60th parallel north

The 60th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 60 degrees north of Earth's equator. It crosses Europe, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, North America, and the Atlantic Ocean.

Although it lies approximately twice as far away from the Equator as from the North Pole, the 60th parallel is half as long as the Equator line. This is where the Earth bulges halfway as much as on the Equator.

At this latitude, the Sun is visible for 18 hours, 52 minutes during the June solstice and 5 hours, 52 minutes during the December solstice.[1] The maximum altitude of the Sun is 53.44° on 21 June and 6.56° on 21 December.[2]

The lowest latitude where white nights can be observed is approximately on this parallel.

Line across the Earth
60°
60th parallel north

Around the world

Starting at the Prime Meridian and heading eastwards, the parallel 60° north passes through:

Co-ordinates Country, territory or sea Notes
60°0′N 0°0′E / 60.000°N 0.000°E North Sea
60°0′N 5°2′E / 60.000°N 5.033°E  Norway Islands of Møkster, Selbjørn, Huftarøy, Reksteren and Tysnesøy, and the mainland
Passing just north of Oslo
60°0′N 12°23′E / 60.000°N 12.383°E  Sweden Passing through Fagersta
Passing just north of Uppsala
60°0′N 18°53′E / 60.000°N 18.883°E Baltic Sea
60°0′N 20°8′E / 60.000°N 20.133°E  Åland Islands Högskär, Bäckö and several smaller islands
60°0′N 20°58′E / 60.000°N 20.967°E Baltic Sea
60°0′N 22°22′E / 60.000°N 22.367°E  Finland
60°0′N 23°56′E / 60.000°N 23.933°E Baltic Sea Passing just south of Helsinki,  Finland
60°0′N 24°26′E / 60.000°N 24.433°E  Finland Porkkala peninsula
60°0′N 24°30′E / 60.000°N 24.500°E Baltic Sea Gulf of Finland - passing just south of the island of Gogland,  Russia
60°0′N 27°48′E / 60.000°N 27.800°E  Russia Island of Moshchnyy
60°0′N 27°54′E / 60.000°N 27.900°E Baltic Sea Gulf of Finland
60°0′N 29°44′E / 60.000°N 29.733°E  Russia Island of Kotlin (city of Kronstadt)
60°0′N 29°47′E / 60.000°N 29.783°E Baltic Sea Gulf of Finland
60°0′N 30°5′E / 60.000°N 30.083°E  Russia Passing through Saint Petersburg
Passing through Lake Ladoga
60°0′N 154°30′E / 60.000°N 154.500°E Sea of Okhotsk Shelikhov Gulf
60°0′N 161°28′E / 60.000°N 161.467°E  Russia Kamchatka Peninsula
60°0′N 165°14′E / 60.000°N 165.233°E Bering Sea
60°0′N 166°10′E / 60.000°N 166.167°E  Russia
60°0′N 166°33′E / 60.000°N 166.550°E Bering Sea Olyutorsky Gulf
60°0′N 170°9′E / 60.000°N 170.150°E  Russia
60°0′N 170°26′E / 60.000°N 170.433°E Bering Sea
60°0′N 167°8′W / 60.000°N 167.133°W  United States Alaska - Nunivak Island
60°0′N 165°39′W / 60.000°N 165.650°W Etolin Strait
60°0′N 164°9′W / 60.000°N 164.150°W  United States Alaska
60°0′N 152°38′W / 60.000°N 152.633°W Cook Inlet
60°0′N 151°44′W / 60.000°N 151.733°W  United States Alaska - Kenai Peninsula, Evans Island, Elrington Island, Latouche Island and Montague Island
60°0′N 147°24′W / 60.000°N 147.400°W Pacific Ocean Gulf of Alaska
60°0′N 144°24′W / 60.000°N 144.400°W  United States Alaska - Wingham Island, Kayak Island and a small section of mainland
60°0′N 143°50′W / 60.000°N 143.833°W Pacific Ocean Gulf of Alaska
60°0′N 141°53′W / 60.000°N 141.883°W  United States Alaska
60°0′N 139°3′W / 60.000°N 139.050°W  Canada Yukon / British Columbia border
Northwest Territories / British Columbia border
Northwest Territories / Alberta border
Northwest Territories / Saskatchewan border
Northwest Territories / Manitoba border - for about 400m
Nunavut / Manitoba border
60°0′N 94°49′W / 60.000°N 94.817°W Hudson Bay Passing just north of the Ottawa Islands, Nunavut,  Canada
60°0′N 77°17′W / 60.000°N 77.283°W  Canada Quebec
60°0′N 69°46′W / 60.000°N 69.767°W Ungava Bay
60°0′N 65°7′W / 60.000°N 65.117°W  Canada Quebec
Newfoundland and Labrador
60°0′N 64°9′W / 60.000°N 64.150°W Atlantic Ocean Border between the Davis Strait (to the north) and the Labrador Sea (to the south)[3]
60°0′N 44°52′W / 60.000°N 44.867°W  Greenland
60°0′N 43°9′W / 60.000°N 43.150°W Atlantic Ocean
60°0′N 1°21′W / 60.000°N 1.350°W  United Kingdom Scotland - Islands of Mainland and Mousa, Shetland Islands
60°0′N 1°11′W / 60.000°N 1.183°W North Sea

