61st Air Defense Artillery Regiment

The 61st Air Defense Artillery Regiment is an air defense artillery regiment in the United States Army

61st Air Defense Artillery Regiment
61st Coast Artillery Regiment COA
Coat of arms
Active1917
CountryUSA
BranchArmy
TypeAir defense artillery
SizeRegiment
Motto(s)"Non Est Ad Astra Mollis E Terris Via" (The Way To the Stars Is Not Easy)
Mascot(s)Oozlefinch
Insignia
Distinctive unit insignia
61 ADA Bde DUI

Lineage

Constituted 10 December 1917 as the 61st Artillery (CAC). Activated at Fort Moultrie 9 March 1918, organized at Fort Monroe and transferred to Fort Eustis for shipment to France. Arrived in France 31 July 1918 and assigned to 33rd Brigade (CAC). returned to New York 27 February 1919 National Guard and reserve personnel demobilized at Camp Upton.

  • 1st Artillery (AA) Battalion constituted 7 June 1921 and activated at Fort Monroe 1 July 1921 as follows:
  • HHD&CT
  • A Gun Battery redesignated 5th Company (CD) Chesapeake Bay, formerly 13th Co. Ft. Monroe
  • B Machinegun Battery redesignated 8th Company (CD) Chesapeake Bay, formerly 4th Co. VANG
  • C Search Light Battery redesignated 6th Company (CD) Chesapeake Bay, formerly 6th Company VANG.

Redesignated 61st Artillery (AA) Battalion (CAC) 1 June 1922 and reorganized as follows:

  • HHD&CT as HHB and consolidated with 140th Company (CAC)
  • A Battery as 6th Company (CAC)
  • B Battery as 257th Company (CAC)
  • C Battery as 168th Company (CAC)

Redesignated 61st Coast Artillery (AA) Regiment 30 June 1924 and reorganized as follows-

  • HHB
  • 1st BN HHB&CT
  • A Battery
  • B Battery
  • C Battery
  • D Battery
  • 2nd BN HHB&CT
  • E Battery from C Battery
  • F Battery
  • G Battery
  • H Battery

Reassigned to Fort Sheridan 14 May 1930

  • 61st Artillery (CAC) reconstituted and consolidated with 61st Coast Artillery Regiment 13 June 1930.

18 November 1939 Batteries C and D activated, 28 November 1939 2nd Battalion activated

  • reassigned to New York for shipment overseas 15 December 1941
  • Arrived Reykjavik, Iceland 26 February 1942 and stationed at Camp Hilton.

10 July 1942 two detachments formed as separate Gun Battalions, and later redesignated 494th AAA Gun Battalion, and 495th AAA Gun Battalion.

  • Regiment deployed to England 8 August 1943 and stationed at Honiton, Devon.

Regiment deactivated and broken up 14 June 1944 as follows-

  • HHB deactivated (10 August 1943)
  • 1st Battalion redesignated 184th AAA Gun Battalion
  • 2nd Battalion redesignated 634th AAA (AW) Battalion
  • 3rd Battalion redesignated 635th AAA (AW) Battalion

28 June 1950 consolidated with elements of the 61st Coast Artillery Regiment which was concurrently reconstituted to form the 61st Antiaircraft Artillery Group with the following composition:

  • 92nd Group plus Hq 2nd Hq Batry, 6lst Regiment, became Hq and Hq Btry, 61st Group
  • 184th Battalion plus Hq and Hq Battery, 61st Regiment, became the 6lst Battalion
  • 634th Battalion plus 1st Battn, 61st Regiment, and the 39th Battalion became the 39th Battalion.
  • 635th Battalion plus 3d Battn, 61st Regiment,became the 52d Battalion

Group Headquarters was established at Camp Stewart, Georgia.

