66th United States Congress

The Sixty-sixth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, comprising the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, DC from March 4, 1919, to March 4, 1921, during the last two years of Woodrow Wilson's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Thirteenth Census of the United States in 1910. Both chambers had a Republican majority.

66th United States Congress
65th ←
→ 67th
USCapitol1906
March 4, 1919 – March 4, 1921
Senate President Thomas R. Marshall (D)
Senate Pres. pro tem Albert B. Cummins (R)
House Speaker Frederick H. Gillett (R)
Members 96 senators
435 representatives
5 non-voting delegates
Senate Majority Republican
House Majority Republican
Sessions
1st: May 19, 1919 – November 19, 1919
2nd: December 1, 1919 – June 5, 1920
3rd: December 6, 1920 – March 3, 1921

Major Legislation

  • June 30, 1919: Navy Appropriations Act of 1919
  • June 30, 1919: Hastings Amendment
  • July 11, 1919: Anti-Lobbying Act of 1919
  • July 11, 1919: Army Appropriations Act of 1919
  • July 19, 1919: Sundry Civil Expenses Appropriations Act
  • October 18, 1919: National Prohibition Act (Volstead Act), ch. 85, 41 Stat. 305
  • October 22, 1919: Underground Water Act of 1919
  • October 29, 1919: National Motor Vehicle Theft Act (Dyer Act)
  • November 4, 1919: Deficiency Act of 1919
  • November 6, 1919: Indian Soldier Act of 1919
  • December 24, 1919: Edge Act of 1919
  • February 25, 1920: Oil Leasing Act of 1920
  • February 25, 1920: Mineral Leasing Act of 1920 (Smoot-Sinnot Act), ch. 85, 41 Stat. 437
  • February 25, 1920: Pipeline Rights-of-Way Act
  • February 25, 1920: Sale of Water For Miscellaneous Purposes Act
  • February 28, 1920: Esch-Cummins Act, Pub.L. 66–152, 41 Stat. 456
  • March 9, 1920: Suits in Admiralty Act of 1920
  • March 15, 1920: Military Surplus Act of 1920 (Kahn-Wadsworth Act)
  • March 30, 1920: Death on the High Seas Act of 1920
  • April 13, 1920: Phelan Act of 1920
  • May 1, 1920: Fuller Act of 1920
  • May 10, 1920: Deportation Act of 1920
  • May 18, 1920: Kinkaid Act of 1920
  • May 20, 1920: Sale of Surplus Improved Public Lands Act
  • May 22, 1920: Civil Service Retirement Act of 1920
  • May 29, 1920: Independent Treasury Act of 1920
  • June 2, 1920: Industry Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1920 (Smith-Bankhead Act)
  • June 2, 1920: Civilian Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1920 (Smith-Fess Act)
  • June 2, 1920: National Park Criminal Jurisdiction Act
  • June 4, 1920: National Defense Act of 1920 (Kahn Act)
  • June 5, 1920: Sills Act of 1920
  • June 5, 1920: Merchant Marine Act of 1920 (Jones Act)
  • June 5, 1920: Women's Bureau Act of 1920
  • June 5, 1920: Ship Mortgage Act of 1920
  • June 5, 1920: River and Harbors Act of 1920
  • June 5, 1920: Federal Water Power Act of 1920 (Esch Act)
  • January 4, 1921: War Finance Corporation Act of 1921
  • March 3, 1921: Patent Act of 1921 (Nolan Act)
  • March 3, 1921: Federal Water Power Act Amendment (Jones-Esch Act)

Major events

A brief special session was called by President Wilson in March 1919, because of a filibuster that had successfully blocked appropriations bills needed to fund day-to-day government operations.[1]

Constitutional amendments

Treaties

Party summary

Senate

Party
(shading shows control)
Total Vacant
Democratic
(D)
Republican
(R)
End of the previous congress 49 47 96 0
Begin 47 49 96 0
End 46 50
Final voting share 47.9% 52.1%
Beginning of the next congress 37 59 96 0

House of Representatives

TOTAL members: 435

Leadership

Senate

Majority (Republican) leadership

Minority (Democratic) leadership

House of Representatives

Majority (Republican) leadership

Minority (Democratic) leadership

Members

Skip to House of Representatives, below

Senate

In this Congress, Class 3 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1920; Class 1 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1922; and Class 2 meant their term began in this Congress, requiring reelection in 1924.

FordNewberyVoteCommittee 1921
Senate Elections Committee engaged in the counting of the Ford-Newberry vote. Tellers in the foreground of the picture are Senators Walter E. Edge and Selden P. Spencer.

House of Representatives

The names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers.

66 us house membership
House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80+% to 100% Democratic
  80+% to 100% Republican
  60+% to 80% Democratic
  60+% to 80% Republican
  Up to 60% Democratic
  Up to 60% Republican

Changes in membership

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.

Senate

  • replacements: 5
  • deaths: 2
  • resignations: 2
  • vacancy: 1
  • Total seats with changes: 6
State Senator Reason for Vacancy Successor Date of Successor's Installation
Virginia
(2)
Thomas S. Martin (D) Died November 12, 1919. Successor was appointed and subsequently elected. Carter Glass (D) February 2, 1920
Alabama
(2)
John H. Bankhead (D) Died March 1, 1920. Successor was appointed. B. B. Comer (D) March 5, 1920
Alabama
(2)
B. B. Comer (D) Successor was elected. J. Thomas Heflin (D) November 3, 1920
Ohio
(3)
Warren G. Harding (R) Resigned January 13, 1921, after being elected President of the United States.
Successor was appointed having already been elected to the next term.
Frank B. Willis (R) January 14, 1921
Idaho
(3)
John F. Nugent (D) Resigned January 14, 1921, after losing election and subsequently being appointed to the Federal Trade Commission.
Successor was appointed having already been elected to the next term..
Frank R. Gooding (R) January 15, 1921

