59th United States Congress

The Fifty-ninth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1905, to March 4, 1907, during the fifth and sixth years of Theodore Roosevelt's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Twelfth Census of the United States in 1900. Both chambers had a Republican majority.

59th United States Congress
58th ←
→ 60th
March 4, 1905 – March 4, 1907
Senate PresidentCharles W. Fairbanks (R)
Senate President pro temWilliam P. Frye (R)
House SpeakerJoseph G. Cannon (R)
Members90 senators
386 members of the House
6 non-voting delegates
Senate MajorityRepublican
House MajorityRepublican
Special: March 4, 1905 – March 18, 1905
1st: December 4, 1905 – June 30, 1906
2nd: December 3, 1906 – March 3, 1907

Major events

Major legislation

59th Congress-Senate Map
Senate composition by party at the start of the 59th Congress

Party summary


(shading shows control)
Total Vacant
End of the previous congress 33 56 89 1
Begin 32 56 88 2
End 58 900
Final voting share 35.6% 64.4%
Beginning of the next congress 29 61 90 0

House of Representatives

TOTAL: 386

Charles W Fairbanks by Harris & Ewing
President of the Senate
Charles W. Fairbanks



House of Representatives

Majority (Republican) leadership

Minority (Democratic) leadership


This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed by class, and Representatives are listed by district.

Skip to House of Representatives, below


At this time, Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election, In this Congress, Class 2 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1906; Class 3 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1908; and Class 1 meant their term began in this Congress, requiring reelection in 1910.


























New Hampshire

New Jersey

New York

North Carolina

North Dakota




Rhode Island

South Carolina

South Dakota







West Virginia



House of Representatives

59 us house membership
House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80+% – 100% Democratic
  80+% – 100% Republican
  60+% – 80% Democratic
  60+% – 80% Republican
  Up to 60% Democratic
  Up to 60% Republican

Changes in membership

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.


  • replacements: 8
  • deaths: 5
  • resignations: 1
  • vacancy: 2
  • Total seats with changes: 9
Vacator Reason for vacancy Subsequent Date of successor's installation
Vacant Elected to fill vacancy in term. William Warner (R) March 18, 1905
Vacant Elected to fill vacancy in term. Henry A. du Pont (R) June 13, 1906
William B. Bate (D) Died March 9, 1905. Successor was elected. James B. Frazier (D) March 21, 1905
Orville H. Platt (R) Died April 21, 1905. Successor was appointed and subsequently elected. Frank B. Brandegee (R) May 10, 1905
John H. Mitchell (R) Died December 8, 1905. Successor was appointed. John M. Gearin (D) December 13, 1905
Joseph R. Burton (R) Resigned June 4, 1906, due to a conviction of corruption charges. Successor was appointed. Alfred W. Benson (R) June 11, 1906
Arthur P. Gorman (D) Died June 4, 1906. Successor was appointed. William P. Whyte (D) June 8, 1906
John M. Gearin (D) Successor was elected. Frederick W. Mulkey (R) January 23, 1907
Russell A. Alger (R) Died January 24, 1907. Successor was elected. William A. Smith (R) February 6, 1907
Alfred W. Benson (R) Successor was elected. Charles Curtis (R) January 29, 1907

