63rd United States Congress

The Sixty-third United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1913, to March 4, 1915, during the first two years of Woodrow Wilson's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Thirteenth Census of the United States in 1910. Both chambers had a Democratic majority.

63rd United States Congress
62nd ←
→ 64th
USCapitol1906
March 4, 1913 – March 4, 1915
Senate PresidentThomas R. Marshall (D)
Senate President pro temJames P. Clarke (D)
House SpeakerChamp Clark (D)
Members96 senators
435 members of the House
5 non-voting delegates
Senate MajorityDemocratic
House MajorityDemocratic
Sessions
Special: March 4, 1913 – March 17, 1913
1st: April 7, 1913 – December 1, 1913
2nd: December 1, 1913 – October 24, 1914
3rd: December 7, 1914 – March 3, 1915

Major events

Wilson-inaug
Inauguration platform being constructed on the east steps of the U.S. Capitol, ten days before Woodrow Wilson's March 4, 1913, presidential inauguration.

Major legislation

Constitutional amendments

Party summary

63rd US Senate composition
Map showing Senate party membership at the start of the 62nd Congress. Red states are represented by two Republicans and blue by two Democrats. Purple states are represented by one senator from each party.

Senate

Party
(shading shows control)
Total Vacant
Democratic
(D)
Progressive
(P)
Republican
(R)
End of the previous congress 47 0 48 95 1
Begin 48 1 42 91 5
End 53 960
Final voting share 55.2% 1.0% 43.8%
Beginning of the next congress 56 0 40 96 0

House of Representatives

TOTAL members: 435

Leadership

Senate

House of Representatives

Majority (Democratic) leadership

Minority (Republican) leadership

Members

Skip to House of Representatives, below

Senate

Most Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. A few senators were elected directly by the residents of the state. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election, In this Congress, Class 3 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1914; Class 1 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1916; and Class 2 meant their term began in this Congress, requiring reelection in 1918.

Alabama

Arizona

Arkansas

California

Colorado

Connecticut

Delaware

Florida

Georgia

Idaho

Illinois

Indiana

Iowa

Kansas

Kentucky

Louisiana

Maine

Maryland

Massachusetts

Michigan

Minnesota

Mississippi

Missouri

Montana

Nebraska

Nevada

New Hampshire

New Jersey

New Mexico

New York

North Carolina

North Dakota

Ohio

Oklahoma

Oregon

Pennsylvania

Rhode Island

South Carolina

South Dakota

Tennessee

Texas

Utah

Vermont

Virginia

Washington

West Virginia

Wisconsin

Wyoming

House of Representatives

63 us house membership
House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80+% to 100% Democratic
  80+% to 100% Republican
  60+% to 80% Democratic
  60+% to 80% Republican
  Up to 60% Democratic
  Up to 60% Republican

Changes in membership

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.

Senate

  • replacements: 3
  • deaths: 3
  • resignations: 3
  • vacancy: 3
  • Total seats with changes: 9
State Senator Reason for vacancy Successor Date of successor's installation
New Hampshire
(2)
Vacant Elected late. Henry F. Hollis (D) March 13, 1913
Illinois
(2)
Vacant Due to US Sen.Lorimer scandal, general assembly refused to seat elected Senator at beginning of term. Compromise was later reached with Governor of Illinois to seat senator to replace Lorimer after another election was called. J. Hamilton Lewis (D) March 26, 1913
Illinois
(3)
Vacant Due to US Sen.Lorimer scandal, general assembly refused to seat elected Senator at beginning of term. Compromise was later reached with Governor of Illinois to seat senator who supported Sen Lorimer. Lawrence Y. Sherman (R) March 26, 1913
West Virginia
(2)
Vacant Elected to seat at beginning of term but delayed installation to continue as judge of U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit Nathan Goff Jr. (R) April 1, 1913
Alabama
(3)
Joseph F. Johnston (D) Died August 8, 1913. Successor was appointed to finish term. Francis S. White (D) May 11, 1914
Maryland
(1)
William P. Jackson (R) Successor was elected. Blair Lee (D) Januar 28, 1914
Georgia
(2)
Augustus O. Bacon (D) Died February 14, 1914. Successor was appointed. William S. West (D) March 2, 1914
Kentucky
(3)
William O. Bradley (R) Died May 23, 1914. Successor was appointed and subsequently elected. Johnson N. Camden Jr. (D) June 16, 1914
Georgia
(2)
William S. West (D) Successor was elected. Thomas W. Hardwick (D) November 4, 1914

