5th Guards Motor Rifle Division

The 5th Guards Zimovnikovskaya order Kutuzov II degree Motor Rifle Division, (Military Unit Number (V/Ch) 51852 from 1979) named on the 60th anniversary of the USSR, was a military formation of the Soviet Ground Forces. It was formed from the 6th Mechanized Corps created in 1940 and destroyed in 1941 in the beginning of Operation Barbarossa. The corps was reformed in November 1942 under the same name, but with a different organizational structure. In early 1943, the 6th Mechanized Corps was granted "Guards" status and became the 5th Guards Mechanized Corps.

It was renamed the 5th Guards Mechanized Division in 1945, and subsequently the 5th Guards Motor Rifle Division in 1965.

6th Mechanized Corps (1940–1941) (1942–1943)
5th Guards Mechanized Corps (1943–1945)
5th Guards Mechanized Division (1945–1957)
53rd Guards Motor Rifle Division (1957–1965)
5th Guards Motor Rifle Division (1965–1989)
Active1940 – early 1990s (including the early Mechanized Corps)
Country Soviet Union
BranchRed Army flag.svg Red Army
TypeMechanised Infantry
SizeDivision
Part of40th Army (Soviet Union) (1979–1988)
Patron60th Anniversary of the USSR
EngagementsWorld War II
Soviet–Afghan War
DecorationsOrder of Kutuzov II Degree

Creation of 6th Mechanized Corps

The 6th Mechanised Corps was formed on 15 July 1940 at Bialystok in the Western Special Military District. It was attached to the 10th Army in the Bialystok area[1] and was under the command of Major General M.G. Khatskilevich when Operation Barbarossa began in June 1941.[2]

The Corps initially comprised the 4th and 7th Tank Divisions and the 29th Mechanized Division, as well as several smaller units.[3] On 22 June 1941, the 6th Mechanized Corps consisted of 32,382 men, 1,131 tanks, 242 armored cars, 162 artillery pieces, 187 mortars, 4,779 vehicles, 294 tractors and 1042 motorcycles. It included light tanks such as the T-26, Bt-7 and Bt-5 and T-28, as well as 201 of the newer T-34 and KV-1 models in the 7th Tank Division and a further 151 in the 4th Tank Division.

A report by Major General B.S. Vasil'evich, commander of 7th Tank Division, on 4 August 1941 said that the division had been at 98% enlisted strength and 60-80% officer strength. The division included 348 tanks, of which 51 were KVs and 150 T-34s.[4] However, there was lack of supplies. It possessed only one to one and a half loads of 76 mm ammunition when it entered battle, no armor-piercing ammunition for its tanks, three refills of gasoline, and a single fill of diesel fuel. The fuel ran out quickly, partially due to unclear orders. The division had to move to three new assembly areas within the first two days of the war. The division was soon immobilized south of Grodno in Belarus.

Similar to the 4th Mechanized Corps, the 6th Mechanized Corps stood out of the remaining mechanized corps of the Red Army.[5]

On 22 June 1941 it was fully formed, and stationed 100-150 kilometers from the border.[5]

Defeat in Operation Barbarossa

The 6th Mechanized Corps was heavily involved in the first battles with Germans. At 11:40pm on the day of German invasion,[5] Pavlov ordered his Deputy Front Commander Lieutenant General Ivan Boldin to take command over what would be later called Boldin's group. The group's core was the 6th Mechanized Corps and the 6th Cavalry Corps, with 11th Mechanized Corps to be attached soon.[5] Boldin's group first and last mission was against German armored forces of Hoth's 3rd Panzergruppe advancing at the vulnerable boundary line between Soviet Northwestern Front and Soviet Western Front at Merkinė.[5] It is considered part of the larger Battle of Białystok–Minsk.

Kowno Panzerschlacht 1941 01 (RaBoe)
A destroyed KV-1 is inspected by German Troops in Russia in 1941

Historian David Glantz stated that the tank divisions of 6th Mechanized Corps on 24 June 1941 were inferior against the advancing German units often without infantry support and were relentlessly pounded by the German aircraft of the Luftflotte 2. Without adequate ammunition and with many tanks in a state of disrepair and sent to several different locations without fuel reserves, they were quickly immobilized.[6][7] A report from the Western Front on 27 June noted that 6th Mechanized Corps had lost 20–26% of its tank strength in its 4th and 7th tank Divisions.

