# 657

Year 657 (DCLVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. The denomination 657 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Millennium: 1st millennium
657 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar657
DCLVII
Ab urbe condita1410
Armenian calendar106
ԹՎ ՃԶ
Assyrian calendar5407
Balinese saka calendar578–579
Bengali calendar64
Berber calendar1607
Buddhist calendar1201
Burmese calendar19
Byzantine calendar6165–6166
Chinese calendar丙辰(Fire Dragon)
3353 or 3293
— to —

3354 or 3294
Coptic calendar373–374
Discordian calendar1823
Ethiopian calendar649–650
Hebrew calendar4417–4418
Hindu calendars
- Vikram Samvat713–714
- Shaka Samvat578–579
- Kali Yuga3757–3758
Holocene calendar10657
Iranian calendar35–36
Islamic calendar36–37
Japanese calendarN/A
Javanese calendar548–549
Julian calendar657
DCLVII
Korean calendar2990
Minguo calendar1255 before ROC

Nanakshahi calendar−811
Seleucid era968/969 AG
Thai solar calendar1199–1200
Tibetan calendar阳火龙年
(male Fire-Dragon)
783 or 402 or −370
— to —

(female Fire-Snake)
784 or 403 or −369
Pope Vitalian (657–672)

## Deaths

600 (number)

600 (six hundred) is the natural number following 599 and preceding 601.

Area codes 714 and 657

Area code 714 is a California telephone area code that was split from area code 213 as a flash-cut in 1951. Area code 657 is an overlay of 714 that became effective on September 23, 2008. It encompasses northern Orange County, a portion of Los Angeles County, and the Sleepy Hollow and Carbon Canyon areas of Chino Hills in San Bernardino County. Area code 714 originates at Westminster Blvd East Runs down to High Rise Ave.

Cities in the 657 and 714 area codes include Tustin, Placentia, Anaheim, Buena Park, Costa Mesa (unique because it is split between the 714/657 and 949 area codes, at Wilson Street and along Newport Boulevard), Cypress, Fountain Valley, Fullerton, Orange, Garden Grove, Santa Ana, Villa Park, Yorba Linda, portions of La Habra, and most of Brea, and Huntington Beach.

The 714 area code once included most of Southern California, generally south and east of Los Angeles, extending to the Arizona and Nevada state lines to the east, and south as far as the Mexican border (what is now area codes 442/760, 619, 858, 909 and 951). It experienced several splits, the first of which moved San Diego County, Imperial County and the desert areas of Riverside and San Bernardino counties into area code 619 on November 5, 1982. It was again split, moving eastern Los Angeles and the Inland Empire areas of San Bernardino and Riverside counties into area code 909 on November 14, 1992. On April 18, 1998, the southern cities of Orange County were split from 714, creating area code 949.

The two area codes now cover northern and western Orange County (except for portions of La Habra and all of Seal Beach, Los Alamitos, the far northwestern portion of Brea, and the western portions of La Palma, which have always been in the same area code as Long Beach—currently the 562 area code). This is probably because at the time those splits first occurred, while most cities in Southern California were provided primary local telephone service from what was then Pacific Bell (now AT&T), the cities listed above were served by GTE (now Verizon) which is the primary telephone provider for Long Beach.

Today, five cities "straddle" the 657/714 and 949 area codes: Costa Mesa, Irvine, Santa Ana, Tustin, and Newport Beach.

Clovis II

Clovis II (633 – 657) succeeded his father Dagobert I in 639 as King of Neustria and Burgundy. His brother Sigebert III had been King of Austrasia since 634. He was initially under the regency of his mother Nanthild until her death in her early thirties in 642. This death allowed him to fall under the influence of the secular magnates, who reduced the royal power in their own favour; first Aega, and then Erchinoald.

Clovis' wife, Balthild, whose Anglo-Saxon origins are now considered doubtful, was sold into slavery in Gaul. She had been owned by Clovis' mayor of the palace, Erchinoald, who gave her to him to garner royal favour. She bore him three sons who all became kings after his death. The eldest, Chlothar, succeeded him and his second eldest, Childeric, was placed on the Austrasian throne by Ebroin while Clovis was still alive. The youngest, Theuderic, succeeded Childeric in Neustria and eventually became the sole king of the Franks.

Clovis was a minor for almost the whole of his reign. He is sometimes regarded as king of Austrasia during the interval 656–57 when Childebert the Adopted had usurped the throne. He is often regarded as an early roi fainéant. Medieval monks deemed him insane and attribute "the stupidity of his descendants" to that cause. Noted Belgian historian Henri Pirenne stated that Clovis "died insane."Clovis II was buried in Saint Denis Basilica, Paris.

