The 60th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 60 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane. No land lies on the parallel — it crosses nothing but ocean. The closest land is a group of rocks north of Coronation Island (Melson Rocks or Governor Islands) of the South Orkney Islands, which are about 54 km south of the parallel, and Thule Island and Cook Island of the South Sandwich Islands, which both are about 57 km north of the parallel (Thule island slightly closer).
The parallel marks the northern limit of the Southern Ocean (though some organisations and countries, notably Australia, have other definitions) and of the Antarctic Treaty System. It also marks the southern boundary of the South Pacific Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone and the Latin American Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone.
At this latitude the sun is visible for 18 hours, 52 minutes during the summer solstice and 5 hours, 52 minutes during the winter solstice. On December 21, the sun is at 53.83 degrees up in the sky and 6.17 degrees on June 21.
The latitudes south of this parallel are often referred to as the Screaming 60s due to the prevailing high-speed, westerly winds which can generate large waves in excess of 15 m (50 ft) and peak wind speeds over 145 km/h (90 mph).
Starting at the Prime Meridian and heading eastwards, the parallel 60° south passes through:
|Co-ordinates||Country, territory or sea||Notes|
|Atlantic Ocean / Southern Ocean boundary|
|Indian Ocean / Southern Ocean boundary|
|Pacific Ocean / Southern Ocean boundary|
|Atlantic Ocean / Southern Ocean boundary||Passing through the Drake Passage between South America and the Antarctic Peninsula|
and running close to the southern border of the Scotia Sea
The meridian 115° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Asia, the Indian Ocean, Australasia, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 115th meridian east forms a great circle with the 65th meridian west.
Between Australia and the 60th parallel south it forms the western boundary of the South Pacific Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone.115th meridian west
The meridian 115° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, North America, the Pacific Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 115th meridian west forms a great circle with the 65th meridian east.
Between the equator and the 60th parallel south it forms the eastern boundary of the South Pacific Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone and the western boundary of the Latin American Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone.20th meridian west
The meridian 20° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Greenland, Iceland, the Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 20th meridian west forms a great circle with the 160th meridian east.
In Antarctica, the meridian defines the border between the British Antarctic Territory and Queen Maud Land. Between the 5th parallel north and the 60th parallel south it forms the eastern boundary of the Latin American Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone.59th parallel south
The 59th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 59 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane. The only landmass on this parallel is Bristol Island.At this latitude the sun is visible for 18 hours, 30 minutes during the December solstice and 6 hours, 10 minutes during the June solstice.60th parallel
60th parallel may refer to:
60th parallel north, a circle of latitude in the Northern Hemisphere
60th parallel south, a circle of latitude in the Southern Hemisphere60th parallel north
The 60th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 60 degrees north of Earth's equator. It crosses Europe, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, North America, and the Atlantic Ocean.
Although it lies approximately twice as far away from the Equator as from the North Pole, the 60th parallel is half as long as the Equator line. This is where the Earth bulges halfway as much as on the Equator.
At this latitude, the Sun is visible for 18 hours, 52 minutes during the June solstice and 5 hours, 52 minutes during the December solstice.
The maximum altitude of the Sun is 53.44° on 21 June and 6.56° on 21 December.The lowest latitude where white nights can be observed is approximately on this parallel.61st parallel south
The 61st parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 61 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane. No land lies on the parallel — it crosses nothing but the Southern Ocean.
At this latitude the sun is visible for 19 hours, 16 minutes during the December solstice and 5 hours, 32 minutes during the June solstice.Antarctic
The Antarctic (US English , UK English or and or ) is a polar region around the Earth's South Pole, opposite the Arctic region around the North Pole. The Antarctic comprises the continent of Antarctica, the Kerguelen Plateau and other island territories located on the Antarctic Plate or south of the Antarctic Convergence. The Antarctic region includes the ice shelves, waters, and all the island territories in the Southern Ocean situated south of the Antarctic Convergence, a zone approximately 32 to 48 km (20 to 30 mi) wide varying in latitude seasonally. The region covers some 20 percent of the Southern Hemisphere, of which 5.5 percent (14 million km2) is the surface area of the Antarctic continent itself. All of the land and ice shelves south of 60°S latitude are administered under the Antarctic Treaty System. Biogeographically, the Antarctic ecozone is one of eight ecozones of the Earth's land surface.Antarctica
Antarctica (UK: or , US: (listen)) is Earth's southernmost continent. It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. At 14,000,000 square kilometres (5,400,000 square miles), it is the fifth-largest continent. For comparison, Antarctica is nearly twice the size of Australia. About 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice that averages 1.9 km (1.2 mi; 6,200 ft) in thickness, which extends to all but the northernmost reaches of the Antarctic Peninsula.