Canada

60th parallel Canada
The 60th parallel north in Canada, marking the southern borders of Yukon, Northwest Territories, and the Nunavut mainland.

In Canada, the 60th parallel constitutes the mainland boundary between the northern territories of Yukon, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut to the north, and the western provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba to the south.

Accordingly, "north of 60" is an expression often used for the territories, although parts of Nunavut (the islands in Hudson Bay and James Bay) are located south of the 60th parallel, and parts of Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador are located north, to the east of Hudson Bay. A 1990s TV show on CBC about life in the Northwest Territories was called North of 60.

Canada's only four corners are located at the intersection of the 60th parallel and the 102nd meridian west, between the Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. However, this is not a true quadripoint as the measurement of the Saskatchewan/Manitoba border in the 1880s placed it approximately 400 metres (440 yd) west of the 102nd meridian, which defines part of the Northwest Territories/Nunavut border.

Greenland

Between 1776 and 1950, the 60th parallel formed the southern limit of the Royal Greenland Trade Department's exclusive monopoly on trade near the Dano-Norwegian and later Danish colonies of Greenland (1776–1782) and South Greenland (1782–1950).[4]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Duration of Daylight/Darkness Table for One Year". aa.usno.navy.mil.
  2. ^ NASA. "Earth Fact Sheet". Retrieved April 11, 2017.
  3. ^ "Limits of Oceans and Seas, 3rd edition" (PDF). International Hydrographic Organization. 1953. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 October 2011. Retrieved 25 October 2016.
  4. ^ Marquardt, Ole. "Change and Continuity in Denmark's Greenland Policy" in The Oldenburg Monarchy: An Underestimated Empire?. Verlag Ludwig (Kiel), 2006.
102nd meridian west

The meridian 102° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, North America, the Pacific Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

The 102nd meridian west forms a great circle with the 78th meridian east.

In Canada, part of the border between the Northwest Territories and Nunavut is defined by the meridian, and part of the border between Saskatchewan and Manitoba runs about 400m west of the meridian. At the 60th parallel north, these borders form a near-quadripoint at the four corners of these provinces and territories. 102°W is the Second Meridian of Canada's Dominion Land Survey.

In the United States, the meridian formed the eastern border of the historic and extralegal Territory of Jefferson. The eastern border of Colorado with Nebraska and Kansas lies on the 25th meridian west from Washington, which lies a couple of miles west of the 102nd meridian west.

59th parallel north

The 59th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 59 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane. It crosses Europe, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, North America, and the Atlantic Ocean.

At this latitude the sun is visible for 18 hours, 30 minutes during the summer solstice and 6 hours, 11 minutes during the winter solstice.

60th parallel

60th parallel may refer to:

60th parallel north, a circle of latitude in the Northern Hemisphere

60th parallel south, a circle of latitude in the Southern Hemisphere

60th parallel south

The 60th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 60 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane. No land lies on the parallel — it crosses nothing but ocean. The closest land is a group of rocks north of Coronation Island (Melson Rocks or Governor Islands) of the South Orkney Islands, which are about 54 km south of the parallel, and Thule Island and Cook Island of the South Sandwich Islands, which both are about 57 km north of the parallel (Thule island slightly closer).