House of Representatives

  • replacements: 17
  • deaths: 12
  • resignations: 11
  • contested elections: 1
  • new seats: 1
  • Total seats with changes: 26
District Previous Reason for change Subsequent Date of successor's installation
Indiana 1st Vacant Rep. James A. Hemenway resigned during previous congress John H. Foster (R) May 16, 1905
Nebraska 1st Elmer Burkett (R) Resigned March 4, 1905, after being elected to the U.S. Senate Ernest M. Pollard (R) July 18, 1905
West Virginia 2nd Alston G. Dayton (R) Resigned March 16, 1905, after being appointed judge for the United States District Court for the Northern District of West Virginia Thomas B. Davis (D) June 6, 1905
Texas 8th John M. Pinckney (D) Died April 24, 1905 John M. Moore (D) June 6, 1905
Connecticut 3rd Frank B. Brandegee (R) Resigned May 10, 1905, after being elected to the U.S. Senate Edwin W. Higgins (R) October 2, 1905
Illinois 14th Benjamin F. Marsh (R) Died June 2, 1905 James McKinney (R) November 7, 1905
California 1st James Gillett (R) Resigned January 4, 1906, after being elected Governor of California William F. Englebright (R) November 6, 1906
Virginia 5th Claude A. Swanson (D) Resigned January 30, 1906, after being elected Governor of Virginia Edward W. Saunders (D) November 6, 1906
Pennsylvania 3rd George A. Castor (R) Died February 19, 1906 J. Hampton Moore (R) November 6, 1906
Pennsylvania 12th George R. Patterson (R) Died March 21, 1906 Charles N. Brumm (R) November 6, 1906
Pennsylvania 2nd Robert Adams Jr. (R) Died June 1, 1906 John E. Reyburn (R) November 6, 1906
Georgia 1st Rufus E. Lester (D) Died June 16, 1906 James W. Overstreet (D) October 3, 1906
Missouri 12th Ernest E. Wood (D) Lost contested election June 23, 1906 Harry M. Coudrey (R) June 23, 1906
Wisconsin 2nd Henry C. Adams (R) Died July 9, 1906 John M. Nelson (R) September 4, 1906
New York 8th Timothy Sullivan (D) Resigned July 27, 1906 Daniel J. Riordan (D) November 6, 1906
Illinois 13th Robert R. Hitt (R) Died September 20, 1906 Frank O. Lowden (R) November 6, 1906
Massachusetts 3rd Rockwood Hoar (R) Died November 1, 1906 Charles G. Washburn (R) December 18, 1906
New York 21st John H. Ketcham (R) Died November 4, 1906 Seat remained vacant until next Congress
Tennessee 10th Malcolm R. Patterson (D) Resigned November 5, 1906, after being elected Governor of Tennessee Seat remained vacant until next Congress
Indiana 12th Newton W. Gilbert (R) Resigned November 6, 1906, after being appointed judge of the court of first instance at Manila, Philippines Clarence C. Gilhams (R) November 6, 1906
District of Alaska New seat New delegate seat December 3, 1906 Frank H. Waskey (D) December 3, 1906
Arkansas 4th John S. Little (D) Resigned January 14, 1907, after being elected Governor of Arkansas Seat remained vacant until next Congress
Kansas 1st Charles Curtis (R) Resigned January 28, 1907, after being elected to the U.S. Senate Seat remained vacant until next Congress
New York 26th William H. Flack (R) Died February 2, 1907 Seat remained vacant until next Congress
Virginia 8th John F. Rixey (D) Died February 8, 1907 Seat remained vacant until next Congress
Michigan 5th William Alden Smith (R) Resigned February 9, 1907, after being elected to the U.S. Senate Seat remained vacant until next Congress


Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members (House and Senate) of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link (5 links), in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate, House (Standing with Subcommittees, Select and Special) and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.


House of Representatives

Joint committees

  • Conditions of Indian Tribes (Special)
  • Disposition of (Useless) Executive Papers
  • Revision of the Laws
  • Second Class Mail Matter




House of Representatives

See also


  1. ^ "Carnegie Foundation". Carnegie Foundation. November 26, 2011. Retrieved 2011-12-05.
  2. ^ Robert M. La Follette was elected to the 59th Congress for the term starting March 4, 1905, but he did not assume the seat until January 2, 1906, preferring to finish his term as Governor of Wisconsin. Nevertheless, his Senate service technically began March 4, 1905.
1904 United States House of Representatives elections in California

The United States House of Representatives elections in California, 1904 was an election for California's delegation to the United States House of Representatives, which occurred as part of the general election of the House of Representatives on November 8, 1904. Republicans won the three Democratic-held districts, giving California an all-Republican House delegation, which it would maintain until 1910.

1904 United States elections

The 1904 United States elections elected the members of the 59th United States Congress. It occurred during the Fourth Party System. Republicans maintained control of the Presidency and both houses of Congress. For the first time since the 1828 election, no third party or independent won a seat in Congress.