Antarctica, on average, is the coldest, driest, and windiest continent, and has the highest average elevation of all the continents. Most of Antarctica is a polar desert, with annual precipitation of only 200 mm (8 in) along the coast and far less inland. The temperature in Antarctica has reached −89.2 °C (−128.6 °F) (or even −94.7 °C (−135.8 °F) as measured from space), though the average for the third quarter (the coldest part of the year) is −63 °C (−81 °F). Anywhere from 1,000 to 5,000 people reside throughout the year at research stations scattered across the continent. Organisms native to Antarctica include many types of algae, bacteria, fungi, plants, protista, and certain animals, such as mites, nematodes, penguins, seals and tardigrades. Vegetation, where it occurs, is tundra.
Antarctica is noted as the last region on Earth in recorded history to be discovered, unseen until 1820 when the Russian expedition of Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen and Mikhail Lazarev on Vostok and Mirny sighted the Fimbul ice shelf. The continent, however, remained largely neglected for the rest of the 19th century because of its hostile environment, lack of easily accessible resources, and isolation. In 1895, the first confirmed landing was conducted by a team of Norwegians.
Antarctica is a de facto condominium, governed by parties to the Antarctic Treaty System that have consulting status. Twelve countries signed the Antarctic Treaty in 1959, and thirty-eight have signed it since then. The treaty prohibits military activities and mineral mining, prohibits nuclear explosions and nuclear waste disposal, supports scientific research, and protects the continent's ecozone. Ongoing experiments are conducted by more than 4,000 scientists from many nations.List of Antarctic and subantarctic islands
This is a list of Antarctic and subantarctic islands.
Antarctic islands are the islands around Antarctica situated south of the Antarctic Convergence, i.e., in the Antarctic region proper.
Subantarctic islands are the islands around Antarctica situated north of and adjacent to the Antarctic Convergence.According to the terms of the Antarctic Treaty, claims to sovereignty over lands south of 60°S are not asserted. This includes some of the Antarctic islands and none of the subantarctic ones.List of ISO 3166 country codes
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) created and maintains the ISO 3166 standard – Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions. The ISO 3166 standard contains three parts:
ISO 3166-1 – Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions – Part 1: Country codes defines codes for the names of countries, dependent territories, and special areas of geographical interest. It defines three sets of country codes:
ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 – two-letter country codes which are also used to create the ISO 3166-2 country subdivision codes and the Internet country code top-level domains.
ISO 3166-1 alpha-3 – three-letter country codes which may allow a better visual association between the codes and the country names than the 3166-1 alpha-2 codes.
ISO 3166-1 numeric – three-digit country codes which are identical to those developed and maintained by the United Nations Statistics Division, with the advantage of script (writing system) independence, and hence useful for people or systems using non-Latin scripts.
ISO 3166-2 – Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions – Part 2: Country subdivision code defines codes for the names of the principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces, states, departments, regions) of all countries coded in ISO 3166-1.
ISO 3166-3 – Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions – Part 3: Code for formerly used names of countries defines codes for country names which have been deleted from ISO 3166-1 since its first publication in 1974.The ISO 3166-1 standard currently comprises 249 countries, 193 of which are sovereign states that are members of the United Nations. Many dependent territories in the ISO 3166-1 standard are also listed as a subdivision of their parent country in the ISO 3166-2 standard.List of adjectival and demonymic forms for countries and nations
The following is a list of adjectival and demonymic forms of countries and nations in English and their demonymic equivalents. A country adjective describes something as being from that country, for example, "Italian cuisine" is "cuisine of Italy". A country demonym denotes the people or the inhabitants of or from there, for example, "Germans" are people of or from Germany.
Note: Demonyms are given in plural forms. Singular forms simply remove the final s or, in the case of -ese endings, are the same as the plural forms.
The ending -men has feminine equivalent -women (i.e. Irishman, Scotswoman). The French terminations -ois / -ais serve as both the singular and plural masculine; adding e (-oise / -aise) makes them singular feminine; es (-oises / -aises) makes them plural feminine. The Spanish and Portuguese terminations -o usually denotes the masculine and is normally changed to feminine by dropping the -o and adding -a. The plural forms are usually -os and -as respectively.
Adjectives ending in -ish can be used as collective demonyms (e.g. the English, the Cornish). So can those ending in -ch / -tch (e.g. the French, the Dutch) provided they are pronounced with a 'ch' sound (e.g. the adjective Czech does not qualify).
Many place-name adjectives and many demonyms refer also to various other things, sometimes with and sometimes without one or more additional words. (Sometimes, the use of one or more additional words is optional.) Notable examples are cuisines, cheeses, cat breeds, dog breeds, and horse breeds. (See List of words derived from toponyms.)
Note - in cases where two or more adjectival forms are given, there is often a subtle difference in usage between the two. This is particularly the case with Central Asian countries where one form tends to relate to the nation and the other often relates to the predominant ethnic group (e.g., Uzbek is primarily an ethnicity, Uzbekistani relates to citizens of Uzbekistan).