The parallel marks the northern limit of the Southern Ocean (though some organisations and countries, notably Australia, have other definitions) and of the Antarctic Treaty System. It also marks the southern boundary of the South Pacific Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone and the Latin American Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone.

At this latitude the sun is visible for 18 hours, 52 minutes during the summer solstice and 5 hours, 52 minutes during the winter solstice. On December 21, the sun is at 53.83 degrees up in the sky and 6.17 degrees on June 21.

The latitudes south of this parallel are often referred to as the Screaming 60s due to the prevailing high-speed, westerly winds which can generate large waves in excess of 15 m (50 ft) and peak wind speeds over 145 km/h (90 mph).

61st parallel north

The 61st parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 61 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane. It crosses the Atlantic Ocean, Europe, Asia and North America.

At this latitude the sun is visible for 19 hours, 16 minutes during the summer solstice and 5 hours, 32 minutes during the winter solstice.

Arktocara

Arktocara is an extinct genus of river dolphin from the Oligocene epoch of Alaska, containing one species, A. yakataga. Having been discovered in 25 million year old strata near the 60th parallel north, it is perhaps the oldest known crown toothed whale and the northmost river dolphin discovered. It was a member of the now-extinct family Allodelphinidae, along with the genera Allodelphis, Goedertius, Ninjadelphis, and Zarhinocetus. It measured approximately 2.26 or 2.28 meters (7.4 or 7.5 ft), comparable to its closest living relative, the South Asian river dolphin, which measures 2.4 meters (7.9 ft). However, the animal probably had an elongated beak and neck, so it may have been longer. The animal is known only from a partially preserved skull. Its ecology may have been similar to the modern day Dall's porpoise, and it may have competed with contemporaneous delphinoids. Its remains were found in the Poul Creek Formation, which has also yielded several mollusk species.

Atlantic Watershed of North America

The Atlantic Watershed of North America is the portion of the continent which drains from the Continental Divide of the Americas and the Laurentian Divide to the Atlantic Ocean. The watershed includes a portion of Greenland, the Atlantic Seaboard Watershed, and the North American portion of the American Mediterranean Sea Watershed.

Beaver River (Liard River tributary)

The Beaver River is a tributary of the Liard River, entering that stream in the area of its Grand Canyon just south of the British Columbia-Yukon border (the 60th parallel north) after running generally south-east from its origin in the extreme southeast corner of the Yukon Territory.

Borders of Canada

The borders of Canada include the longest shared border in the world, 8,893 km (5,526 mi) with the United States as well as a long maritime boundary with Denmark, at the autonomous island country of Greenland, and a short maritime border with France, at the overseas islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon.

Cassiar Land District

The Cassiar Land District is a cadastral survey subdivision of the province of British Columbia, Canada, created with rest of those on Mainland British Columbia via the Lands Act of the Colony of British Columbia in 1860. The British Columbia government's BC Names system, a subdivision of GeoBC, defines a land district as "a territorial division with legally defined boundaries for administrative purposes" All land titles and surveys use the Land District system as the primary point of reference, and entries in BC Names for placenames and geographical objects are so listed.

Circle of latitude

A circle of latitude on Earth is an abstract east–west circle connecting all locations around Earth (ignoring elevation) at a given latitude.

Circles of latitude are often called parallels because they are parallel to each other; that is, any two circles are always the same distance apart. A location's position along a circle of latitude is given by its longitude. Circles of latitude are unlike circles of longitude, which are all great circles with the centre of Earth in the middle, as the circles of latitude get smaller as the distance from the Equator increases. Their length can be calculated by a common sine or cosine function. The 60th parallel north or south is half as long as the Equator (disregarding Earth's minor flattening by 0.3%). A circle of latitude is perpendicular to all meridians.

The latitude of the circle is approximately the angle between the Equator and the circle, with the angle's vertex at Earth's centre. The equator is at 0°, and the North Pole and South Pole are at 90° north and 90° south, respectively. The Equator is the longest circle of latitude and is the only circle of latitude which also is a great circle.

There are 89 integral (whole degree) circles of latitude between the equator and the Poles in each hemisphere, but these can be divided into more precise measurements of latitude, and are often represented as a decimal degree (e.g. 34.637°N) or with minutes and seconds (e.g. 22°14'26"S). There is no limit to how precisely latitude can be measured, and so there are an infinite number of circles of latitude on Earth.