House of Representatives

  • replacements: 20
  • deaths: 11
  • resignations: 19
  • contested elections: 2
  • Total seats with changes: 15
District Vacator Reason for vacancy Successor
South Carolina 1st Vacant Rep. George S. Legaré died during previous congress Richard S. Whaley (D) April 29, 1913
Massachusetts 13th John W. Weeks (R) Resigned March 4, 1913, after being elected to the U.S. Senate John J. Mitchell (D) April 15, 1913
Texas 10th Albert S. Burleson (D) Resigned March 6, 1913, after being appointed United States Postmaster General James P. Buchanan (D) April 15, 1913
New Jersey 6th Lewis J. Martin (D) Died May 5, 1913 Archibald C. Hart (D) July 22, 1913
Michigan 12th H. Olin Young (R) Resigned May 16, 1913, while election was being contested William J. MacDonald (Prog.) August 26, 1913
Maine 3rd Forrest Goodwin (R) Died May 28, 1913 John A. Peters (R) September 9, 1913
Maryland 3rd George Konig (D) Died May 31, 1913 Charles P. Coady (D) November 4, 1913
West Virginia 1st John W. Davis (D) Resigned August 29, 1913, after being appointed Solicitor General of the United States Matthew M. Neely (D) October 14, 1913
New York 13th Timothy Sullivan (D) Died August 31, 1913 George W. Loft (D) November 4, 1913
New York 20th Francis B. Harrison (D) Resigned September 1, 1913, after being appointed Governor-General of the Philippines Jacob A. Cantor (D) November 4, 1913
Massachusetts 3rd William Wilder (R) Died September 11, 1913 Calvin Paige (R) November 4, 1913
Georgia 2nd Seaborn Roddenbery (D) Died September 25, 1913 Frank Park (D) November 4, 1913
Iowa 2nd Irvin S. Pepper (D) Died December 22, 1913 Henry Vollmer (D) February 10, 1914
Massachusetts 12th James Michael Curley (D) Resigned February 4, 1914, after being elected Mayor of Boston James A. Gallivan (D) April 7, 1914
New Jersey 7th Robert G. Bremner (D) Died February 5, 1914 Dow H. Drukker (R) April 7, 1914
Alabama 8th William N. Richardson (D) Died March 31, 1914 Christopher C. Harris (D) May 11, 1914
Alabama 3rd Henry D. Clayton Jr. (D) Resigned May 25, 1914, after being appointed judge for U.S. District Court for Middle and Northern Districts of Alabama William O. Mulkey (D) June 29, 1914
Missouri 12th Leonidas C. Dyer (R) Lost contested election June 9, 1914 Michael J. Gill (D) June 9, 1914
Illinois 4th James T. McDermott (D) Resigned July 21, 1914 Seat remained vacant until next Congress
Ohio 14th William G. Sharp (D) Resigned July 23, 1914, after being appointed United States Ambassador to France Seat remained vacant until next Congress
Massachusetts 11th Andrew J. Peters (D) Resigned August 15, 1914, after being appointed Assistant Secretary of the Treasury Seat remained vacant until next Congress
Massachusetts 10th William F. Murray (D) Resigned September 28, 1914, after being appointed Postmaster of Boston Seat remained vacant until next Congress
Maryland 1st J. Harry Covington (D) Resigned September 30, 1914, after being appointed to serve as chief justice of the United States District Court for the District of Columbia Jesse Price (D) November 3, 1914
New Jersey 9th Walter I. McCoy (D) Resigned October 3, 1914, after being appointed associate justice for the United States District Court for the District of Columbia Richard W. Parker (R) December 1, 1914
Georgia 10th Thomas W. Hardwick (D) Resigned November 2, 1914, after being elected to the U.S. Senate Carl Vinson (D) November 3, 1914
New York 36th Sereno E. Payne (R) Died December 10, 1914 Seat remained vacant until next Congress
New York 31st Edwin A. Merritt (R) Died December 14, 1914 Seat remained vacant until next Congress
New York 2nd Denis O'Leary (D) Resigned December 31, 1914 Seat remained vacant until next Congress
Minnesota 2nd Winfield Scott Hammond (D) Resigned January 6, 1915, after being elected Governor of Minnesota Seat remained vacant until next Congress
Ohio 5th Timothy T. Ansberry (D) Resigned January 9, 1915, after being appointed associate justice of the Ohio Court of Appeals Seat remained vacant until next Congress
Ohio 8th Frank B. Willis (R) Resigned January 9, 1915, after being elected Governor of Ohio Seat remained vacant until next Congress
New Jersey 8th Eugene F. Kinkead (D) Resigned February 4, 1915, after becoming sheriff of Hudson County, New Jersey Seat remained vacant until next Congress

Committees

Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members (House and Senate) of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link (6 links), in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate, House (Standing with Subcommittees, Select and Special) and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.

