The 60 Plus Association is an American 501(c)(4) organization founded in 1992 and based in Alexandria, Virginia. Its stated purpose is to promote solutions to seniors' issues that are grounded in free markets, less government, and less taxes. The organizations is pro-Republican Party. The organization is known for its advocacy for the privatization of Social Security and senior citizen health programs, as well as its opposition to the estate tax. The organization is funded by Charles and David Koch (of Koch Industries).
The organization is known for its advocacy for the privatization of Social Security and senior citizen health programs, as well as its opposition to the estate tax. The organization bills itself as a conservative alternative to the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP). In the 2012 election, the organization ran a $3.5 million ad campaign which falsely claimed that President Obama had proposed rationing and denial of certain Medicare treatments, and that he would cut $500 billion from Medicare.
In 2002, the Washington Post reported that 60 Plus received an unrestricted educational grant (which can be used as most needed) from the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, also known as PhRMA. Ken Johnson, senior vice president and spokesman for PhRMA said that as of 2009 the association had not provided any funding to 60 Plus for at least five years. In 2009, Carl Forti, a political consultant and spokesman for 60 Plus said, "I don't believe PhRMA has ever given 60 Plus money." He added that 60 Plus is funded by donations from its 5.5 million members.
In 2014, documents left behind by an attendee at an exclusive "donor seminar" put on by Charles and David Koch (of Koch Industries) revealed that the billionaire brothers count the 60 Plus Association as a part of their political network.
60 Plus is led by its Chairman James L Martin, a 77-year-old veteran of the US Marines. Martin has previously led several conservative advocacy groups, and also was chief of staff for six years for former Republican congressman and senator, the late Edward Gurney of Florida. Martin also served as a member of President George W. Bush's health and human services transition team. In 2010, Amy Noone Frederick (b. 1978) was named president of the 60 Plus Association. Frederick, wife of former Virginia legislator Jeff Frederick, is a former lobbyist and political consultant. For eight years she served as a senior adviser to Virginia legislative candidates. Frederick graduated from Franklin and Marshall College in Lancaster, Pennsylvania with a degree in government.
The 2012 United States Senate election in Ohio took place on November 6, 2012, concurrently with the 2012 U.S. presidential election as well as other elections to the United States Senate and House of Representatives and various state and local elections. Incumbent Democratic U.S. Senator Sherrod Brown won re-election to a second term. He was unopposed in the Democratic primary and Ohio State Treasurer Josh Mandel won the Republican primary with 63% of the vote.2012 United States Senate elections
The 2012 United States Senate elections were held November 6, 2012, with 33 of the 100 seats in the Senate being contested in regular elections whose winners would serve six-year terms beginning January 3, 2013, with the 113th Congress. Democrats had 21 seats up for election, plus 1 Independent and 1 Independent Democrat, while the Republicans had only 10 seats up for election. The Democrats gained a net of 2 seats including a gain from the Independent Democrat, leaving them with a total of 53 seats. The Republicans lost a net of 2 seats, ending with a total of 45 seats. The Independent retained a lone seat and gained a seat from the Republicans, bringing their total to 2 seats. The Independents would caucus with the Democrats, so that majority caucus had a combined total of 55 seats.
The presidential election, which was won by incumbent-President Barack Obama, elections to the House of Representatives, elections for governors in 14 states and territories, and many state and local elections were also held the same day.2013 United States federal government shutdown
From October 1 to October 17, 2013, the United States federal government entered a shutdown and curtailed most routine operations because neither legislation appropriating funds for fiscal year 2014 nor a continuing resolution for the interim authorization of appropriations for fiscal year 2014 was enacted in time. Regular government operations resumed October 17 after an interim appropriations bill was signed into law.
During the shutdown, approximately 800,000 federal employees were indefinitely furloughed, and another 1.3 million were required to report to work without known payment dates. Only those government services deemed "excepted" under the Antideficiency Act were continued; and only those employees deemed "excepted" continued to report to work. The previous U.S. federal government shutdown was in 1995–96. The 16-day-long shutdown of October 2013 was the third-longest government shutdown in U.S. history, after the 35-day 2018–2019 shutdown and the 21-day 1995–96 shutdown.
