • July 11, 1919: Anti-Lobbying Act of 1919
  • July 11, 1919: Army Appropriations Act of 1919
  • July 19, 1919: Sundry Civil Expenses Appropriations Act
  • October 18, 1919: National Prohibition Act (Volstead Act), ch. 85, 41 Stat. 305
  • October 22, 1919: Underground Water Act of 1919
  • October 29, 1919: National Motor Vehicle Theft Act (Dyer Act)
  • November 4, 1919: Deficiency Act of 1919
  • November 6, 1919: Indian Soldier Act of 1919
  • December 24, 1919: Edge Act of 1919
  • February 25, 1920: Oil Leasing Act of 1920
  • February 25, 1920: Mineral Leasing Act of 1920 (Smoot-Sinnot Act), ch. 85, 41 Stat. 437
  • February 25, 1920: Pipeline Rights-of-Way Act
  • February 25, 1920: Sale of Water For Miscellaneous Purposes Act
  • February 28, 1920: Esch-Cummins Act, Pub.L. 66–152, 41 Stat. 456
  • March 9, 1920: Suits in Admiralty Act of 1920
  • March 15, 1920: Military Surplus Act of 1920 (Kahn-Wadsworth Act)
  • March 30, 1920: Death on the High Seas Act of 1920
  • April 13, 1920: Phelan Act of 1920
  • May 1, 1920: Fuller Act of 1920
  • May 10, 1920: Deportation Act of 1920
  • May 18, 1920: Kinkaid Act of 1920
  • May 20, 1920: Sale of Surplus Improved Public Lands Act
  • May 22, 1920: Civil Service Retirement Act of 1920
  • May 29, 1920: Independent Treasury Act of 1920
  • June 2, 1920: Industry Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1920 (Smith-Bankhead Act)
  • June 2, 1920: Civilian Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1920 (Smith-Fess Act)
  • June 2, 1920: National Park Criminal Jurisdiction Act
  • June 4, 1920: National Defense Act of 1920 (Kahn Act)
  • June 5, 1920: Sills Act of 1920
  • June 5, 1920: Merchant Marine Act of 1920 (Jones Act)
  • June 5, 1920: Women's Bureau Act of 1920
  • June 5, 1920: Ship Mortgage Act of 1920
  • June 5, 1920: River and Harbors Act of 1920
  • June 5, 1920: Federal Water Power Act of 1920 (Esch Act)
  • January 4, 1921: War Finance Corporation Act of 1921
  • March 3, 1921: Patent Act of 1921 (Nolan Act)
  • March 3, 1921: Federal Water Power Act Amendment (Jones-Esch Act)

Major events

A brief special session was called by President Wilson in March 1919, because of a filibuster that had successfully blocked appropriations bills needed to fund day-to-day government operations.[1]

Constitutional amendments


Party summary


(shading shows control)
Total Vacant
End of the previous congress 49 47 96 0
Begin 47 49 96 0
End 46 50
Final voting share 47.9% 52.1%
Beginning of the next congress 37 59 96 0

House of Representatives

TOTAL members: 435



Majority (Republican) leadership

Minority (Democratic) leadership

House of Representatives

Majority (Republican) leadership

Minority (Democratic) leadership


Skip to House of Representatives, below


In this Congress, Class 3 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1920; Class 1 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1922; and Class 2 meant their term began in this Congress, requiring reelection in 1924.

FordNewberyVoteCommittee 1921
Senate Elections Committee engaged in the counting of the Ford-Newberry vote. Tellers in the foreground of the picture are Senators Walter E. Edge and Selden P. Spencer.

House of Representatives

The names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers.

66 us house membership
House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80+% to 100% Democratic
  80+% to 100% Republican
  60+% to 80% Democratic
  60+% to 80% Republican
  Up to 60% Democratic
  Up to 60% Republican

Changes in membership

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.


