64th Group Army

The 64th Group Army (Chinese: 第64集团军), former 64th Corps and 64th Army Corps, was a military formation of China's People's Liberation Army that existed from 1949 to 1998.

64th Corps (1949-60)
64th Army Corps (1960-85)
64th Army (1985-98)
Active1949.1-1998
Country China
Part ofShenyang Military Region
Garrison/HQBenxi, Liaoning
EngagementsChinese Civil War, Korean War, Vietnam War, Sino-Soviet border conflict
Commanders
Notable
commanders
Chen Zhengxiang

Chinese Civil War and Korean War

The 64th Corps (Chinese: 第64军) was created in January 1949 under the Regulation of the Redesignations of All Organizations and Units of the Army, issued by Central Military Commission on 1 November 1948,[1] basing on the 4th Column of the Jinchaji Military Region. Its lineage could be traced to the Jizhong Column formed in 1945.

As of its formation, the Corps was composed by 3 divisions: 190th, 191st and 192nd.

The Corps was a part of 19th Army Group. It took part in many battles, especially the Pingjin Campaign during the Chinese Civil War.

In October 1950, Artillery Regiment, 64th Corps activated. From February 1951 the regiment was renamed as 171st Artillery Regiment. In January 1951 the corps was re-equipped with Soviet-built small arms.

In February 1951 the Corps entered Korea with all its subordinated divisions as a part of People's Volunteer Army. During its deployment in Korea it took part in the Fifth Phase Offensive, during which the corps suffered heavy losses by indirect fire at the riverbank of Imjin River without any significant gain from the confronting U.S. 24th Infantry Division.[2]

Port Arthur

In August 1953 the corps pulled out of Korea and stationed in Fengcheng, Liaoning, and later moved to Andong, Liaoning.[3]

In February 1955, as Soviet 39th Army withdrawing from Port Arthur area, PLA 63rd Corps, with all its three divisions and reinforced by 170th Artillery Regiment from 63rd Corps, Independent Tank Regiment of Huabei Military Region, and 1st Public Security Division, moved into Port Authur to receive equipment left by the Soviet Army.

After the relieving, 190th Infantry Division, now as 1st Mechanized Division (1st formation), detached from the corps. In March 1953, 21st Railway Security Division joined the corps and renamed as 190th Infantry Division(2nd formation).

In 1955, 171st Artillery Regiment and 89th Anti-Aircraft Artillery Regiment were activated.

In June 1956, 1st Machine-gun Artillery Division detached from the corps.[6]

64th Army Corps

In April 1960 the corps was renamed as 64th Army Corps (Chinese: 陆军第64军). The corps was then composed of:

  • Corps Headquarter
  • 171st Artillery Regiment
  • 89th Anti-Aircraft Artillery Regiment
  • 190th Army Division
    • 568th Infantry Regiment
    • 569th Infantry Regiment
    • 570th Infantry Regiment
    • 570th Artillery Regiment
  • 191st Army Division
    • 571st Infantry Regiment
    • 572nd Infantry Regiment
    • 573rd Infantry Regiment
    • 571st Artillery Regiment
    • 396th Tank Self-Propelled Artillery Regiment
  • 192nd Army Division
    • 574th Infantry Regiment
    • 575th Infantry Regiment
    • 576th Infantry Regiment
    • 572nd Artillery Regiment
    • 397th Tank Self-Propelled Artillery Regiment

In March 1961 190th Army Division(2nd formation) was disbanded.

In August 1961, 1st Mechanized Division, now as 190th Army Division(3rd formation), rejoined the army corps.

In June 1963 the army corps moved to Benxi, Liaoning.

Vietnam War and Zhenbao Island

From January to August 1968, anti-aircraft artillery detachments from the Army Corps moved to North Vietnam to take part in the Vietnam War. During its deployment in Vietnam, the unit allegedly shot down 4 USAF aircraft and damaged 3:

  • On 15–16 March, Anti-Aircraft Artillery Battalion, 192nd Army Division (reinforced with 4th Battery, Anti-Aircraft Artillery Regiment, 64th Army Corps) shot down 2 F-4C/F-105 fighters and damaged other 3;
  • On 28 March, Anti-Aircraft Artillery Battalion, 191st Army Division shot down 2 F-4C fighters.[7]

However none of these claims could be confirmed by U.S. sources.[8]

From November 1968 to May 1970, Reconnaissance Company, 190th Army Division, Reconnaissance Company, 191st Army Division, and 57 mm Recoilless Rifle Company, Artillery Battalion, 572nd Infantry Regiment, 191st Army Division were deployed to Zhenbao Island for up-coming border conflict with the Soviet Army. However the composite unit did not took part in direct engagement.[9]

In January 1976, 3rd Independent Tank Regiment of Shenyang Military Region joined the army corps as Tank Regiment, 64th Army Corps.