Senate

House of Representatives

Joint committees

Caucuses

Employees

Senate

House of Representatives

See also

References

1912 United States elections

The 1912 United States elections elected the members of the 63rd United States Congress, occurring during the Fourth Party System. Amidst a division between incumbent Republican President William Howard Taft and former Republican President Theodore Roosevelt, the Democratic Party won the Presidency and both chambers of Congress, the first time they accomplished that feat since the 1892 election.

In the Presidential election, Democratic Governor Woodrow Wilson of New Jersey defeated Republican President William Howard Taft and former president and Progressive Party nominee Theodore Roosevelt. Socialist union leader Eugene Debs, running his fourth campaign, took six percent of the vote. At the 1912 Democratic National Convention, Wilson took the nomination on the 46th ballot, defeating Speaker Champ Clark and several other candidates. Roosevelt left the Republican Party after an unsuccessful challenge to Taft at the 1912 Republican National Convention. Though Wilson carried just over 40% of the popular vote, he dominated the electoral college and won a greater share of the electoral vote than any candidate since Ulysses S. Grant in 1872. Wilson's election made him the first Democratic president since Grover Cleveland left office in 1897. Roosevelt's candidacy finished second in the popular vote and the electoral college, the only time a third party candidate accomplished either feat.

Following the 1910 census, 41 seats were added to the House, setting the House at 435 seats. Democrats made major gains in the House, further strengthening their majority, while the new Progressive Party won ten seats.In the last Senate election before the ratification of the 17th Amendment, Democrats made moderate gains and won control of the chamber for the first time since the 1892 election.

1913 State of the Union Address

The 1913 State of the Union Address was given by Woodrow Wilson, the 28th President of the United States, on Tuesday, December 2, 1913. It was given directly to the 63rd United States Congress by the president. Wilson was the first to do so since John Adams in 1800. With a few exceptions all addresses since then have been given directly following Wilson's lead.It was his first. He stated, "The country, I am thankful to say, is at peace with all the world, and many happy manifestations multiply about us of a growing cordiality and sense of community of interest among the nations, foreshadowing an age of settled peace and good will." The speech was just over 3,500 words and took 28 minutes to read.In 2014 RealClearPolitics placed it 10th on their list of "Top 10 State of the Union Addresses" for its break with tradition.

1913 United States Senate special election in Maryland

A Special Election to the United States Senate was held in Maryland on November 4, 1913 to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Sen. Isidor Rayner (a Democrat). The election was historic in that it was the first Senate election held under the Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which required direct election of senators.

Blair Lee I, a Democrat and former state senator, became the first U.S. Senator directly elected by the people of a state under the Constitution's provisions (although other states had previously elected senators indirectly through party primaries and popular elections, which were then ratified by the state legislature). The election led to a controversy when the incumbent who had been appointed to fill Rayner's seat, Republican William P. Jackson, refused to give up his seat to Lee. Jackson claimed that "since he had been appointed under the original constitutional provision, he was entitled to hold his seat until the regularly scheduled adjournment date of the Maryland state assembly."

The Senate considered Jackson's challenge but eventually rejected it and seated Lee.

1914 State of the Union Address

The 1914 State of the Union Address was given by the 28th United States President, Woodrow Wilson, on Tuesday, December 8, 1914, to both houses of 63rd United States Congress. He concluded it with, "To develop our life and our resources; to supply our own people, and the people of the world as their need arises, from the abundant plenty of our fields and our marts of trade to enrich the commerce of our own States and of the world with the products of our mines, our farms, and our factories, with the creations of our thought and the fruits of our character,-this is what will hold our attention and our enthusiasm steadily, now and in the years to come, as we strive to show in our life as a nation what liberty and the inspirations of an emancipated spirit may do for men and for societies, for individuals, for states, and for mankind."

Carl E. Mapes

Carl Edgar Mapes (December 26, 1874 – December 12, 1939) was a politician from the U.S. state of Michigan.