In the Presidential election, Republican President Theodore Roosevelt defeated Democratic judge Alton Parker from New York. Parker, a conservative Bourbon Democrat, won the Democratic nomination on the first ballot, as former President Grover Cleveland and former presidential nominee William Jennings Bryan both declined to run. Roosevelt dominated both the popular vote and the electoral college, carrying every state outside the South. Roosevelt, who succeeded William McKinley after the latter was assassinated in 1901, became the first vice president to succeed to the presidency and later win election to the presidency in his own right. The election also saw Florida hold the first ever presidential primary, although Florida delegates were not bound by the results of the primary.Republicans won major gains in the House, boosting their majority.In the Senate, the Republicans picked up one seat, and maintained a commanding majority.

1905 United States Senate election in New York

The 1905 United States Senate election in New York was held on January 17, 1905, by the New York State Legislature to elect a U.S. Senator (Class 1) to represent the State of New York in the United States Senate.

1906 State of the Union Address

The 1906 State of the Union Address was written by Theodore Roosevelt, the 26th President of the United States, on Monday, December 3, 1906. He did not speak directly to the 59th United States Congress. He said, "The readiness and efficiency of both the Army and Navy in dealing with the recent sudden crisis in Cuba illustrate afresh their value to the Nation. This readiness and efficiency would have been very much less had it not been for the existence of the General Staff in the Army and the General Board in the Navy; both are essential to the proper development and use of our military forces afloat and ashore."

Alston G. Dayton

Alston Gordon Dayton (October 18, 1857 – July 30, 1920) was a Republican politician from West Virginia who served as a United States Representative, and later as a United States federal judge.

Asle Gronna

Asle Jorgenson Gronna (December 10, 1858 – May 4, 1922) was an American Senator from North Dakota, and one of the six to vote against the United States declaration of war leading to the First World War.

Burke Act

Burke Act (1906), also known as the Forced Fee Patenting Act, amended the Dawes Act of 1887 (formally known as the General Allotment Act ("GAA"), under which the communal land held by tribes on the Indian reservations was broken up and distributed in severalty to individual households of tribal members. It required the government to assess whether individuals were "competent and capable" before giving them fee simple patents to their allotted land.

Because the federal government believed that most Indians were not prepared for United States citizenship, the act further provided that citizenship not be granted to Native American individuals until at the time of the final validation of their trust patents, at the end of the probationary period of 25 years, instead of upon the receipt of the trust patents, as stated in the Dawes Act. It was named for U. S. Congressman Charles H. Burke.

Congress of the Philippines

The Congress of the Philippines (Filipino: Kongreso ng Pilipinas), is the national legislature of the Philippines. It is a bicameral body consisting of the Senate (upper chamber), and the House of Representatives (lower chamber), although colloquially, the term "congress" commonly refers to just the latter.

The Senate is composed of 24 senators half of which are elected every three years. Each senator, therefore, serves a total of six years. The senators are elected by the whole electorate and do not represent any geographical district.

The House of Representatives is currently composed of 297 congressmen. Sec. 5 Art. VI of the Constitution states that the House "shall be composed of not more than 250 members, unless otherwised fixed by law..." There are two types of congressmen: the district and the sectoral representatives. The district congressmen represent a particular geographical district of the country. All provinces in the country are composed of at least one congressional district. Several cities also have their own congressional districts, with some composed of two or more representatives.The sectoral congressmen represent the minority sectors of the population. This enables these minority groups to be represented in the Congress, when they would otherwise not be represented properly through district representation. Also known as party-list representatives, sectoral congressmen represent labor unions, rights groups, and other organizations.The Constitution provides that the Congress shall convene for its regular session every year beginning on the 4th Monday of July. A regular session can last until thirty days before the opening of its next regular session in the succeeding year. The President may, however, call special sessions which are usually held between regular legislative sessions to handle emergencies or urgent matters.

Daniel J. Riordan

Daniel Joseph Riordan (July 7, 1870 – April 28, 1923) was a U.S. Representative from New York from 1899 to 1901 and from 1906 to 1923. He was a Democrat and a member of Tammany Hall.

Riordan was born in New York City and attended public schools until 1886, when he entered Manhattan College, from which he graduated in 1890. He engaged in the real-estate business.

Riordan was elected as a Democrat to the 56th United States Congress, holding office from March 4, 1899, to March 3, 1901. He was a member of the New York State Senate (10th D.) from 1903 to 1906, sitting in the 126th, 127th, 128th and 129th New York State Legislatures.