  • The 61st Battalion was redesignated as the 61st Antiaircraft Artillery Automatic Weapons Battalion on 21 August 1950 and assigned to the 6th Armored Division, Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri, where it was inactivated 16 March 1956.
  • The 39th Battalion retained its designation as an Automatic Weapons Battalion until 16 May 1957 when it was inactivated at Southampton, Germany.
  • The 52d Battalion was redesignated 20 October 1950 as an Automatic Weapons Battalion and served in the Korean War, being inactivated at Inchon 10 November 1951, reactivated at Camp Roberts, California, on 26 November 1952, and finally inactivated at Castle Air Force Base, California, on 15 June 1957.

reorganized and redesignated the 61st Artillery Regiment in 1958, and consolidated with the 436th Antiaircraft Artillery Missile Battalion (NIKE), the 548th Antiaircraft Artillery Missile Battalion (NIKE), and the 740th Antiaircraft Artillery Missile Battalion (NIKE) to form the present elements of the regiment. In addition, the 58th Antiaircraft Artillery Battery (EW) at Fort Bliss was reorganized and designated as Battery C (Electronic Warfare), 61st Artillery and assigned to Fourth United States Army.

Distinctive unit insignia

Description

A Gold color metal and enamel device 7/8 inch (2.22 cm) in height overall blazoned as follows: Per fess dancette Argent and Sable, a thunderbolt bendwise Proper penetrating the chariot wheel of Helios winged with two dexter wings inverted forming a saltire with the first charged all counterchanged and upon the wheel the sun in splendor of the third.

Symbolism

The aim and purpose of the unit are told in pictorial form by the story from Greek mythology of the winged chariot of Helios which was brought to earth by a bolt of lightning thrown by Zeus. A summary of the story is as follows: Helios, the sun, drove across the heavens from east to west daily, in a winged chariot drawn by the celestial horses. His son, Phaeton, in order to please his mother, and to satisfy those who doubted that he was really a son of Helios, obtained permission from his father to take his place in the chariot for one day. Phaeton had scarcely taken the reins when the celestial horses, despising their weak driver, turned out of their patch and set everything on fire. When the chariot came so near the earth that the Ethiopians were blackened by the near approach of the sun, Zeus, with a well aimed bolt of lightning, wrecked the chariot and sent it plunging into the river Po. This is the first historical record of a hit being scored against an aerial target. The shield is divided by the saw tooth line taken from Lord Delaware’s arms which were the basis of the coat of arms for the Coast-Defense of the Chesapeake. The upper part of the shield is white, the lower half black, for day and knight.

Background

The distinctive unit insignia was originally approved for the 61st Artillery Battalion on 16 November 1923. It was redesignated for the 61st Coast Artillery Regiment on 12 December 1939. The insignia was redesignated for the 61st Antiaircraft Artillery Automatic Weapons Battalion on 10 August 1955. It was redesignated for the 61st Artillery Regiment on 19 December 1958. It was redesignated for the 61st Air Defense Artillery Regiment effective 1 September 1971.

Coat of arms

Blazon

  • Shield

Per fess dancette Argent and Sable, a thunderbolt bendwise Proper penetrating the chariot wheel of Helios winged with two dexter wings inverted forming a saltire with the first charged all counterchanged and upon the wheel the sun in splendor of the third.

  • Crest

On a wreath of the colors Argent and Sable, an eagle’s head erased Or. Motto NON EST AD ASTRA MOLLIS E TERRIS VIA (The Way To the Stars Is Not Easy).

Symbolism

  • Shield

The aim and purpose of the unit are told in pictorial form by the story from Greek mythology of the winged chariot of Helios which was brought to earth by a bolt of lightning thrown by Zeus. A summary of the story is as follows: Helios, the sun, drove across the heavens from east to west daily, in a winged chariot drawn by the celestial horses. His son, Phaeton, in order to please his mother, and to satisfy those who doubted that he was really a son of Helios, obtained permission from his father to take his place in the chariot for one day. Phaeton had scarcely taken the reins when the celestial horses, despising their weak driver, turned out of their patch and set everything on fire. When the chariot came so near the earth that the Ethiopians were blackened by the near approach of the sun, Zeus, with a well aimed bolt of lightning, wrecked the chariot and sent it plunging into the river Po. This is the first historical record of a hit being scored against an aerial target. The shield is divided by the saw tooth line taken from Lord Delaware’s arms which were the basis of the coat of arms for the Coast-Defense of the Chesapeake. The upper part of the shield is white, the lower half black, for day and knight.