On a map, the circles of latitude may or may not be parallel, and their spacing may vary, depending on which projection is used to map the surface of the Earth onto a plane. On an equirectangular projection, centered on the equator, the circles of latitude are horizontal, parallel, and equally spaced. On other cylindrical and pseudocylindrical projections, the circles of latitude are horizontal and parallel, but may be spaced unevenly to give the map useful characteristics. For instance, on a Mercator projection the circles of latitude are more widely spaced near the poles to preserve local scales and shapes, while on a Gall–Peters projection the circles of latitude are spaced more closely near the poles so that comparisons of area will be accurate. On most non-cylindrical and non-pseudocylindrical projections, the circles of latitude are neither straight nor parallel.

Arcs of circles of latitude are sometimes used as boundaries between countries or regions where distinctive natural borders are lacking (such as in deserts), or when an artificial border is drawn as a "line on a map", which was made in massive scale during the 1884 Berlin Conference, regarding huge parts of the African continent. North American nations and states have also mostly been created by straight lines, which are often parts of circles of latitudes. For instance, the northern border of Colorado is at 41°N while the southern border is at 37°N. Roughly half the length of border between the United States and Canada follows 49°N.

Extreme points of British Columbia

The extreme points of British Columbia are four in number:

Mount Jetté, also legally described as Boundary Peak 177, which lies just inside the apex of the joint boundaries of British Columbia, Yukon and the US state of Alaska, at 59°59′41″N 139°03′10″W. US coordinates for the same summit are 59°59′39.3″N 139°03′12.6″W. The International Boundary Commission (IBC) defines "boundary point 177" as 59°59′41.3″N 139°3′13.8″W. The actual extreme point is where a line extending northwest from that summit reaches the 60th Parallel north, which is the limit of British Columbia, en route to the 141st line of longitude, which is the boundary between Yukon and Alaska.

at the intersection of the 60th Parallel N and the 120th Meridian West, which is the intersection of the boundaries of the Northwest Territories, British Columbia, and Alberta, north of the headwater area of the Petitot River, a tributary of the Liard (60°00′00″N 120°00′00″W).

Forum Peak, which lies just north of the apex of the joint boundaries of British Columbia, Alberta, and the US state of Montana, and at the southwest corner of Waterton Lakes National Park, at 49°00′14″N 114°04′17″W. The actual extreme point lies just southeast of that summit, where the Continental Divide crosses the Canada–US border. That point is marked by boundary monument 272, at 48°59′55.89″N 114°4′5.45″W.

the southernmost extremity is a point in the Strait of Juan de Fuca at 48°13′28.4″N 123°32′28.4″W, due south of Christopher Point which is the southernmost tip of Vancouver Island, at 48°19′00″N 123°35′00″W. The southernmost land extremity is the southernmost point of land in the Race Rocks, which comprise an offshore ecological reserve, at 48°18′00″N 123°32′00″W.

Hudson Bay drainage basin

The Hudson Bay drainage basin is the drainage basin in northern North America where surface water empties into Hudson Bay and adjoining waters. Spanning an area of about 3,861,400 square kilometres (1,490,900 sq mi), the basin is almost totally in Canada (spanning parts of the Prairies, central and northern Canada), with a small portion in the United States (in Montana, the Dakotas, and Minnesota). The watershed's headwaters are in part on the Continental Divide of the Americas, and the watershed's connection to the Labrador Sea is at the Hudson Strait's mouth between Resolution Island in the Qikiqtaaluk Region and Cape Chidley on the Labrador Peninsula. On the Continental Divide the basin is bounded at Triple Divide Peak to the south, and Snow Dome to the north.

Hudson Bay is often considered part of the Arctic Ocean. For example, the International Hydrographic Organization (in its current unapproved working edition only of Limits of Oceans and Seas) defines the Hudson Bay, with its outlet extending from 62.5 to 66.5 degrees north (just a few miles south of the Arctic Circle) as being part of the Arctic Ocean, specifically "Arctic Ocean Subdivision 9.11." Other authorities include it, in part because of its greater water budget connection, with the Atlantic Ocean. The Hudson Bay drainage basin coincides almost completely with the former territory Rupert's Land, claimed by the Hudson's Bay Company in the 17th century, and an ideal area for the early fur trade in northern and central North America.