  • replacements: 5
  • deaths: 2
  • resignations: 2
  • vacancy: 1
  • Total seats with changes: 6
State Senator Reason for Vacancy Successor Date of Successor's Installation
Thomas S. Martin (D) Died November 12, 1919. Successor was appointed and subsequently elected. Carter Glass (D) February 2, 1920
John H. Bankhead (D) Died March 1, 1920. Successor was appointed. B. B. Comer (D) March 5, 1920
B. B. Comer (D) Successor was elected. J. Thomas Heflin (D) November 3, 1920
Warren G. Harding (R) Resigned January 13, 1921, after being elected President of the United States.
Successor was appointed having already been elected to the next term.
Frank B. Willis (R) January 14, 1921
John F. Nugent (D) Resigned January 14, 1921, after losing election and subsequently being appointed to the Federal Trade Commission.
Successor was appointed having already been elected to the next term..
Frank R. Gooding (R) January 15, 1921

House of Representatives

  • replacements: 23
  • deaths: 13
  • resignations: 10
  • contested elections: 3
  • Total seats with changes: 32
District Vacator Reason for Vacancy Successor
Texas 12th Vacant Rep. James C. Wilson died during previous congress Fritz G. Lanham (D) April 19, 1919
Virginia 8th Vacant Rep. Charles C. Carlin resigned during previous congress R. Walton Moore (D) April 19, 1919
Kentucky 8th Vacant Rep. Harvey Helm died during previous congress King Swope (R) August 1, 1919
Louisiana 1st Albert Estopinal (D) Died April 28, 1919 James O'Connor (D) June 5, 1919
Alaska Territory Charles A. Sulzer (D) Died April 28, 1919 George B. Grigsby (D) June 30, 1920
Alabama 7th John L. Burnett (D) Died May 13, 1919 Lilius Bratton Rainey (D) September 30, 1919
Minnesota 4th Carl Van Dyke (D) Died May 20, 1919 Oscar Keller (R) July 1, 1919
South Carolina 6th J. Willard Ragsdale (D) Died July 23, 1919 Philip H. Stoll (D) October 7, 1919
South Carolina 7th Asbury F. Lever (D) Resigned August 1, 1919, after becoming member of the Federal Farm Loan Board Edward C. Mann (D) October 7, 1919
Oklahoma 5th Joseph B. Thompson (D) Died September 18, 1919 John W. Harreld (R) November 8, 1919
Massachusetts 10th John F. Fitzgerald (D) Lost contested election October 23, 1919 Peter F. Tague (D) October 23, 1919
North Carolina 9th Edwin Y. Webb (D) Resigned November 10, 1919, after being appointed United States District Court for the Western District of North Carolina Clyde R. Hoey (D) December 16, 1919
Wisconsin 5th Victor L. Berger (Socialist) Ousted November 10, 1919, due to his conviction under the Espionage Act of 1917 Seat remained vacant until next Congress
Missouri 3rd Joshua W. Alexander (D) Resigned December 15, 1919, after being appointed United States Secretary of Commerce Jacob L. Milligan (D) February 14, 1920
Virginia 4th Walter A. Watson (D) Died December 24, 1919 Patrick H. Drewry (D) April 27, 1920
New York 10th Reuben L. Haskell (R) Resigned December 31, 1919 Lester D. Volk (R) November 2, 1920
New York 14th Fiorello H. La Guardia (R) Resigned December 31, 1919, after being elected President of the New York City Board of Aldermen Nathan D. Perlman (R) November 2, 1920
Pennsylvania 3rd J. Hampton Moore (R) Resigned January 4, 1920, after being elected Mayor of Philadelphia Harry C. Ransley (R) November 2, 1920
Virginia 5th Edward W. Saunders (D) Resigned February 29, 1920, after being elected judge of State Supreme Court of Appeals Rorer A. James (D) June 1, 1920
Philippines At-large Teodoro R. Yangco Term expired March 3, 1920 Isauro Gabaldon March 4, 1920
New Jersey 1st William J. Browning (R) Died March 24, 1920 Francis F. Patterson, Jr. (R) November 2, 1920
Michigan 13th Charles A. Nichols (R) Died April 25, 1920 Clarence J. McLeod (R) November 2, 1920
New York 26th Edmund Platt (R) Resigned June 7, 1920, after being appointed to the Federal Reserve Board Hamilton Fish III (R) November 2, 1920
Oklahoma 8th Dick T. Morgan (R) Died July 4, 1920 Charles Swindall (R) November 2, 1920
Alabama 5th J. Thomas Heflin (D) Resigned November 1, 1920, after being elected to the U.S. Senate William B. Bowling (D) December 14, 1920
Pennsylvania At-large Mahlon M. Garland (R) Died November 19, 1920 Seat remained vacant until next Congress
New York 3rd John MacCrate (R) Resigned December 30, 1920, after being elected justice to the Supreme Court of the State of New York Seat remained vacant until next Congress
Massachusetts 9th Alvan T. Fuller (R) Resigned January 5, 1921, after being elected Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts Seat remained vacant until next Congress
Missouri 4th Charles F. Booher (D) Died January 21, 1921 Seat remained vacant until next Congress
Alabama 4th Fred L. Blackmon (D) Died February 8, 1921 Seat remained vacant until next Congress
Pennsylvania 10th Patrick McLane (D) Lost contested election February 25, 1921 John R. Farr (R) February 25, 1921
Alaska Territory George B. Grigsby (D) Lost contested election March 1, 1921 James Wickersham (R) March 1, 1921


Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members (House and Senate) of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link (6 links), in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate, House (Standing with Subcommittees, Select and Special) and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.


House of Representatives

Joint committees

  • Conditions of Indian Tribes (Special)
  • Disposition of (Useless) Executive Papers
  • High Cost of Living
  • Pacific Coast Naval Bases
  • Postal Salaries
  • Postal Service
  • Reclassification of Salaries
  • Reorganization
  • Reorganization of the Administrative Branch of the Government
  • To Investigate the System of Shortime Rural Credits




House of Representatives

See also


  1. ^ The official Senate website provides the full story of this filibuster as part of a biography of Charles P. Higgins[1], the Senate Sergeant-at-Arms who was the only Democrat to fill that office in a space of almost forty years.
  2. ^ Senator Augustus O. Stanley (D-Kentucky) was elected but chose not to take his seat until May 19, 1919, preferring to continue his term as Governor of Kentucky. However, Stanley was duly elected and qualified and was therefore a Senator despite not taking his seat for two months.
1918 United States elections

The 1918 United States elections elected the 66th United States Congress, and took place in the middle of Democratic President Woodrow Wilson's second term. The election was held during the Fourth Party System. It was the lone election to take place during America's involvement in World War I. Republicans won control of both chambers of Congress for the first time since the 1908 election.

In an example of the six-year itch phenomenon, Republicans took complete control of Congress from the Democrats. The Republicans won large gains in the House, taking 25 seats and ending coalition control of the chamber. In the Senate, Republicans gained 5 seats, taking control of the chamber by a slim majority.The elections were a major defeat for progressives and Wilson's foreign policy agenda, and foreshadowed the Republican victory in the 1920 election. Republicans ran against the expanded war-time government and the Fourteen Points, especially Wilson's proposal for the League of Nations. The Republican victory left them in control of both houses of Congress until the 1930 election.

1919 South Carolina's 6th congressional district special election

The 1919 South Carolina 6th congressional district special election was held on October 7, 1919, to select a Representative for the 6th congressional district to serve out the remainder of the term for the 66th Congress. The special election resulted from the death of Representative J. Willard Ragsdale on July 23, 1919. Philip H. Stoll, a former solicitor and World War I veteran, won the Democratic primary and was unopposed in the general election.

1919 South Carolina's 7th congressional district special election

The 1919 South Carolina 7th congressional district special election was held on October 7, 1919 to select a Representative for the 7th congressional district to serve out the remainder of the term for the 66th Congress. The special election resulted from the resignation of Representative Asbury Francis Lever on August 1, 1919. Edward C. Mann won the Democratic primary and was unopposed in the general election.

1920 State of the Union Address

The 1920 State of the Union Address was written by the 28th President of the United States, Woodrow Wilson, on Tuesday, December 7, 1920. It was his last address to both houses of the 66th United States Congress. Warren Harding would become president on Friday, March 4, 1921. He said, "By this faith, and by this faith alone, can the world be lifted out of its present confusion and despair. It was this faith which prevailed over the wicked force of Germany. You will remember that the beginning of the end of the war came when the German people found themselves face to face with the conscience of the world and realized that right was everywhere arrayed against the wrong that their government was attempting to perpetrate." He is referring to how the United States contributed to the victory of World War I.

Edge Act

The Edge Act is a 1919 amendment to the United States Federal Reserve Act of 1913, codified at 12 U.S.C. §§ 611–631, which allows national banks to engage in international banking through subsidiaries chartered by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. The act is named after Walter Evans Edge, a U.S. Senator from New Jersey who sponsored the original legislation for these types of subsidiaries. The impetus for the act was to give U.S. firms more flexibility to compete with foreign firms.