A "funding-gap" was created when the two chambers of Congress failed to agree to an appropriations continuing resolution. The Republican-led House of Representatives, in part encouraged by conservative senators such as Ted Cruz and conservative groups such as Heritage Action, offered several continuing resolutions with language delaying or defunding the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (commonly known as "Obamacare"). The Democratic-led Senate passed several amended continuing resolutions for maintaining funding at then-current sequestration levels with no additional conditions. Political fights over this and other issues between the House on one side and President Barack Obama and the Senate on the other led to a budget impasse which threatened massive disruption.The deadlock centered on the Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2014, which was passed by the House of Representatives on September 20, 2013. The Senate stripped the bill of the measures related to the Affordable Care Act, and passed it in revised form on September 27, 2013. The House reinstated the Senate-removed measures, and passed it again in the early morning hours on September 29. The Senate declined to pass the bill with measures to delay the Affordable Care Act, and the two legislative houses did not develop a compromise bill by the end of September 30, 2013, causing the federal government to shut down due to a lack of appropriated funds at the start of the new 2014 federal fiscal year.
Also, on October 1, 2013, many aspects of the Affordable Care Act implementation took effect. The health insurance exchanges created by the Affordable Care Act launched as scheduled on October 1. Much of the Affordable Care Act is funded by previously authorized and mandatory spending, rather than discretionary spending, and the presence or lack of a continuing resolution did not affect it. Some of the law's funds also come from multiple-year and "no-year" discretionary funds that are not affected by a lack of a continuing resolution. Late in the evening of October 16, 2013, Congress passed the Continuing Appropriations Act, 2014, and the President signed it shortly after midnight on October 17, ending the government shutdown and suspending the debt limit until February 7, 2014.According to a Washington Post/ABC News poll conducted several months following the shutdown, 81% of Americans disapproved of the shutdown, 86% felt it had damaged the United States' image in the world, and 53% held Republicans in Congress accountable for the shutdown.AARP
AARP (formerly the American Association of Retired Persons) is a United States-based interest group whose stated mission is "to empower people to choose how they live as they age." According to the organization, it had more than 38 million members as of 2018.
AARP was founded in 1958 by Ethel Percy Andrus (a retired educator from California) and Leonard Davis (later the founder of the Colonial Penn Group of insurance companies). It is an influential lobbying group in the United States focusing largely on seniors issues. AARP sells paid memberships, and markets insurance and other services to its members. Its "Fraud Watch" includes write-ups by former con man and FBI advisor Frank Abagnale.Alan Grayson
Alan Mark Grayson (born March 13, 1958) is an American politician who was the United States Representative for Florida's 9th congressional district and a member of the Democratic Party. He previously served as Representative for Florida's 8th congressional district from 2009 to 2011. He was defeated for re-election in 2010 by Republican Daniel Webster and was then elected in 2012 for a second, non-consecutive term in the House of Representatives, defeating Republican Todd Long. In 2016, Grayson decided not to run for re-election to his House seat in order to run for the Senate from Florida in the 2016 election. He was defeated 59%–18% in the Democratic primary by fellow Representative Patrick Murphy, who went on to lose the general election to incumbent Marco Rubio. In 2018, Grayson entered the race for Florida's 9th Congressional District. He was defeated in the Democratic primary by Darren Soto, 66%-34%.Association of Mature American Citizens
Association of Mature American Citizens (AMAC) is a United States-based conservative advocacy organization and interest group, founded in 2007. Its president and founder is Daniel C. Weber, a retired insurance agency owner.AMAC is a membership organization for people age 50 and over. The group calls itself "the conservative alternative to the AARP." It is one of several organizations to position itself as conservative rivals to the AARP; others include the American Seniors Association and 60 Plus Association.In 2014, the group is based in Lady Lake, Florida.Bill Gates Sr.
William Henry Gates II (born November 30, 1925), better known as Bill Gates Sr., is an American retired attorney and philanthropist, and author of the book Showing Up for Life: Thoughts on the Gifts of a Lifetime. He is the father of Bill Gates, the principal founder of Microsoft.