  • Crest

The crest is from the arms of James Monroe with the colors reversed, a red eagle’s head on a gold shield.

Background

The coat of arms was originally approved for the 1st Antiaircraft Battalion on 25 October 1921. It was redesignated for the 61st Battalion (Antiaircraft) on 10 June 1922. It was redesignated for the 61st Coast Artillery Regiment on 15 December 1939. The insignia was redesignated for the 61st Antiaircraft Artillery Automatic Weapons Battalion on 10 August 1955. It was redesignated for the 61st Artillery Regiment on 19 December 1958. It was redesignated for the 61st Air Defense Artillery Regiment effective 1 September 1971.

Campaign streamers

World War I

  • Streamer without inscription

World War II • Iceland, 1942 & 1943 • England, 1943 & 1944 • Normandy, 1944 • Northern France, 1944 • Ardennes-Alsace, 1944 • Rhineland, 1944 & 1945 • Central Europe, 1945 Korea

  • CCF Intervention
  • First UN Counteroffensive
  • CCF Spring Offensive
  • UN Summer-Fall Offensive

Decorations

  • Distinguished Unit Streamer embroidered ST VITH to 634th AAA(AW)btn
  • Republic of Korea Presenditial Unit Citation,Streamer embroidered KOREA to 635th AAA(AW)btn
  • Belgian Fourragere (1940) (awarded for Defense of Antwerp) to 184th AAA(Gun)btn

References

  • Historical register and dictionary of the United States Army, from ..., Volume 1 By Francis Bernard Heitman [1]
  • Encyclopedia of United States Army insignia and uniforms By William K. Emerson (page 51).[2]
  • [3] lineage
  • Coast Artillery Journal, August 1923 [4] page 139
  • Coast Artillery Journal, May 1931 [5]

External links

61st Regiment

61st Regiment or 61st Infantry Regiment may refer to:

61st Regiment of Foot (disambiguation), four British Army units carried this name

61st Pioneers, a unit of the British Indian Army, 1758-1922

61st Infantry Regiment (United States), a unit of the United States Army

61st Air Defense Artillery Regiment, a unit of the United States Army

61st Cavalry Regiment (United States), a unit of the United States Army

61st Anti-aircraft Missiles Regiment (Romania), a unit of the Romanian Land Forces

61st Cavalry (India), a unit of the Indian Army

61st Infantry Regiment (Finland), a unit of the Finnish Army, 1941–1944American Civil WarUnion (Northern) Army61st Illinois Volunteer Infantry Regiment

61st Indiana Infantry Regiment

61st Ohio Infantry

61st New York Volunteer Infantry

61st Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry

61st Pennsylvania InfantryConfederate (Southern) Army61st Virginia Infantry

61st Georgia Volunteer Infantry

Army Air Defense Command (United States)

Army Anti-Aircraft Command, previously Army Anti-Aircraft Command, was a major command of the United States Army, which existed from 1957 to 1974. The previous ARAACOM was created in 1950 and was redesignated ARADCOM in 1957. The Army formed it to command the Army units allocated to the air defense of the Continental United States. ARAACOM was also charged with becoming the Army component of a joint continental defense force, if and when the joint force was designated.

Army Anti-Aircraft Command (ARAACOM) was created on 29 June 1950. Eastern and Western Army Antiaircraft Commands were established with HQ at Stewart AFB, New York, and Hamilton AFB, California, on 1 September 1950. Anti-Aircraft Command moved to Mitchel Air Force Base, New York on 1 November 1950.