Solonin states that the only battle that 6th Mechanized Corps saw was an attack of 24 June, when it lost 2% of tanks.[8] The corps dissipated soon without any other combat, with negligible losses to aircraft, and with distance traveled that hardly necessitated any fuel tanking or repairs.[5] The corps dispersed on 27 June near Krynki, with the personnel retreating east in small groups, and the equipment being abandoned or destroyed en masse.[5]

Communication with the headquarters of Boldin was lost and Major General Khatskilevich was killed on 25 June 1941.[5]

Hoth's panzers had reached Vilnius on the 23rd of June, then Grodno, and finally Minsk by 26 June. By 25 June 1941 General Heinz Guderian's 2nd Panzergruppe reached Slonim and Vawkavysk and cut off the retreat of the greater part of the 10th and 3rd Armies at Białystok encirclement. The Soviet armies could not retreat across the Shchara River because Luftflotte 2 had destroyed the bridges. Guderian's "pincer" reached Vilnius on the 27th June trapping the greater part of 13th and 4th Armies in another encirclement at Minsk.

The 6th Mechanized Corps was destroyed in the Białystok encirclement. It was formally dissolved in late July 1941.[7][9]

Second Formation

The idea of mechanized corps were revived in the spring of 1942. The second formation of 6th Mechanized Corps was assembled in November 1942. On the basis of Headquarters' 14th Tank Corps, the 6th Mechanized Corps was reformed on Nov. 26, 1942 at the station Kostereva in accordance with NKO directive number 11905907ss and GABTU number 1105723 dated November 26, 1942. Major General of Armored Forces Semyon Ilyich Bogdanov was appointed the commander of the 6th Mechanized Corps.

On December 18, 1942, 6th Mechanized Corps was assigned to the 2nd Guards Army of the Southern Front, where it was involved in stopping the onset of Operation Winter Storm. The Manstein's attempted breakthrough to the Sixth Army stationed in Stalingrad. On January 8, 1943, the Corps – participating in the counterattack – captured the Zimovniki station (Rostov Oblast), a vital point of the Luftwaffe's munitions supply chain. For this reason the Corps was given the honorific Zimovnikovsky. Soon it was raised to the elite "Guards" status; thus it became the 5th Zimovnikovsky Guards Mechanised Corps.

The Corps participated in the Battle of Kursk, as a part of 5th Guards Tank Army. On 1 August 1943, it comprised the 10th, 11th and 12th Guards Mechanised Brigades, 24th Guards Tank Brigade, and smaller supporting units.[10] Alongside other units, it fought in the southern part of salient against the elite 3rd SS Panzer Division Totenkopf and drove them out of Belgorod. In 1944, the 5th Guards Mechanized Corps took part in the elimination of the Korsun-Cherkasy Pocket.

Later in 1944 the 5th Zimovnikovsky Guards Mechanized Corps fought in Moravia and Upper Silesia. As part of the 4th Guards Tank Army it crossed the Oder and Neisse. At the end of April 1945, it took part in the Battle of Berlin. After taking Berlin, the Corps was engaged from 6 to 11 May 1945 in the Prague Offensive. On May 8, 1945, the 10th Mechanized Brigade of the Corps was the first to enter the Czech capital, for which the unit received the Prague honorific.

Postwar

After the war, on 10 June 1945, the 5th Guards Mechanized Corps became the 5th Guards Mechanised Division. On 25 June 1957 it was renamed 53rd Guards Motor Rifle Division.[11] On 11 January 1965, it became the 5th Guards Motor Rifle Division. On 17 December 1982 it was named "The 60th anniversary of the USSR".

On 28 June 1945, the division was awarded the Order of Kutuzov of II degree. In 1946 the division relocated to the Turkestan Military District. From the time of its reassignment to the 53rd Guards MRD, it was based at Kushka, Mary Oblast in the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic.[11]

The division had the Military Unit Number (V/Ch) 11904 until the invasion of Afghanistan (December, 1979) upon which the V/Ch changed to 51852.[12]

Afghanistan War

On the night of 27 December, from Kushka, the 5th GMRD entered Afghanistan bound for Herat and Shindand. A battalion of the 56th Guards Air Assault Brigade had taken control of the Rabat Mirza pass on 26 December, between Kushkov and Herat.[13] On December 26 at 7:20pm, the Commander of the 5th GMRD, Major-General Yuri Shatalin, gave orders to cross the Afghanistan border. The division was pulled out of the Kushka, Tahta-Bazaar, and Iolotan. At a set time one of the 5th GMRD units came out at the juncture near the towns: - Herat, Shindand, Kandahar, the division headquarters was located under the Shindand. The first casualties amounted to 2 people. The division commander, and future Commander in Chief of the Russian Internal Troops, Colonel-General Yuri Shatalin recalls:

"It happened at dawn on December 27th. Surprised: 5:00 am, and the streets full of people with flowers. It turned out, meet the shuravi, as we were called, the Soviet soldiers. A similar meeting was warm and in other towns and villages in the north of Afghanistan."