One of a line of businessmen named William H. Gates, and sometimes called William Gates Jr. during his career, he is now generally known as William Henry Gates Sr. due to the greater prominence of his son Bill Gates (whose full name is William Henry Gates III). He has adopted the suffix "Sr." to distinguish himself from his more famous son.Competitive Enterprise Institute
The Competitive Enterprise Institute (CEI) is a non-profit libertarian think tank founded by political writer Fred L. Smith Jr. on March 9, 1984, in Washington, D.C., to advance principles of limited government, free enterprise, and individual liberty.
According to the 2017 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report (Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program, University of Pennsylvania), CEI is number 59 (of 60) in the "Top Think Tanks in the United States".Cooler Heads Coalition
The Cooler Heads Coalition is a politically conservative "informal and ad-hoc group" in the United States, financed and operated by the Competitive Enterprise Institute. The group, which opposes the scientific consensus on climate change, is known to promote falsehoods about climate change and has been characterized as a leader in efforts to stop the government from addressing climate change.Daniel Webster (Florida politician)
Daniel Alan Webster (born April 27, 1949) is an American politician who has been a member of the United States House of Representatives since 2011. Webster, a Republican from Florida, represents Florida's 11th district since 2017 after having previously represented Florida's 8th congressional district and 10th district. Prior to his service in Congress, Webster served 28 years in the Florida state legislature.
After receiving his engineering degree from the Georgia Institute of Technology, he worked in the family air conditioning and heating business that he now owns and operates. He has been a resident of Florida since the age of seven and resides in Winter Garden, Florida.
First elected in 1980, Webster served 28 years in the state legislature in Tallahassee, becoming the longest serving legislator in Florida history. During that time, he rose to become Speaker of the Florida House of Representatives and Florida Senate majority leader, and left the legislature only after reaching the legal term limits in 2008. He ran unopposed in all of his elections for the state legislature except for the first three; 1980, 1982, and 1984.Webster was first elected to Congress in 2010. He has since run three times for Speaker of the House: in January 2015, he received 12 votes for that office, in October 2015, he received nine votes, and in 2017, received 1 vote.
In the 115th United States Congress, Webster sits on the Transportation and Infrastructure Committee, the Natural Resources Committee, and the Science, Space, and Technology Committee.Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act
The Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Pub.L. 111–203, H.R. 4173, commonly referred to as Dodd–Frank) was signed into United States federal law by US President Barack Obama on July 21, 2010.
Passed in response to the 2008 global financial crisis, the Act brought the most significant changes to financial regulation in the nation since the regulatory reform that came following the Great Recession. It made changes in the American financial regulatory environment affecting all federal financial regulatory agencies and almost every part of the nation's financial services industry.The law was initially proposed by the Obama administration in June 2009, when the White House sent several proposed bills to Congress. The legislation was introduced in the House in July 2009. On December 2, 2009, revised versions of the bill were introduced in the House of Representatives by then–financial services committee chairman Barney Frank, and in the Senate Banking Committee by former chairman Chris Dodd. Dodd and Frank were both involved with the bill; the conference committee that reported on June 25, 2010, voted to name the bill after both men.Studies have found the Dodd–Frank Act has improved financial stability and consumer protection, although there has been debate regarding its economic effects. The Act established the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB), which from inception to April 2017 had "returned almost $12 billion to 29 million consumers and imposed about $600 million in civil penalties."On June 8, 2017, the Republican-led House passed the Financial CHOICE Act, which, if enacted, would roll back many of the provisions of Dodd–Frank. In June 2017 the Senate was crafting its own reform bill.On March 14, 2018, the Senate passed a bill by a 67 to 31 vote, easing financial regulations and reducing oversight for banks with assets below $250 billion. The law passed the House of Representatives on May 22, 2018 in a 258–159 vote. The legislation was then signed into law by President Donald Trump on May 24, 2018.Frank Luntz
Frank Ian Luntz (born February 23, 1962) is an American political consultant, pollster, and "public opinion guru" best known for developing talking points and other messaging for various Republican causes. His work has included assistance with messaging for Newt Gingrich's Contract with America, and public relations support for pro-Israel policies in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. He advocated use of vocabulary crafted to produce a desired effect; including use of the term death tax instead of estate tax, and climate change instead of global warming.