On 10 April 1951, the Commanding General assumed command of all AAA units allocated to continental air defense—six AW, nine 90 mm gun and eight 120 mm gun battalions plus four brigade and seven group headquarters, eight AAA Ops Dets and 15 Signal Corps radar detachments. On 24 April Central Army Anti-Aircraft Command (CARAACOM) was established with HQ at Kansas City, Missouri. It was organized 1 May 1951. By 31 December controlling formations had grown to six brigade and 13 group headquarters. On 31 May 1955 Eastern ARAACOM was disestablished and personnel assigned to the 1st AAA Region.In 1955, numbering started to replace geographic locations to designate regions. The 1st, 2nd and 5th Regions (plus the 53rd Artillery Brigade) now covered the area once called Eastern ARAACOM. In 1956, Western ARAACOM became 6th Region, and the following year, Central became the 4th Region. Areas of responsibility between regions and brigades continued to shift throughout the life of the command.

On March 21, 1957, ARAACOM was renamed to U.S. Army Air Defense Command (USARADCOM).

On 26 July 1960, ARADCOM activated a sixth region.

By 1966 the ARADCOM regions and headquarters were as follows:

1st Region - Fort Totten, New York. Moved to Stewart AFB, NY around 1966. The 17th Artillery Group defended Baltimore, Maryland, from 1952. The 56th Air Defense Artillery Brigade, at Fort Totten and then Fort Devens, Massachusetts, controlled the Providence and Boston air defense battalions, a total of five. The 11th Artillery Group, activated in May 1955 at Camp Stewart, GA., controlled the Savannah River Defense Area from its arrival in May 1958. The Defense Area included the 33rd, 425th, and 478th AAA Battalions, though the 478th was deactivated 15 Feb 1958, and the other two battalions appear to have possibly fused into 4th Battalion, 7th Air Defense Artillery Regiment, on 1 September 1958. The 11th Artillery Group was deactivated August 1960, seemingly at Rehoboth, Massachusetts.

2d Region - Richards-Gebaur AFB, Missouri. The 2nd ARADCOM Region was activated on 1 March 1951 at Fort George G. Meade, MD, and inactivated on 30 June 1971. At Oklahoma City Air Force Station, 9/63, Richards-Gebaur AFB (12/69), and then Selfridge Air Force Base. 35th Air Defense Artillery Brigade controlled the Washington DC defenses from Fort Meade until it was deactivated in December 1973. Thereafter the 23rd Air Defense Artillery Group stood watch from Meade until 1 September 1974. The Group had previously been part of the New York defenses, and before that, a field artillery group in Long Binh, South Vietnam.

5th Region - Fort Sheridan, Illinois. Project Nike Integrated Fire Control Site C-80 of the 45th Antiaircraft Brigade opened at Arlington Field in 1955. The brigade was active in the region, later becoming 45th Artillery Brigade (Air Defense), for many years. The 45th Artillery Brigade controlled the Chicago-Gary Defense Area (10 missile batteries and their Integrated Fire Control sites) from the Arlington Heights Army Air Defense Site. 5th Region moved to Maxwell AFB, AL, early 1966. 5th Battalion, 562nd Air Defense Artillery Regiment maintained the Barksdale Defense Area until 1966.

6th Region - Fort Baker, California. Activated as WARAACOM in September 1950. To Fort Baker in 1951, according to Rings of Supersonic Steel (p. 153). Disestablished 1 August 1974. 29th Artillery Group (Air Defense) was active around the Travis AFB Defense Area, supervising the Nike-equipped 1st Battalion, 61st Air Defense Artillery Regiment and other units. The 40th Artillery Brigade (AD) was established on 23 January 1959 at Fort Barry, moved to Fort Winfield Scott, and deactivated 23 January 1971. The 114th Artillery Brigade (AD) (CA ARNG) was active between 1959 and 1963, along with the 233rd Artillery Group, both in San Francisco. The 13th Artillery Group, which replaced the 40th Brigade in the Bay Area, was activated in March 1958 at Fort Stewart, GA., deployed to southwest Miami, moved to Homestead AFB in November 1968, Snelling Air Force Station (June 1971), and then the Presidio of San Francisco, where it appears to have deactivated on 1 August 1974.