Mapes was born on a farm near Kalamo, Michigan, to Selah W. and Sarah Ann (Brooks) Mapes. His father was born in New York and came with his parents at the age of seven to Kalamo Michigan, where he became a county district schoolteacher and held various township offices. He was also president of the Barry and Eaton County Farmers Mutual Fire Insurance Company and the Michigan Tornado and Cyclone Insurance Company. Sarah Ann was from Washtenaw County and was married to Selah Mapes on April 12, 1887. Selah and Sarah Ann moved to Olivet in 1887.

Carl Mapes attended the common schools of Olivet and graduated from Olivet College in 1896. He graduated from the law department of the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor in 1899, was admitted to the bar that same year and commenced the practice of law in Grand Rapids. In 1901, he became assistant prosecuting attorney of Kent County, serving until January 1, 1905, when he began a term in the Michigan House of Representatives, representing the 1st district in Kent County. He was an unsuccessful candidate for re-nomination in 1906. In 1908, he was elected to the Michigan Senate from the 16th district, and served from 1909 to 1912.

In 1912, Mapes defeated incumbent Democrat U.S. Representative Edwin F. Sweet to be elected as a Republican from Michigan's 5th congressional district to the 63rd United States Congress. He was re-elected to the thirteen succeeding Congresses, serving from March 4, 1913, until his death in New Orleans, Louisiana on December 12, 1939. During the 66th Congress, he served as chairman of the Committee on the District of Columbia.

Mapes married Miss Julia Pike, the daughter of Abram and Eliza (Roberts) Pike of Grand Rapids on August 14, 1907. They had four children, Robert W., John Pike, Jane Elizabeth, and Ruth. Mapes belonged to the Park Congregational Church and was a member of the Freemasons, Odd Fellows and Woodmen. He is interred in Oak Hill Cemetery, Grand Rapids, Michigan. He was interred at Oak Hill Cemetery in Grand Rapids.

Charles Pearce Coady

Charles Pearce Coady (February 22, 1868 – February 16, 1934) was a U.S. Representative from the third district of Maryland.

Born in Baltimore, Maryland, Coady attended the public schools and graduated from high school in 1886 from Baltimore City College. Following graduation, Coady took up work as a merchant. In 1894, after finishing his legal studies, he was admitted to the bar and began practicing law in Baltimore.

Coady served in the Maryland State Senate from 1908 to 1912. He won a second term in office, but resigned in 1913 in order to run for the U.S. House of Representatives. Coady was elected to 63rd United States Congress as a Democrat, filling the vacancy caused by the death of George Konig. He was reelected to the U.S. House of Representatives three times. In 1920, Coady ran for a fifth term, but was defeated by John Boynton Philip Clayton Hill. After his defeat Coady returned to practicing law in Baltimore. From 1922 to 1925, Coady served as Baltimore City collector and manager of the bureau of receipts.

Coady died on February 16, 1934, in Baltimore, and was interred in New Cathedral Cemetery.

Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914

The Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914 (Pub.L. 63–212, 38 Stat. 730, enacted October 15, 1914, codified at 15 U.S.C. §§ 12–27, 29 U.S.C. §§ 52–53), was a part of United States antitrust law with the goal of adding further substance to the U.S. antitrust law regime; the Clayton Act sought to prevent anticompetitive practices in their incipiency. That regime started with the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890, the first Federal law outlawing practices considered harmful to consumers (monopolies, cartels, and trusts). The Clayton Act specified particular prohibited conduct, the three-level enforcement scheme, the exemptions, and the remedial measures.

Like the Sherman Act, much of the substance of the Clayton Act has been developed and animated by the U.S. courts, particularly the Supreme Court.

Edwin Albert Merritt

Edwin Albert Merritt (July 25, 1860 – December 4, 1914) was an American politician from New York.

Federal Trade Commission Act of 1914

The Federal Trade Commission Act of 1914 established the Federal Trade Commission. The Act, signed into law by Woodrow Wilson in 1914, outlaws unfair methods of competition and outlaws unfair acts or practices that affect commerce.

Francis O. Lindquist

Francis Oscar Lindquist (September 27, 1869 – September 25, 1924) was a politician from the U.S. state of Michigan.

Lindquist was born in Marinette, Wisconsin on September 27, 1869 to a Norwegian-born mother and a Swedish-born father and attended the common schools. He moved to Greenville, Michigan, in 1904 and engaged in the mail-order clothing and manufacturing business. He moved to Grand Rapids in 1915 and became president of the Canada Mills Co., of New York and Michigan.