Filkins and Broughton Poggs

Filkins and Broughton Poggs is a civil parish in West Oxfordshire, on the Oxfordshire county boundary with Gloucestershire. The parish includes the villages of Filkins (Ordnance Survey grid reference SP238043) and Broughton Poggs (OS grid ref. SP235038), which were separate civil parishes until they were merged in 1954.

German submarine U-657

German submarine U-657 was a Type VIIC U-boat built for Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine for service during World War II.

She was laid down on 5 October 1940 by Howaldtswerke, Hamburg as yard number 806, launched on 12 August 1941 and commissioned on 8 October 1941 under Oberleutnant zur See Hans-Jürgen Radke.

Radke was killed in a fire while the boat was undergoing trials on 14 December 1941.

Grimoald the Elder

Grimoald I (616–657), called the Elder (in French, Grimaud l'Ainé), was the Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia from 643 to 656. He was the son of Pepin of Landen and Itta.

Harte-Hanks Communications, Inc. v. Connaughton

Harte-Hanks Communications Inc. v. Connaughton, 491 U.S. 657 (1989), was a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States supplied an additional journalistic behavior that constitutes actual malice as first discussed in New York Times Co. v. Sullivan (1964). In the case, the Court held that departure from responsible reporting and unreasonable reporting conduct alone were not sufficient to award a public figure damages in a libel case. However, the Court also ruled that if reporters wrote with reckless disregard for the truth, which included ignoring obvious sources for their report, plaintiffs could be awarded compensatory damages on the grounds of actual malice.

ISO 657

ISO 657 (Hot-rolled steel sections) is an ISO standard that specifies the tolerances for hot-finished circular, square and rectangular structural hollow sections and gives the dimensions and sectional properties for a range of standard sizes.

This first edition as an International Standard constitutes a technical revision of ISO Recommendation R 657-1:1968. ISO 657 consists of 21 parts integrating any shapes of sections. ISO 657-1 specifies dimensions of hot-rolled equal-leg angles.

List of former Maryland state highways (600–699)

The Maryland highway system has several hundred former state highways. These highways were constructed, maintained, or funded by the Maryland State Roads Commission or Maryland State Highway Administration and assigned a unique or temporally unique number. Some time after the highway was assigned, the highway was transferred to county or municipal maintenance and the number designation was removed from the particular stretch of road. In some cases, a highway was renumbered in whole or in part. This list contains all or most of the state-numbered highways between 600 and 699 that have existed since highways were first numbered in 1927 but are no longer part of the state highway system or are state highways of a different number. Most former state highways have not had their numbers reused. However, many state highway numbers were used for a former highway and are currently in use. Some numbers have been used three times. The former highways below whose numbers are used presently, those that were taken over in whole or in part by another highway, or have enough information to warrant a separate article contain links to those separate highway articles. Highway numbers that have two or more former uses are differentiated below by year ranges. This list does not include former Interstate or U.S. Highways, which are linked from their respective lists.

List of secondary highways in Kenora District

This is a list of secondary highways in Kenora District, most of which serve as logging roads or provide access to isolated and sparsely populated areas in the Kenora District of northwestern Ontario.

National Cycle Route 657

National Cycle Network (NCN) Route 657 is a loop of the White Rose cycle route, NCN 65. It branches off the main route to connect the town of Thirsk to the National Cycle Network. Prior to 2009 the route had been signed as part of NCN 65.

The combination of NCN 657 and a section of NCN 65 creates a circular route from Thirsk to Kirkby Knowle to Coxwold to Easingwold and returning to Thirsk.

No. 657 Squadron RAF was a unit of the Royal Air Force in North Africa, Italy and the Netherlands during the Second World War and afterwards in Germany.

Numbers 651 to 663 Squadrons of the RAF were Air Observation Post units working closely with Army units in artillery spotting and liaison. A further three of these squadrons, 664-666, were manned with Canadian personnel. Their duties and squadron numbers were transferred to the Army with the formation of the Army Air Corps on 1 September 1957.

Papyrus 13

Papyrus 13, designated by siglum ${\displaystyle {\mathfrak {P}}}$13 or P13 in the Gregory-Aland numbering, is a fragmented manuscript of the New Testament in Greek. It was copied on papyrus in the 3rd century at approximately 225-250 CE.

Pope Eugene I

Pope Eugene I (d. 2 June 657), also known as Eugenius I, was Pope from 10 August 654 to his death in 657. He was a native of Rome, born to one Rufinianus.

In June 653, in the midst of a dispute with Byzantine Emperor Constans II over Monothelitism (the belief that Jesus had that only a single, divine will), Pope Martin I was seized and carried to Constantinople and subsequently exiled to Cherson in the Crimea. Initially, in the pontiff's absence, the church was probably governed by the archpriest, archdeacon and the primicerius of the notaries. Over a year later, and with no sign of Martin's return, Eugene was chosen to succeed. If the emperor expected Eugene to take a different approach from that of his predecessor, he was disappointed.