7th Region - McChord Air Force Base, Washington (July 1960 to 1 April 1966). 31st Air Defense Artillery Brigade, at McChord AFB, transferred to Lockport Air Force Station, NY, in December 1961. Also present were HQ 26th Artillery Group (AD) (12/61-3/66) at Fort Lawton which replaced the 31st Brigade when it moved, and HQ 49th ADA Group (3/66-8/74). With the 7th ARADCOM Region being disbanded on 1 April 1966, the areas of responsibility of the 1st, 2nd, 5th, and 6th ARADCOM Regions were reorganized. The 115th Artillery Brigade (Air Defense) was a corresponding Washington Army National Guard formation.The NORAD-CONAD History for the first part of 1965 says that the 53d Brigade Headquarters was to move from Maxwell AFB to McChord AFB and the personnel of the discontinued 7th Region transferred to it. The personnel of the 53rd at Maxwell AFB were to be transferred to the 5th Region. The 1st Region Headquarters was also moving from Fort Totten, NY, to Stewart AFB, NY, because Fort Totten was being closed (this may have been in 1974).

On 1 August 1966, Lieutenant General Robert Hackett assumed command of the United States Army Air Defense Command at Ent Air Force Base in Colorado Springs, Colorado, an assignment he held until he retired 30 June 1968.

In 1957 the Combat Arms Regimental System organized the battalions under regiments again. In 1968 the Air Defense Artillery Branch was created.

ARADCOM strength peaked in 1963, with 184 firing units (134 Regular Army, 50 National Guard). However, beginning in September 1968, the command was reduced in strength. On February 4, 1974, the U.S. Department of Defense announced that ARADCOM would be inactivated, apart from the 31st Air Defense Artillery Brigade, which had been activated during the Cuban Missile Crisis (October 1962) and would remain on duty in southern Florida. By December 31, 1974, ARADCOM's remaining regional headquarters, eight groups, 13 battalion headquarters, and 48 Hercules firing batteries were closed out. ARADCOM headquarters was inactivated January 4, 1975.

Loring Air Force Base

Loring Air Force Base (IATA: LIZ, ICAO: KLIZ) was a United States Air Force installation in northeastern Maine, near Limestone and Caribou in Aroostook County. It was one of the largest bases of the U.S. Air Force's Strategic Air Command during its existence, and was transferred to the newly created Air Combat Command in 1992.

The base's origins began in 1947 with an order for construction of an airfield by the New England Division of the United States Army Corps of Engineers. The chosen site, in northeastern Maine within both Limestone Township and Caswell Plantation, was the closest point in the continental U.S. to Europe, providing high strategic value during the Cold War. The base was originally named Limestone Army Air Field, and was renamed Limestone Air Force Base following the establishment of the Air Force in 1947. It was named in 1954 for Major Charles J. Loring, Jr., USAF, a Medal of Honor recipient during the Korean War. From 1951 to 1962, it was co-located next to Caribou Air Force Station.

Loring was home to a civilian population, many of whom were employed alongside active duty service members. The base included many amenities, such as a hospital, school, and ski hill, which facilitated the adjustment to Maine life by the civilians.

The 1991 Base Realignment and Closure Commission recommended that Loring be closed and its aircraft and mission be distributed to other bases in the nation. The base was closed in September 1994 after over forty years of service. It was redeveloped by the Loring Development Authority as the Loring Commerce Centre, an industrial and aviation park; the airfield is operated as Loring International Airport.

Artillery formations of the United States
Misc. formations
Air Defense Artillery
Coast Artillery
Field Artillery

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