Lindquist was elected as a Republican from Michigan's 11th congressional district to the 63rd United States Congress, serving from March 4, 1913 to March 3, 1915. He won the election in a landslide, using mail-order tactics to canvass voters. He was not a candidate for renomination in 1914 and resumed the mail-order business in Grand Rapids. After the First World War, he returned to Greenville and supervised a correspondence-school course for sales people. In 1922, he lost to Bird J. Vincent in the Republican primary election for U.S. Representative in Michigan's 8th congressional district.

Lindquist died just two days before his 55th birthday, On September 25, 1924, in Grand Rapids and is interred at Forest Home Cemetery in Greenville.

Frank Park

Frank Park (March 3, 1864 – November 20, 1925) was an American politician, educator, lawyer and jurist from the state of Georgia.

Park was born in Tuskegee, Alabama in 1864 and attended the University of Georgia (UGA) in Athens where he was a member of the Phi Kappa Literary Society. He taught from 1882 through 1885 then worked as a railway civil engineer from 1885 until 1889. Park then attended the Atlanta Medical College and graduated in 1891. He studied law and was also admitted to the state bar in 1891 at which time he started a private law practice.

From 1891 to 1902, Park served as chair of the Democratic executive committee for Worth County, Georgia. In 1898, he became a judge in the county court and served in that position until 1903 when he became a judge in the Albany judicial circuit. He served in that position until 1908. From 1902 through 1904, Park was the chair of the Democratic congressional committee for Georgia's 2nd congressional district. He served on the board of trustees for the Georgia Agricultural and Mechanical School in Tifton from 1911 until 1915.

In 1913, Park won a special election to fill Georgia's vacant 2nd district seat in the United States House of Representatives during the 63rd United States Congress. The vacancy was the result of incumbent Seaborn Roddenbery's death earlier in the year. Park was a Democrat and after finishing that partial term he was reelected to four additional full terms in that seat. He ran an unsuccessful reelection campaign in 1924.

Only a few weeks after leaving office, Park died in Fort Lauderdale, Florida on November 20, 1925, and was buried in White Springs Cemetery in White Springs, Florida.

Jacob Johnson (U.S. politician)

Jacob Johnson (November 1, 1847 – August 15, 1925) was a U.S. Representative from Utah.

Johnson was born in Aalborg, Denmark, but he emigrated to the United States in 1854. After living in both Utah and California, he studied law in Nevada. Returning to Utah, in 1872 he became a resident of Spring City in Sanpete County, where he was admitted to the bar in 1877. In 1880 he became a United States District Attorney, a position he held until 1888. He then served as Sanpete County's probate judge until 1890. During 1892–1894 he was prosecuting attorney in Sanpete County, overlapping an 1893–1895 term in the Utah Territorial Legislature. In 1896 Johnson became a state court judge in Utah's Seventh Judicial District. His judicial duties took him traveling throughout southeastern Utah until 1905.

Active in Republican Party politics, Johnson was a delegate to the Republican National Convention in 1912. That year Utah had just been granted its second congressional seat. Incumbent Joseph Howell was re-elected, and Johnson was elected as Utah's new representative to the 63rd United States Congress. He served one term in Congress, failing to win the nomination in 1914.Johnson retired from politics to continue his law practice in Salt Lake City, where he died in 1925.

The Jacob Johnson house and barn still stand in Spring City. Due to their historic and architectural significance, they are included in the Spring City Historic District, listed in the National Register of Historic Places. The owners received a 2009 Heritage Award from the Utah Heritage Foundation for restoring the property.

John Randall Walker

John Randall Walker (February 23, 1874 – July 21, 1942) was a U.S. political figure from the state of Georgia. Walker was born near Blackshear, Georgia in 1874 and graduated from the Jasper Normal College in Jasper, Florida. He then studied law at the University of Georgia School of Law and graduated with a Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.) degree in 1898.

In 1912, Walker was elected to the 63rd United States Congress as a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives and served two additional terms in that seat until losing his bid for renomination in 1918. He died in Blackshear on July 21, 1942, and was buried in a family cemetery in Pierce County, Georgia.

List of United States Senators in the 63rd Congress by seniority

This is a complete list of members of the United States Senate during the 63rd United States Congress listed by seniority, from March 4, 1913, to March 3, 1915.