Esch–Cummins Act

The Transportation Act, 1920, commonly known as the Esch–Cummins Act, was a United States federal law that returned railroads to private operation after World War I, with much regulation. It also officially encouraged private consolidation of railroads and mandated that the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) ensure their profitability.

Fort Logan H. Roots

Fort Logan H. Roots (usually referred to simply as Fort Roots) was a military base located in North Little Rock, Arkansas, set on a high promontory overlooking the Arkansas River. The land was traded to the Federal Government in 1892 in exchange for the property now known as MacArthur Park, in Little Rock, which had been a military arsenal since the 1830s when Arkansas was a territory. The base was named for Congressman Logan H. Roots in recognition for his work in the negotiations.

The 66th United States Congress transferred Fort Roots to the Public Health Service department on March 4, 1921, for conversion to a veterans hospital for neuropsychiatric disorders. On June 10, 1983, a newly constructed hospital building was dedicated on the existing property. The main hospital building was formally named the Eugene J. Towbin Healthcare Center in May 1996 in honor of Eugene J. Towbin, M.D., Ph.D., in recognition of his 40-year career at the VA Medical Center. The Center provides long-term, rehabilitative care for eligible veterans.

Although four of the existing hospital structures were demolished, Fort Roots (as the campus is still known) retained many of its original military buildings and an 11-acre (4.5 ha) "parade ground" in the center of the original post. Many of the historic buildings flanking the former parade ground were listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1974 in recognition of the area's military history, and virtually the entire campus was listed in 2013 in recognition of its significance as a Veterans Administration medical facility.

Frederick R. Lehlbach

Frederick Reimold Lehlbach (January 31, 1876 – August 4, 1937) was an American lawyer and politician. As a Republican, Lehlbach served as the U.S. Representative for New Jersey's 10th congressional district from 1915 to 1933 and as the representative from New Jersey's 12th congressional district from 1933 to 1937. Lehlbach was also the nephew of Herman Lehlbach, a former U.S. Representative from New Jersey's 6th congressional district who served from 1885 to 1891.

Harry C. Ransley

Harry Clay Ransley (February 5, 1863 – November 7, 1941) was a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives from Pennsylvania.

Harry Ransley was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He served in the Pennsylvania State House of Representatives from 1891 to 1894. He was a member of the Select Council of Philadelphia for sixteen years and president for eight years. He was a delegate to the 1912 Republican National Convention. He served as sheriff of Philadelphia County from 1916 to 1920. He was chairman of the Republican city committee 1916 to 1919.

He was elected in 1920 as a Republican to the 66th United States Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of J. Hampton Moore. He was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1936.

John MacCrate

John MacCrate (March 29, 1885 in Dumbarton, Scotland – June 9, 1976 in Brooklyn, New York) was a lawyer, a politician, serving as a U.S. Representative from New York, and a justice of the New York Supreme Court.

He immigrated with his mother to the United States in 1893 and settled in the Greenpoint neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York, where his father had provided a home. He attended the public schools and the Commercial High School in Brooklyn. He graduated from the law department of New York University in 1906 and was admitted to the bar the same year and commenced practice in New York City.

He was a delegate to the Republican National Conventions in 1916 and 1920. He was nominated in the primaries by both the Republican and Democratic Parties and was elected as a Republican to the 66th United States Congress, and served from March 4, 1919 to December 30, 1920, when he resigned.

He was elected justice of the Supreme Court of the State of New York in 1920 and reelected in 1934 and 1948. He served in the appellate division of the Supreme Court until December 31, 1955, when he reached age limit. He was official referee, New York State Supreme Court, in 1956, 1957, and to June 1958.

MacCrate was for many years a parishioner at the Greenpoint Methodist Church. He died in Brooklyn, New York, June 9, 1976 and was interred in Mount Olivet Cemetery, Queens, New York.

Joseph Rowan

Joseph Rowan (September 8, 1870 – August 3, 1930) was a U.S. Representative from New York.

Lester D. Volk

Lester David Volk (September 17, 1884 – April 30, 1962) was an American physician, lawyer and politician from New York.