Prussian G 10

The Prussian G 10 was a German goods train, steam locomotive, whose design was based on a combination of the running and valve gear from the Prussian T 16 and the boiler from the Prussian P 8. In developing the G 10, however, the T 16 running gear with side play on the first and fifth axles was modified. The T 16 was also subsequently built with this modified configuration and called the Prussian T 16.1. The G 10 was intended for heavy goods train duties on main lines, but as a result of its low axle load it could be employed more flexibly than its equally powerful cousin, the Prussian G 8.1. The G 10 was occasionally even used in passenger train service.

Between 1910 and 1924 no less than 2,615 Class G 10s were delivered to the Prussian state railways and the Deutsche Reichsbahn, 35 to the Imperial Railways in Alsace-Lorraine (see Alsace-Lorraine G 10) and 27 to the Saar Railway. Another 350 were sent to railway companies in Turkey, Romania, Poland and Lithuania.

The Deutsche Reichsbahn took over almost all the Prussian engines and continued to build the G 10 until 1924. After the First World War, 222 G 10s went to foreign railways. According to the first provisional renumbering plan of 1923,several locomotives were delivered as Class 33s, but from the end of 1923 the newly delivered locos were given their final numbers. The G 10 was allocated numbers 57 1001-2725 and 57 2892-3524. Amongst them was number 57 1124, a G 10 from Alsace-Lorraine. In 1935 the G 10s from the Saar Railways were given numbers 57 2727-2763, of which 57 2737-2763 were the Saar Railway copies built from 1921-1925. In the Second World War more locomotives were taken over from Poland as 57 2764-2772 and 57 2784-2804 and from Luxembourg as 57 2773-2783. After the war a former G 10 from Alsace-Lorraine found itself in the GDR and was classified as 57 3551. It was joined by another G 10 of unknown origin, no. 57 4245.

Nine G 10 locomotives were ceded to Italy as war reparation after World War I, and were taken over by the Ferrovie dello Stato Italiane as Class 473 (Italian: Gruppo 473).

In 1950, the Deutsche Bundesbahn had about 649 ex-Prussian G 10s in its fleet, the Deutsche Reichsbahn (East Germany) had 112 and the Saar Railways had 81. The Bundesbahn reclassified its G 10s as Class 057 in 1968, but had retired them by 1970, the last one out of service being 057 070-5 on 22 September 1970. The Reichsbahn completed their retirement of G 10s by 1972.

From 1916 the Austrian Empire's military railway (k.u.k. Heeresbahn) had 20 G 10s which were designated as Class 680 and were specifically intended for duties on the broad gauge Russian Railways. Several of them were given Reichsbahn numbers 57 2766-2768 and 57 2789-2792 during the Second World War.

After the war, some 165 engines of Class 57.10-35 remained on Austrian territory. Of these 96 continued in service as the ÖBB Class 657. The Austrian Federal Railway (ÖBB) retired them all by 1968. Number 657.2770, an engine obtained by the Austrian Society for Railway History (ÖGEG) from Romania, has been preserved in working order and is used for special services.

The vehicles were equipped with various tenders, including Prussian pr 3 T 16.5, pr 3 T 20, pr 2'2' T 21.5 and pr 2'2' T 31.5 tenders as well as the Bavarian bay 3 T 20. which had been taken over from Bavarian G 4/5 N and G 4/5 H locomotives.

Highway 31 is a highway in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. It runs from Highway 14 in Macklin to Highway 4 north of Rosetown. Highway 31 is about 185 km (115 mi) long.The portion of Highway 31 for the 23 km (14 mi) between Highway 656 and Highway 4 is called Pasture Road.

Highway 657 is a highway in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. It runs from Highway 7 to Highway 51 near Kelfield. Highway 657 is about 48 km (30 mi.) long.

Highway 657 also has a concurrency with Highway 31 between Wallisville and Plenty. Ava is also near Highway 657.

Talorgan I

Talorcan (or Talorgan) mac Enfret (died 657) was a King of the Picts from 653 to 657. He was the son of Eanfrith of Bernicia, who had fled into exile among the Picts after his father, Æthelfrith of Northumbria, was killed around the year 616. Eanfrith married a Pictish princess, and their son was Talorcan.

Talorcan became king in 653; in the next year, he defeated and killed Dúnchad mac Conaing, king of the Dál Riata, in battle at Strath Ethairt. It has been suggested that this battle may have been part of a traditional "inaugural raid" against hostile neighbors to mark the beginning of a king's rule. Talorcan was the nephew of the powerful Oswiu of Northumbria; Oswiu is reported by Bede to have "for the most part subdued and made tributary" the Picts (along with the Dál Riata), and it is possible that Talorcan was subject to Oswiu.