Order of service is based on the commencement of the senator's first term. Behind this is former service as a senator (only giving the senator seniority within his or her new incoming class), service as vice president, a House member, a cabinet secretary, or a governor of a state. The final factor is the population of the senator's state.Senators who were sworn in during the middle of the Congress (up until the last senator who was not sworn in early after winning the November 1914 election) are listed at the end of the list with no number.

Occupancy Permits Act

The Occupancy Permits Act was passed on March 4, 1915 by the 63rd United States Congress. It allowed the U.S. Forest Service to issue to cabin permits at "reasonable rates" to individuals who had had their property taken through eminent domain. Permits could be issued for periods of up to 30 years. Individuals were encouraged to build homes within the boundaries of national parks in order to widen the Forest Services' work in recreational management.

Standard Barrel Act For Fruits, Vegetables, and Dry Commodities

The Standard Barrel Act For Fruits, Vegetables, and Dry Commodities is United States legislation that specified the standard barrel size and measurements for fruits and vegetables, establishing grading standards and inspections for each produce type. It penalized merchants who didn’t use standardized barrels. The act was sponsored by Rep. William E. Tuttle, Jr. (D) of New Jersey.

William Josiah MacDonald

William Josiah MacDonald (November 17, 1873 – March 29, 1946) was a politician from the U.S. state of Michigan.

MacDonald was born in Potosi, Wisconsin. He attended the common schools and graduated from the high school at Fairmont, Minnesota. He attended the University of Minnesota at Minneapolis and Georgetown Law School in Washington, D.C. He was admitted to the bar and commenced practice at Calumet, Michigan in 1895. He served as prosecuting attorney for Keweenaw County from 1898 to 1904 and prosecuting attorney for Houghton County from 1906 to 1912. In 1911, he was an unsuccessful candidate for circuit judge in the 12th District of Michigan.

In 1912, MacDonald ran as a candidate for the Progressive Party against incumbent Republican H. Olin Young to the United States House of Representatives from the Michigan's 12th congressional district. Although unofficial returns showed that MacDonald had won the seat, some votes were not included in the official count by the state board of canvassers due to a mistake in how MacDonald's name appeared on the ballot in Ontonagon County. H. Olin Young presented credentials as a Member-elect to the 63rd United States Congress and served from March 4, 1913, until his resignation, effective May 16, 1913, while a contest for the seat was pending. Subsequently, the House Committee on Elections unanimously reported a resolution to the full house awarding the 12th District seat to MacDonald, who took the oath of office August 26, 1913 and served until March 3, 1915. In 1914 and again in 1916, MacDonald lost to Republican William F. James. MacDonald and Roy O. Woodruff (10th district) were the only two Michigan residents elected to the U.S. House from the Progressive Party.

MacDonald resumed the practice of law in Springfield, Illinois in 1917. He moved to East St. Louis, Illinois in 1922 and engaged in the practice of his profession. William J. MacDonald died in Chicago and was interred in Graceland Cemetery, Chicago.

William Kennedy (Connecticut politician)

William Kennedy (December 19, 1854 – June 19, 1918) was a U.S. Representative from Connecticut.

Born in Naugatuck, Connecticut, Kennedy attended the public schools, and later studied law. He was admitted to the bar in 1879 and commenced practice in Naugatuck, Connecticut, handling criminal cases, in particular.

Kennedy was the Chairman of the Naugatuck Democratic Town Committee and Clerk of the Borough Court. In 1895, he was appointed Borough Attorney, staying in this position until 1918. Kennedy also served as member on Naugatuck's Board of Education from 1901-1918.

Kennedy served as Member of the State Senate from 1899–1901, and a delegate to the Democratic National Conventions in 1896, 1900, 1908, and 1912. He was the Chairman of the Democratic State Committee. He was elected as a Democrat to the 63rd United States Congress in 1912 and represented Connecticut's 5th Congressional District from March 4, 1913, to March 3, 1915. Kennedy was an unsuccessful candidate for re-election in 1914 and resumed his law practice.

He is known to have corresponded with Woodrow Wilson on policy matters, particularly during Wilson's presidential election campaign and during World War I.

Kennedy died on June 19, 1918, and was interred in St. James' Cemetery in Naugatuck, Connecticut. His obituary was published in the New York Times. Kennedy Mitchell, author and currency trader, is Kennedy's great-grandson.

William Purnell Jackson

William Purnell Jackson (January 11, 1868 – March 7, 1939) was a Republican member of the United States Senate, representing the State of Maryland from 1912-1914. His father, William Humphreys Jackson, was a U.S. Congressman from Maryland.

United States Congresses (and year convened)

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