List of United States Senators in the 66th Congress by seniority

This is a complete list of members of the United States Senate during the 66th United States Congress listed by seniority, from March 4, 1919, to March 3, 1921.

Order of service is based on the commencement of the senator's first term. Behind this is former service as a senator (only giving the senator seniority within his or her new incoming class), service as vice president, a House member, a cabinet secretary, or a governor of a state. The final factor is the population of the senator's state.Senators who were sworn in during the middle of the Congress (up until the last senator who was not sworn in early after winning the November 1920 election) are listed at the end of the list with no number.

List of members of the United States House of Representatives in the 66th Congress by seniority

This is a complete list of members of the United States House of Representatives during the 66th United States Congress listed by seniority. For the most part, representatives are ranked by the beginning of their terms in office.As an historical article, the districts and party affiliations listed reflect those during the 66th Congress (March 4, 1919 – March 3, 1921). Seats and party affiliations on similar lists for other Congresses will be different for certain members.

This article describes the criteria for seniority in the House of Representatives and sets out the list of members by seniority. It is prepared on the basis of the interpretation of seniority applied to the House of Representatives in the current congress. In the absence of information to the contrary, it is presumed that the twenty-first-century practice is identical to the seniority customs used during the 66th Congress.

Mineral Leasing Act of 1920

The Mineral Leasing Act of 1920 30 U.S.C. § 181 et seq. is a United States federal law that authorizes and governs leasing of public lands for developing deposits of coal, petroleum, natural gas and other hydrocarbons, in addition to phosphates, sodium, sulfur, and potassium in the United States. Previous to the act, these materials were subject to mining claims under the General Mining Act of 1872.

Pittman Underground Water Act

The Pittman Underground Water Act (introduced as S. 9) was an Act of Congress, that was approved on October 22, 1919 and was repealed on August 11, 1964. The public law gave the Secretary of the Interior the power to hand out permits to American citizens and associations to drill for and look for groundwater on public lands in Nevada. In addition, the law gave the Secretary the power to give patents to permittees who found enough groundwater to sustain a farm. The law was supposed to stimulate agriculture in Nevada by supporting the development of artesian waters, since it was thought that the absence of surface water undermined the growth of the agricultural sector in Nevada.The Pittman Underground Water Act was applied in BedRoc Limited, LLC v. United States, a 2004 decision by the United States Supreme Court. The majority of the Court argued that sand and gravel were no "valuable minerals" that were reserved to the government of the United States under the Pittman Underground Water Act and reversed the decision of the Ninth Circuit.

Volstead Act

The National Prohibition Act, known informally as the Volstead Act, was enacted to carry out the intent of the 18th Amendment (ratified January 1919), which established prohibition in the United States. The Anti-Saloon League's Wayne Wheeler conceived and drafted the bill, which was named for Andrew Volstead, Chairman of the House Judiciary Committee, who managed the legislation.

William Chester Lankford

William Chester Lankford (December 7, 1877 – December 10, 1964) was an American politician, judge and lawyer.

Lankford was born in the Camp Creek Community of Clinch County, Georgia in 1874 and graduated from the Jasper Normal Institute in Jasper, Florida, in 1897 and the Georgia Normal College and Business Institute in Abbeville, Georgia, in 1900. He then studied law at the University of Georgia School of Law and graduated with a Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.) degree in 1901.

After moving to Douglas, Georgia, in 1901, Lankford began the practice of law. In 1906, he was elected Mayor of Douglas and became a member of the city Board of Education the following year. He remained on the board until 1918. On January 1, 1908, Lankford became a judge of the city court. He resigned that post on May 1, 1916, to run an unsuccessful campaign that year for the United States House of Representatives. Lankford ran again for the 66th United States Congress in 1918 and was elected as a Democrat to represent Georgia's 11th congressional district. He won reelection to that seat six additional terms before losing in 1932.

Following his congressional service, Lankford returned to practicing law. He worked in the General Accounting Office in Washington, D.C. from January 1935 through October 1942. On December 10, 1964, he died in Twin Lakes, Georgia, and was buried in Douglas Cemetery in the city of Douglas.

William Henry Hill (New York)

William Henry Hill (March 23, 1876 in Plains, Luzerne County, Pennsylvania – July 24, 1972 in Binghamton, Broome County, New York) was an American politician from New York.

United States Congresses (and year convened)

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