Luntz's most recent work has been with Fox News as a frequent commentator and analyst, as well as running focus groups during and after presidential debates on CBSN. Luntz describes his specialty as "testing language and finding words that will help his clients sell their product or turn public opinion on an issue or a candidate." He is also an author of business books dealing with communication strategies and public opinion. Luntz's current company, Luntz Global, LLC, specializes in message creation and image management for commercial and political clients.History of taxation in the United States
The history of taxation in the United States begins with the colonial protest against British taxation policy in the 1760s, leading to the American Revolution. The independent nation collected taxes on imports ("tariffs"), whiskey, and (for a while) on glass windows. States and localities collected poll taxes on voters and property taxes on land and commercial buildings. In addition, there were state and federal excise taxes. State and federal inheritance taxes began after 1900, while the states (but not the federal government) began collecting sales taxes in the 1930s. The United States imposed income taxes briefly during the Civil War and the 1890s. In 1913, the 16th Amendment was ratified, permanently legalizing an income tax.Joe Scarborough
Charles Joseph Scarborough (; born April 9, 1963) is an American cable news and talk radio host. He is currently the co-host of Morning Joe on MSNBC with Mika Brzezinski, his wife. He previously hosted Scarborough Country on the same network. Scarborough was previously a lawyer and a politician and served in the United States House of Representatives from 1995 to 2001 as a Republican for the 1st district of Florida.
Scarborough was also a visiting fellow at the Harvard Institute of Politics at the Harvard Kennedy School of Government. He was named in the 2011 Time 100 as one of the most influential people in the world.List of organizations with official stances on the SOPA and PIPA
The Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) and PROTECT IP Act (PIPA) have found broad support from organizations that rely on copyright, including the Motion Picture Association of America, the Recording Industry Association of America, Macmillan Publishers, Viacom, and various other companies and unions in the cable, movie, and music industries.
On December 22, 2011, Lamar Smith, the bill's sponsor, released a list of 142 organizations that support SOPA on the House Judiciary Committee's website. Other lists have been released by the organizations themselves.
Following the list's original release, it was updated multiple times. As of the morning of December 29, 2011, the official list had 18 fewer supporters, including only 124 of the original 142 supporters. The growing publicity of this list on websites such as Reddit resulted in what might be referred to as a public relations disaster for some of the supporters listed. Arguably the first and most prominent case regarded GoDaddy.com, a popular internet domain registrar and web hosting company which openly supported SOPA. GoDaddy sustained significant losses, losing over 72,000 domains in less than one week, as a result of a proposed boycott of their services, pending it renounce its support of SOPA. GoDaddy has since announced that it "no longer supports SOPA legislation," then amended that statement to "GoDaddy OPPOSES SOPA."Marketplace Fairness Act
The Marketplace Fairness Act is proposed legislation pending in the United States Congress that would enable state governments to collect sales taxes and use taxes from remote retailers with no physical presence in their state. Identical versions were introduced into both the United States House of Representatives and the United States Senate during the 113th United States Congress. During the previous, 112th Congress, a bill (S. 1832) was considered but expired without enactment.
The current bill (the Marketplace Fairness Act of 2013) was introduced on February 14, 2013, in the House as H.R. 684 and in the Senate as S. 336. It was introduced a second time in the Senate as S. 743 on April 16, 2013 and was passed there on May 6, 2013. All three bills are virtually identical and would allow states to require online and other out-of-state retailers to collect sales and use tax.Pat Boone
Charles Eugene "Pat" Boone (born June 1, 1934) is an American singer, composer, actor, writer, television personality, motivational speaker, and spokesman. He was a successful pop singer in the United States during the 1950s and early 1960s. He sold more than 45 million records, had 38 top-40 hits, and appeared in more than 12 Hollywood films.
According to Billboard, Boone was the second-biggest charting artist of the late 1950s, behind only Elvis Presley, and was ranked at No. 9 in its listing of the Top 100 Top 40 Artists 1955–1995. Until the 2010s, Boone held the Billboard record for spending 220 consecutive weeks on the charts with one or more songs each week.