In addition, several countries have a large number of sub-names for their citizens in the form of nicknames for people of certain different areas; these are usually related to something typical of the area. In Puerto Rico for example, people who come from the town of Bayamón are referred to as "Cowboy(s)" or "Cowgirl(s)"; those from Caguas are referred to as "Criollo(s)" or "Criolla(s)". Except in cases such as Spain, in which sub-names have been used interchangeably by others, sub-names belonging to some areas in a country are not listed here.List of circles of latitude
Following is a list of circles of latitude on Earth.Southern Ocean
The Southern Ocean, also known as the Antarctic Ocean or the Austral Ocean, comprises the southernmost waters of the World Ocean, generally taken to be south of 60° S latitude and encircling Antarctica. As such, it is regarded as the fourth-largest of the five principal oceanic divisions: smaller than the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans but larger than the Arctic Ocean. This ocean zone is where cold, northward flowing waters from the Antarctic mix with warmer subantarctic waters.
By way of his voyages in the 1770s, Captain James Cook proved that waters encompassed the southern latitudes of the globe. Since then, geographers have disagreed on the Southern Ocean's northern boundary or even existence, considering the waters as various parts of the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans, instead. However, according to Commodore John Leech of the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO), recent oceanographic research has discovered the importance of Southern Circulation, and the term Southern Ocean has been used to define the body of water which lies south of the northern limit of that circulation. This remains the current official policy of the IHO, since a 2000 revision of its definitions including the Southern Ocean as the waters south of the 60th parallel has not yet been adopted. Others regard the seasonally-fluctuating Antarctic Convergence as the natural boundary.The maximum depth of the Southern Ocean, using the definition that it lies south of 60th parallel, was surveyed by the Five Deeps Expedition in early February 2019. The expedition's multibeam sonar team identified the deepest point at 60° 28' 46"S, 025° 32' 32"W, with a depth of 7,434 meters. The expedition leader and chief submersible pilot Victor Vescovo, has proposed naming this deepest point in the Southern Ocean the "Factorian Deep," based on the name of the manned submersible DSV Limiting Factor, in which he successfully visited the bottom for the first time on February 3, 2019.Subantarctic
The Subantarctic is a region in the southern hemisphere, located immediately north of the Antarctic region. This translates roughly to a latitude of between 46° and 60° south of the Equator. The subantarctic region includes many islands in the southern parts of the Indian Ocean, Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean, especially those situated north of the Antarctic Convergence. Subantarctic glaciers are, by definition, located on islands within the subantarctic region. All glaciers located on the continent of Antarctica are by definition considered to be Antarctic glaciers.Timeline of historical geopolitical changes
This is a timeline of country and capital changes around the world. It includes dates of declarations of independence, changes in country name, changes of capital city or name, and significant changes in territory such as the annexation, cession, or secession of land.
The types of changes listed here usually include (but are not limited to) the alteration of borders, the creation and fall of states, changes of geographical names, as well as a few geographical changes caused by unusually destructive natural disasters. Through the knowledge of such dates and events, the approximate year and age of a world map could be calculated and estimated.
Not all maps of the world created during a given age or period will be the same across the globe, as different mapmakers – or their employers – may have different views on the sovereignty or territorial integrity of the countries of the world or possess different levels of technological sophistication or geographical insight. Even maps created by the same mapmaker around the same time can differ significantly.The timeline below presents its information in reverse chronological order, beginning in the modern era and working backwards. Geopolitical changes are grouped and color-coded by the continent on which they occurred.
This article uses the Common Calendar System, which was established as the new Christian Calendar by Pope Gregory XIII in 1582. The Common Calendar uses the designation Common Era (CE or AD for Anno Domini) for years starting 1 January 1 CE, and Before Common Era (BCE or BC for Before Christ) for years before that date. The Common Calendar also follows the ordinal numbers rather than the cardinal numbers, so there was no "year zero" in this format; that is, the date 1 January 1 CE immediately followed the date 31 December 1 BCE. For the same reason, while the 2000s began on Saturday, 1 January 2000 CE, the official Third Millennium began on Monday, 1 January 2001 CE.Treaty of Rarotonga
The Treaty of Rarotonga is the common name for the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty, which formalises a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in the South Pacific. The treaty bans the use, testing, and possession of nuclear weapons within the borders of the zone.It was signed by the South Pacific nations of Australia, the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Western Samoa on the island of Rarotonga (where the capital of the Cook Islands is located) on 6 August 1985, came into force on 11 December 1986 with the 8th ratification, and has since been ratified by all of those states.
The Federated States of Micronesia, Marshall Islands, and Palau are not party to the treaties but are eligible to become parties should they decide to join the treaty in the future.Wasp Point
Wasp Point (59°27′44.6″S 27°22′18.7″W) is a projecting point in the middle of the southwest coast of Thule Island, South Sandwich Islands. Named by United Kingdom Antarctic Place-Names Committee (UK-APC) in 1971 after the American sealing vessel in which Captain Benjamin Morrell of Stonington, CT, visited the island in 1823. It constitutes, by a small margin in comparison with Jeffries Point on Cook Island (3,8 seconds of latitude or 116,7 meters), the southernmost landmass of the South Sandwich Islands, and the southernmost landmass worldwide north of the 60th parallel south and therefore the southernmost landmass outside of the Antarctic Treaty System.
This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Geological Survey document "Wasp Point" (content from the Geographic Names Information System).