Laurentian Divide

The Laurentian Divide is a continental divide in central North America that separates the Hudson Bay watershed to the north from the Gulf of Mexico watershed to the south and the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Watershed to the southeast.

The divide runs from its junction with the Continental Divide at Triple Divide Peak in Glacier National Park in northwestern Montana jaggedly easterly north of the Montana border dipping southeast to the northeast corner of South Dakota then passing over Lake Nipigon above the Great Lakes dipping to the lower western border of Quebec below James Bay, then northeasterly across Quebec to the middle of the southwestern boundary of Newfoundland and Labrador. From there, it follows the boundary jaggedly north to Killiniq Island where it becomes the boundary between Nunavut and Labrador before reaching its terminus at Cape Chidley on the Labrador Sea.

Water north of the divide flows to Hudson Bay; water south of the divide and west and south of the St. Lawrence Divide flows to the Gulf of Mexico, otherwise to the Gulf of St. Lawrence.

The divide hosts two triple divide points, one at its origin on Triple Divide Peak, Montana where it intersects the Continental Divide, usually considered the hydrological apex of North America, and the other at Hill of Three Waters near Hibbing, Minnesota where it intersects the St. Lawrence divide.

Mail, Shetland

Mail is a hamlet on the island of Mainland, in the Shetland Islands, Scotland.

North-Western Territory

The North-Western Territory was a region of British North America until 1870. Named for where it lay in relation to Rupert's Land, the territory at its greatest extent covered what is now Yukon, mainland Northwest Territories, northwestern mainland Nunavut, northwestern Saskatchewan, northern Alberta and northern British Columbia. Some of this area was originally part of Rupert's Land due to inaccurate maps. The acquisition of Rupert's Land was the largest land purchase in Canada's history.

Provinces and territories of Canada

The provinces and territories of Canada are the sub-national governments within the geographical areas of Canada under the authority of the Canadian Constitution. In the 1867 Canadian Confederation, three provinces of British North America—New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and the Province of Canada (which upon Confederation was divided into Ontario and Quebec)—were united to form a federated colony, becoming a sovereign nation in the next century. Over its history, Canada's international borders have changed several times, and the country has grown from the original four provinces to the current ten provinces and three territories. Together, the provinces and territories make up the world's second-largest country by area.

Several of the provinces were former British colonies, and Quebec was originally a French colony, while others were added as Canada grew. The three territories govern the rest of the area of the former British North America.

The major difference between a Canadian province and a territory is that provinces receive their power and authority from the Constitution Act, 1867 (formerly called the British North America Act, 1867), whereas territorial governments have powers delegated to them by the Parliament of Canada. The powers flowing from the Constitution Act are divided between the Government of Canada (the federal government) and the provincial governments to exercise exclusively. A change to the division of powers between the federal government and the provinces requires a constitutional amendment, whereas a similar change affecting the territories can be performed unilaterally by the Parliament of Canada or government.

In modern Canadian constitutional theory, the provinces are considered to be sovereign within certain areas based on the divisions of responsibility between the provincial and federal government within the Constitution Act 1867, and each province thus has its own representative of the Canadian "Crown", the lieutenant governor. The territories are not sovereign, but instead their authorities and responsibilities come directly from the federal level, and as a result, have a commissioner instead of a lieutenant governor.

Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Grouard–McLennan

The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Grouard–McLennan (Latin: Archidioecesis Gruardensis–McLennanpolitana) is a Latin archdiocese of the Roman Catholic Church in Canada and the metropolitan see of an ecclesiastical province for the Roman Catholic Church in northwestern Canada.

The archbishop is the Most Reverend Gérard Pettipas, C.Ss.R.. As archbishop, Pettipas also serves as pastor of the Cathedral of Saint John the Baptist, the mother church and episcopal see of the archdiocese.

Territorial evolution of Canada

The Dominion of Canada was formed on July 1, 1867, when the British colonies of Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia were merged to form a single Dominion within the British Empire. Canada continued to expand across North America as other British colonies and territories joined with or were ceded to Canada, eventually growing from four provinces to ten provinces and three territories. Politically, Canada gained increasing independence in the 20th century, eventually becoming a fully sovereign state in 1982.

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