House of Representatives

  • replacements: 23
  • deaths: 13
  • resignations: 10
  • contested elections: 3
  • Total seats with changes: 32
District Vacator Reason for Vacancy Successor
Texas 12th Vacant Rep. James C. Wilson died during previous congress Fritz G. Lanham (D) April 19, 1919
Virginia 8th Vacant Rep. Charles C. Carlin resigned during previous congress R. Walton Moore (D) April 19, 1919
Kentucky 8th Vacant Rep. Harvey Helm died during previous congress King Swope (R) August 1, 1919
Louisiana 1st Albert Estopinal (D) Died April 28, 1919 James O'Connor (D) June 5, 1919
Alaska Territory Charles A. Sulzer (D) Died April 28, 1919 George B. Grigsby (D) June 30, 1920
Alabama 7th John L. Burnett (D) Died May 13, 1919 Lilius Bratton Rainey (D) September 30, 1919
Minnesota 4th Carl Van Dyke (D) Died May 20, 1919 Oscar Keller (R) July 1, 1919
South Carolina 6th J. Willard Ragsdale (D) Died July 23, 1919 Philip H. Stoll (D) October 7, 1919
South Carolina 7th Asbury F. Lever (D) Resigned August 1, 1919, after becoming member of the Federal Farm Loan Board Edward C. Mann (D) October 7, 1919
Oklahoma 5th Joseph B. Thompson (D) Died September 18, 1919 John W. Harreld (R) November 8, 1919
Massachusetts 10th John F. Fitzgerald (D) Lost contested election October 23, 1919 Peter F. Tague (D) October 23, 1919
North Carolina 9th Edwin Y. Webb (D) Resigned November 10, 1919, after being appointed United States District Court for the Western District of North Carolina Clyde R. Hoey (D) December 16, 1919
Wisconsin 5th Victor L. Berger (Socialist) Ousted November 10, 1919, due to his conviction under the Espionage Act of 1917 Seat remained vacant until next Congress
Missouri 3rd Joshua W. Alexander (D) Resigned December 15, 1919, after being appointed United States Secretary of Commerce Jacob L. Milligan (D) February 14, 1920
Virginia 4th Walter A. Watson (D) Died December 24, 1919 Patrick H. Drewry (D) April 27, 1920
New York 10th Reuben L. Haskell (R) Resigned December 31, 1919 Lester D. Volk (R) November 2, 1920
New York 14th Fiorello H. La Guardia (R) Resigned December 31, 1919, after being elected President of the New York City Board of Aldermen Nathan D. Perlman (R) November 2, 1920
Pennsylvania 3rd J. Hampton Moore (R) Resigned January 4, 1920, after being elected Mayor of Philadelphia Harry C. Ransley (R) November 2, 1920
Virginia 5th Edward W. Saunders (D) Resigned February 29, 1920, after being elected judge of State Supreme Court of Appeals Rorer A. James (D) June 1, 1920
Philippines At-large Teodoro R. Yangco Term expired March 3, 1920 Isauro Gabaldon March 4, 1920
New Jersey 1st William J. Browning (R) Died March 24, 1920 Francis F. Patterson, Jr. (R) November 2, 1920
Michigan 13th Charles A. Nichols (R) Died April 25, 1920 Clarence J. McLeod (R) November 2, 1920
New York 26th Edmund Platt (R) Resigned June 7, 1920, after being appointed to the Federal Reserve Board Hamilton Fish III (R) November 2, 1920
Oklahoma 8th Dick T. Morgan (R) Died July 4, 1920 Charles Swindall (R) November 2, 1920
Alabama 5th J. Thomas Heflin (D) Resigned November 1, 1920, after being elected to the U.S. Senate William B. Bowling (D) December 14, 1920
Pennsylvania At-large Mahlon M. Garland (R) Died November 19, 1920 Seat remained vacant until next Congress
New York 3rd John MacCrate (R) Resigned December 30, 1920, after being elected justice to the Supreme Court of the State of New York Seat remained vacant until next Congress
Massachusetts 9th Alvan T. Fuller (R) Resigned January 5, 1921, after being elected Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts Seat remained vacant until next Congress
Missouri 4th Charles F. Booher (D) Died January 21, 1921 Seat remained vacant until next Congress
Alabama 4th Fred L. Blackmon (D) Died February 8, 1921 Seat remained vacant until next Congress
Pennsylvania 10th Patrick McLane (D) Lost contested election February 25, 1921 John R. Farr (R) February 25, 1921
Alaska Territory George B. Grigsby (D) Lost contested election March 1, 1921 James Wickersham (R) March 1, 1921

Committees

Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members (House and Senate) of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link (6 links), in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate, House (Standing with Subcommittees, Select and Special) and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.

Senate

House of Representatives

Joint committees

  • Conditions of Indian Tribes (Special)
  • Disposition of (Useless) Executive Papers
  • High Cost of Living
  • Pacific Coast Naval Bases
  • Postal Salaries
  • Postal Service
  • Reclassification of Salaries
  • Reorganization
  • Reorganization of the Administrative Branch of the Government
  • To Investigate the System of Shortime Rural Credits

Caucuses

Employees

Senate

House of Representatives

See also

References

  1. ^ The official Senate website provides the full story of this filibuster as part of a biography of Charles P. Higgins[1], the Senate Sergeant-at-Arms who was the only Democrat to fill that office in a space of almost forty years.
  2. ^ Senator Augustus O. Stanley (D-Kentucky) was elected but chose not to take his seat until May 19, 1919, preferring to continue his term as Governor of Kentucky. However, Stanley was duly elected and qualified and was therefore a Senator despite not taking his seat for two months.

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