At the age of 23, he began hosting a half-hour ABC variety television series, The Pat Boone Chevy Showroom, which aired for 115 episodes (1957–1960). Many musical performers, including Edie Adams, Andy Williams, Pearl Bailey, and Johnny Mathis, made appearances on the show. His cover versions of rhythm and blues hits had a noticeable effect on the development of the broad popularity of rock and roll. Elvis Presley was the opening act for a 1955 Pat Boone show in Cleveland, Ohio.As an author, Boone had a number-one bestseller in the 1950s (Twixt Twelve and Twenty, Prentice-Hall). In the 1960s, he focused on gospel music and is a member of the Gospel Music Hall of Fame. He continues to perform and speak as a motivational speaker, a television personality, and a conservative political commentator.Sherrod Brown
Sherrod Campbell Brown (, born November 9, 1952) is an American politician serving as the senior United States Senator from Ohio, a seat he was first elected to in 2006. A member of the Democratic Party, he was the U.S. Representative for Ohio's 13th congressional district from 1993 to 2007 and the 47th Secretary of State of Ohio from 1983 to 1991. He started his political career in 1975 as an Ohio State Representative.
Brown defeated two-term Republican incumbent Mike DeWine in the 2006 U.S. Senate election and was reelected both in 2012, defeating state Treasurer Josh Mandel, and in 2018, defeating U.S. Representative Jim Renacci. In the Senate, he was chair of the Agriculture Subcommittee on Hunger, Nutrition and Family Farms and the Banking Subcommittee on Economic Policy, and is also a member of the Committee on Finance, the Committee on Veterans' Affairs, and Select Committee on Ethics. At the start of the 114th Congress in January 2015, Brown became the Ranking Democratic Member on the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs. He was later appointed co-chair of the newly formed Joint Multiemployer Pension Solvency Committee in March 2018. As of 2019, he is the only Democratic statewide elected official in Ohio.In January 2019, Brown began exploring a run for President of the United States in 2020. On March 7, 2019, he announced he would remain in the Senate and not run for president.Tea Party Caucus
The Tea Party Caucus (TPC) was a congressional caucus of conservative members of the Republican Party in the United States House of Representatives. The Caucus was founded in July 2010 by Minnesota Congresswoman Michele Bachmann in coordination with the Tea Party movement the year following the movement's 2009 creation. Bachmann served as the Caucus' first chair.From July 2012 to April 2013 the Tea Party Caucus neither met nor posted news on its webpage, leading observers to describe it as "dead," "inactive," and "defunct." In April 2013, Mick Mulvaney of South Carolina filed paperwork to create a new Tea Party Caucus, but found that Bachmann intended to continue the caucus, starting with an event on April 25, 2013. On June 19, 2014, Tea Party Caucus member Steve Scalise of Louisiana was elected as the House Majority Whip. The Caucus was reconstituted in the 114th Congress in January 2015. Rep. Tim Huelskamp of Kansas became the chair in February 2015. Huelskamp lost party primary election in 2016. The Caucus is now largely inactive. Though the primary functions of the Caucus have varied from year to year, its members have promoted budget cuts, including significant cuts in non-defense spending and adherence to the movement's interpretation of the Constitution. The caucus's members have also advocated socially conservative legislation, supported the right to keep and bear arms, and promoted limited government.
The idea of a Tea Party Caucus originated from Rand Paul (KY) when he was campaigning for the U.S. Senate in 2010. The Caucus was approved as an official congressional member organization by the House Administration Committee on July 19, 2010, and held its first meeting and public event, a press conference on the grounds of the U.S. Capitol, on July 21. A similar informal Caucus was formed in the Senate by four Senators on January 27, 2011.Since approximately late 2016, although there was no official announcement, the Tea Party Caucus appears to be defunct, and most of its members are now caucusing with either the Freedom Caucus or the Liberty Caucus.
Although the Tea Party is not a party in the classic sense of the word, research has shown that members of the Tea Party Caucus vote like a third party in Congress.