At the beginning of 1980, the 5th GMRD began to participate in raids against the Afghan Mujahideen. During the period of the Afghan war, the division participated in 156 scheduled and unscheduled operations.

On 1 March 1980 the division was reorganized. The 373rd Guards Red Banner Order of Kutuzov and Bogdan Khmelnitsky Motor Rifle Regiment, had formed part of the division on its arrival in the country.[11] It had been stationed in Adraskan. On 1 March 1980, the regiment was reorganized as the 70th Separate Guards Motor Rifle Brigade, by reorganizing the staffing structure of departments and integrating the 2nd Battalion of the 56th Guards Air Assault Brigade. After the reorganization the brigade was relocated to the city of Kandahar.

From 1980 to 1982 the division was commanded by the future commander of the famous 40th Combined Arms Army General Boris Gromov.

In March 1985 the 12th Guards Motorized Rifle Regiment arrived from Kaliningrad and joined the division.[11]

On February 15, 1989, the last units of the 40th Combined Arms Army, along with Gromov, left Afghanistan to the west. Withdrawal was carried out by two methods: by air (5,142 people) and land (6,986 people). 10 colonies from 4 garrisons were withdrawn (Shindand, Adraskan, Herat, Turgundi).

During the Afghan war, four soldiers from the division were awarded the Hero of the Soviet Union, and 12,825 in total were awarded orders and medals. From May 1988 the division, under the Geneva conventions, prepared to withdraw from Afghanistan. The withdrawal of the 5th GMRD began as scheduled on 29 January 1989, and ended 15 February 1989. The division was relocated permanently to the city of Kushka.

Total number of killed in the division from 27 December 1979 to 15 February 1989 was 1135 (910 of them in combat).

The division was absorbed into the 88th Motor Rifle Division in March 1989.[11]

Organisation

SovietInvasionAfghanistanMap
Invasion map

In Afghanistan war (1979–1989),[14] the 5th GMRD comprised

  • Divisional Headquarters – Shindand.
    • Agitotryad.
    • Headquarters company.
    • Bakery.
    • 795th Station courier mail service.
    • 251st Battery Management and artillery reconnaissance.
    • 814th military fire brigade.
    • 582nd-second bath and laundry item
    • Field establishment of the State Bank of the USSR
    • 164th Separate flame thrower Company(before March 1985 – 164th Separate Company of Chemical Protection).
  • 101st Motor Rifle Regiment – Herat
  • 371st Guards Berlin Orders of Suvorov and Bogdan Khmelnitsky Motor Rifle Regiment – Shindand.
  • 12th Guards Red Banner Order of Kutuzov and Bogdan Khmelnitsky Motor Rifle Regiment – Herat.
  • 24th Guards Prague Orders of Suvorov and Bogdan Khmelnitsky Tank Regiment – Shindand.
  • 1060th Artillery regiment Shindand.
  • 1122nd Sevastopol Redflag Antiaircraft Artillery Regiment – Shindand.
  • 1377th Separate Antitank Artillery Battalion Shindand.
  • 650th separate Prague Order of Alexander Nevsky reconnaissance battalion. Shindand.
  • 68th Guards separate engineering battalion. pos. Adraskan.
  • 388th separate battalion. Shindand.
  • 307th separate missile division. Herat.
  • 177th separate repair battalion of recovery Shindand.
  • 375th independent battalion of material support Shindand.
  • 46th separate medical-sanitary battalion Herat.

After the withdrawal from Afghanistan

After the collapse of the Soviet Union, 'Zimovnikovskoy,' a unit of Turkmenistan's Ministry of Defense was established with the honorary title of "Turkmenbashi Saparmurat Niyazov's" located in Kushka, based on the 5th GMRD.

Heroes of the Soviet Union awarded to the 5th Guards Motor Rifle Division

Source:[15]

  • Hero of the Soviet Union medal.png Captain Kuchkin Gennady Pavlovich, Hero of the Soviet Union [16]
  • Hero of the Soviet Union medal.png Colonel Vladimir Neverov Lavrentyevich, Hero of the Soviet Union [17]
  • Hero of the Soviet Union medal.png Captain Fyodor Ivanovich Pugachev, Hero of the Soviet Union [18]
  • Hero of the Soviet Union medal.png Captain Sergey Gushin, Hero of the Soviet Union [19]