In 1983, 62nd Artillery Division and 82nd Pontoon Bridge Regiment were attached to the army corps.

64th Army

In September 1985, the army corps was renamed as 64th Army(Chinese: 陆军第64集团军), and its structure was completely re-organized:

  • 62nd Artillery Division and 82nd Pontoon Bridge Regiment detached from the army.
  • All army divisions were renamed as infantry divisions.
  • 190th Infantry division was classified as northern motorized infantry division, catalogue A; one of its three infantry regiments was mechanized, and all three infantry regiments had tank battalions.
  • 191st and 192nd Infantry Divisions were classified as northern infantry division, catalogue B.
  • Tank Brigade, 64th Army was activated from Tank Regiment, 64th Army Corps.
  • Artillery Brigade, 64th Army was activated from Artillery Regiment, 64th Army Corps.
  • Anti-Aircraft Artillery Brigade, 64th Army was activated from AAA Regiment, 64th Army Corps.
  • Engineer Regiment was activated.
  • Communications Regiment was activated.[10]

In summer 1989, 190th Infantry Division took part in the enforced martial law and the crack down on protests in Beijing, without suffering casualties.

In 1992, 1st Anti-Aircraft Artillery Brigade (62nd Artillery Division before 1985), 82nd Pontoon Bridge Regiment and 10th Engineer Regiment were attached to the army, and former Anti-Aircraft Artillery Brigade, 64th Army and Engineer Regiment, 64th Army were disbanded. Outer Changshan Garrison Division and 2nd Garrison Brigade of Shenyang Military Region(later Coastal Defense Regiment of Shenyang Military Region) were also attached.

Disbandment

In 1998 the army was disbanded.

  • 190th Motorized Infantry Division were transferred to 39th Army;
  • 191st Infantry Division were reduced to a brigade and transferred to Liaoning Provincial Military District;
  • 192nd Infantry Division was inactivated and became a reserve formation;
  • Outer Changshan Garrison District (former garrison division) and Coastal Defense Regiment of Shenyang Military Region were also transferred to Liaoning Provincial Military District's control;
  • Tank Brigade, 64th Army, along with other formations, were disbanded.

As of its disbandment the army was composed of:

Notable commanders

References

  1. ^ 《中央军委关于统一全军组织及部队番号的规定》, http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_7254c7350100xb56.html
  2. ^ 《中国人民解放军陆军第64集团军军史》, 陆军第64集团军军史编研室, p.366
  3. ^ 《中国人民解放军陆军第64集团军军史》, 陆军第64集团军军史编研室, p.366
  4. ^ 《中国人民解放军陆军第64集团军军史》, 陆军第64集团军军史编研室, p.431
  5. ^ 《中国人民解放军陆军第64集团军军史》, 陆军第64集团军军史编研室, p.433
  6. ^ 《中国人民解放军陆军第64集团军军史》, 陆军第64集团军军史编研室, p.433
  7. ^ 《中国人民解放军陆军第64集团军军史》, 陆军第64集团军军史编研室, p.484
  8. ^ Christopher Michael Hobson, Vietnam Air Losses, United States Air Force, Navy and Marine Corps Fixed-Wing Aircraft Losses In Southeastern Asia 1961-1973, ISBN 1-85780-115-6
  9. ^ 《中国人民解放军陆军第64集团军军史》, 陆军第64集团军军史编研室, p.469
  10. ^ 《中国人民解放军陆军第64集团军军史》, 陆军第64集团军军史编研室, p.526
Field Armies - 野战军 (1949–50)
Army Groups - 兵团 (1948–55)
Corps - (1948–52)
Infantry Corps - 步兵军 (1952–60)
Army Corps - 陆军军 (1960-85)
Group armies - 陆军集团军 (1985–2017)
Group Armies - 陆军集团军 (2017–)
Air Force Corps - 空军军 (1957-)
Air Defense Force Corps - 防空军军 (1955-57)
Railway Corps - 铁道兵军 (1956-58)

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