References

  1. ^ David Porter, (2009), Soviet Tank Units 1939–1945, Amber Books, ISBN 978-1-906626-21-1, p.34, and see Glantz, Stumbling Colossus, 120, for map of mechanised corps dispositions on 22 June 1941.
  2. ^ David Glantz, Before Stalingrad: Barbarossa – Hitler's Invasion of Russia 1941, 2003, p32
  3. ^ David Glantz, Stumbling Colossus, 1998, p 155 and p229
  4. ^ Glantz, Stumbling Colossus, 134.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h Mark Sołonin (2007). 22 czerwca 1941 czyli Jak zaczęła się Wielka Wojna ojczyźniana(Polish for "June 22, 1941 or How did the Great Patriotic War"). Translation by Tomasz Lisiecki (1 ed.). Poznań, Poland: Dom Wydawniczy Rebis. pp. 94–150, 166–170, 528–529. ISBN 978-83-7510-130-0. (the only English translations of Solonin's works seem to be, as of June 2011, these online chapters)
  6. ^ David Glantz, Stumbling Colossus, 1998, p 130
  7. ^ a b Paul Carell, Hitler Moves East, 1971 p 70-71
  8. ^ 18 tanks of 7th Tank Division lost during an unsuccessful attack against either German 162nd or 256th Infantry Division; Solonin 2007 p. 144
  9. ^ David Glantz, Before Stalingrad Barbarossa – Hitler's Invasion of Russia 1941, 2003, p32-p35
  10. ^ Боевой состав Советской Армии на 1 августа 1943 г
  11. ^ a b c d e Michael Holm, 5th Guards Zimovnikovskaya Red Banner order of Kutuzov Motorised Rifle Division imeni 60th Anniversary SSSR, 2015.
  12. ^ Holm
  13. ^ Source for this section is Site Veteran 5 Zimovnikovskoy Guards Red Banner ordena Kutuzov II degree Cavalry Division Name the 60th anniversary of the USSR. Archived 2011-04-30 at the Wayback Machine
  14. ^ http://www.britannica.com/event/Soviet-invasion-of-Afghanistan
  15. ^ "Heroes of the Soviet Union and full cavaliers of the Order of Glory". Archived from the original on 2012-03-25. Retrieved 2011-07-25.
  16. ^ Hero Soviet Union Kuchkin Gennady
  17. ^ Hero Soviet Union Vladimir Neverov Lavrent'evich
  18. ^ Hero the Soviet Union Fyodor Ivanovich Pugachev
  19. ^ Hero Soviet Union Sergey Gushin
5th Guards Rifle Division

The 5th Guards Rifle Division was an infantry division of the Red Army in World War II. It fought at Kaluga, Orel, Moscow, Bryansk, Gorodok, and in Belorussia, East Prussia, and Kurland.

On September 26, 1941 for their courage, bravery and heroism displayed in the Yelnya Offensive by order of State Defence Committee (NKO) number 318 of 09/26/1941, the 107th Rifle Division was transformed into the 5th Guards Rifle Division. The division was withdrawn to re-form in the reserve of the Western Front in the area of Vyshny Volochyok.

The division was part of the "operational army" in the following periods: 26/09/1941 - 22/04/1944, 28/05/1944 - 09/05/1945.

In the fall of 1941 and winter of 1941-1942's as part of 49th Army Western Front, the division participated in the defensive battles near Moscow. The division successfully acted in the course of the Moscow counter-offensive and the subsequent general offensive of Soviet troops.

On October 4, 1941 in the region of Mtsensk and, in the area of Bryansk Front, a Stavka order hastily concentrated reserve units, from which was formed 1st Guards Rifle Corps, which the division joined. However, due to the worsening of the situation on the Western Front, the same day the division was reassigned to the 49th Army and its trains directed via Gorbachev to Sukhinichi. In October 5 Division began to advance to the Medyn to attack in the Yukhnov as well. In early October, the heroic actions of the division as it aimed to help the 49th Army confirmed the validity of the assignment of the division's Guards title.

By 1 November 1941, the division was with 49th Army, alongside 7th Guards Rifle Division and 60th Rifle Division.With 11th Guards Army of the 3rd Belorussian Front May 1945. Became 5th Guards Motor Rifle Division in 1957 (Military Unit Number 08618); disbanded in 1959 at Gvardeysk. Final honorifics were 'Gorodokskaya order of Lenin Red Banner order of Suvorov.'

70th Separate Guards Motor Rifle Brigade

The 70th Separate Guards Motor Rifle Brigade was a Soviet Ground Forces mechanized infantry brigade of the Soviet–Afghan War. During the war, it was based in Kandahar.

88th Motor Rifle Division

The 88th Motor Rifle Division was a division of the Soviet Army, first formed in May 1957.

In May 1957 the 88th Motor Rifle Division (First Formation) was established at Belgorod-Dnestrovsky, Odessa Military District, in Ukraine from the 14th Rifle Division. It was redesignated the 180th Motor Rifle Division in November 1964.In 1980 it was reestablished at Kushka, Turkestan Military District, to replace the 5th Guards Motor Rifle Division which had been dispatched to Afghanistan. In 1982 it came under the control of the 36th Army Corps.

In March 1989 it absorbed the returning 5th Guards Motorised Rifle Division, without inheriting any awards.

In May 1992 it was reportedly taken over by Turkmenistan. It may now be the Turkmen 11th Motor Rifle Division. Kushka is now known as Serhetabat.

Adraskan

Adraskan (Pashto/Persian: ادرسکن) is an old town in western Afghanistan, mentioned in 13th and 14th century geographies as one of four prominent towns in the district of Sabzwar, the Green Place, which, now called Shindand (Pashto equivalent of Sabzwar). Now the town is the center of Adraskan District in Herat Province, Afghanistan. It is located on 33.6425°N 62.2672°E / 33.6425; 62.2672 at 1343 m altitude. The main Kandahar–Herat Highway passes through the town.

During the Soviet–Afghan War, the 68th Guards Separate Engineer Battalion, 5th Guards Motor Rifle Division, 40th Army, appears to have been located here.

List of Soviet Army divisions 1989–91

This article is an (incomplete) listing of Soviet Ground Forces divisions in 1990, and corresponding information about their later status in 2006. The primary source is Table 2.5, pages 104–106, V.I. Feskov, K.A. Kalashnikov, V.I. Golikov, The Soviet Army in the Years of the Cold War 1945–91, Tomsk University Publishing House, Tomsk, 2004. However, it is not totally accurate, as some other information from it has been shown to be incorrect. Alternate information and corrections are welcome.

The Soviets maintained their units at varying degrees of readiness in peacetime, and divided their ground units into two broad readiness categories:

Развернутая - Ready (expanded, filled up) A unit was considered Ready, if it could conduct combat operations with little or no mobilisation.

Неразвернутая - Not ReadySome divisions are referred to as 'Reserve' (there is a Russian article for reserve unit at ru:Запасная часть). The Russian word for reserve (ru:Запас) literally translates as 'Spare'. The personnel went on the reserve rolls, and for officers and NCOs this means they add 'v zapase' to their rank (e.g. kapitan v zapase). The unit itself changes readiness status from A, to either B (Б), V (В) or G (Г). This means a higher degree of equipment conservation, lower training and operational performance, etc.

The abbreviation VKhVT means Weapons and Equipment Storage Base.

Shindand

Shīnḍanḍ (Pashto: شينډنډ‎; Persian: شيندند‎) is a town and the center of the Shindand District, Herat Province, Afghanistan. It is located at 33.3036°N 62.14°E / 33.3036; 62.14 at 1,066 m altitude. The Shindand Air Base is located about 15 miles northeast of the town.

Shindand is at the northern end of Zirko Valley, which is one of main centers of poppy production in western Afghanistan. The town is located south of Adriskan, where a large police training facility exists. The population is mixed, includes Pashtuns, Tajiks and others, though Pashtuns make up the majority. The main languages spoken in the area are Pashto and Dari Persian. During the Soviet–Afghan War (1979–1989) the 5th Guards Motor Rifle Division was headquartered in the town.

T-62

The T-62 is a Soviet main battle tank that was first introduced 1961. As a further development of the T-55 series, the T-62 retained many similar design elements of its predecessor including low profile and thick turret armor. In contrast with previous tanks, which were armed with rifled tank guns, the T-62 was the first tank armed with a smoothbore tank gun that could fire APFSDS rounds at higher velocities. While the T-62 became the standard tank in the Soviet arsenal, it did not fully replace the T-55 in export markets due to its higher manufacturing costs and maintenance requirements compared to its predecessor. Although the T-62 was replaced in Russia and the successor states of the Soviet Union, it is still used in some countries and its design features became standardized in subsequent Soviet and Russian mass-produced tanks.

Turkestan Military District

The Turkestan Military District (Russian: Туркестанский военный округ (ТуркВО), Turkestansky voyenyi okrug (TurkVO)) was a military district of both the Imperial Russian Army and the Soviet Armed Forces, with its headquarters at Tashkent. The District was first created during the 1874 Russian military reform when by order of Minister Dmitry Milyutin the territory of Russia was divided into fourteen military districts. Its first commander was Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman, who was also Governor-General of Russian Turkestan at the time.

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