Riordan was elected to the 59th United States Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Timothy D. Sullivan and on the same day was elected to the 60th United States Congress. He was re-elected to the 61st and to the seven succeeding Congresses, holding office from November 6, 1906, until his death in Washington, D.C. on April 28, 1923. He was buried at the Calvary Cemetery in Queens.

Expatriation Act of 1907

The Expatriation Act of 1907 (59th Congress, 2nd session, chapter 2534, enacted March 2, 1907) was an act of the 59th United States Congress concerning retention and relinquishment of United States nationality by married women and Americans residing abroad. It effectively functioned as Congressional endorsement of the various ad hoc rulings on loss of United States nationality that had been made by the State Department since the passage of the Expatriation Act of 1868. Some sections of it were repealed by other acts in the early 1920s; those sections which remained were codified at 8 U.S.C. §§ 6–17, but those too were repealed by the Nationality Act of 1940.when the question of dual citizenship arose,

Finis J. Garrett

Finis James Garrett (August 26, 1875 – May 25, 1956) was a United States Representative from Tennessee and a Chief Judge of the United States Court of Customs and Patent Appeals.

John Emory Andrus

John Emory Andrus (February 16, 1841 – December 26, 1934) was mayor of Yonkers, New York, a U.S. Congressman from New York, and founder of the SURDNA Foundation.

List of United States Senators in the 59th Congress by seniority

This is a complete list of members of the United States Senate during the 59th United States Congress listed by seniority, from March 4, 1905, to March 3, 1907.

Order of service is based on the commencement of the senator's first term. Behind this is former service as a senator (only giving the senator seniority within his or her new incoming class), service as vice president, a House member, a cabinet secretary, or a governor of a state. The final factor is the population of the senator's state.Senators who were sworn in during the middle of the Congress (up until the last senator who was not sworn in early after winning the November 1906 election) are listed at the end of the list with no number.

List of United States federal legislation, 1901–2001

This is a chronological, but incomplete, list of United States federal legislation passed by the 57th through 106th United States Congresses, between 1901 and 2001. For the main article on this subject, see List of United States federal legislation. Additional lists are found at List of United States federal legislation: Congress of the Confederation, List of United States federal legislation, 1789–1901 and List of United States federal legislation, 2001–present.

List of members of the United States House of Representatives in the 59th Congress by seniority

This is a complete list of members of the United States House of Representatives during the 59th United States Congress listed by seniority.As an historical article, the districts and party affiliations listed reflect those during the 59th Congress (March 4, 1905 – March 3, 1907). Current seats and party affiliations on the List of current members of the United States House of Representatives by seniority will be different for certain members.Seniority depends on the date on which members were sworn into office. Since many members are sworn in on the same day, subsequent ranking is based on previous congressional service of the individual and then by alphabetical order by the last name of the congressman.

Committee chairmanship in the House is often associated with seniority. However, party leadership is typically not associated with seniority.

Note: The "*" indicates that the representative/delegate may have served one or more non-consecutive terms while in the House of Representatives of the United States Congress.

Martin Joseph Wade

Martin Joseph Wade (October 20, 1861 – April 16, 1931) was a United States Representative from Iowa and a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Southern District of Iowa.

Samuel B. Cooper

Samuel Bronson Cooper (May 30, 1850 – August 21, 1918) was a United States Representative from Texas and a Member of the Board of General Appraisers.

Thomas Alexander Smith

Thomas Alexander Smith (September 3, 1850 – May 1, 1932) represented the 1st congressional district of Maryland in the United States House of Representatives from 1905 to 1907.

Smith was born near Greenwood, Delaware, and moved with his parents to Ridgely, Maryland, as a youth in 1856. He attended the public schools and Denton Academy, and taught school in Delaware, Maryland, and Michigan. He returned to Ridgely, where he was postmaster from August 4, 1885, to November 25, 1889. He engaged in the mercantile business, and was a member of the board of school commissioners for Caroline County, Maryland, from 1889 to 1893.

In 1894 and 1896, Smith served as a member of the Maryland State Senate, and was chief of the Maryland Bureau of Statistics and Information from 1900 to 1904. He was the first vice president of the National Association of Labor Statisticians in 1903 and 1904, and member of the board of State aid and charities in 1904 and 1905. He was one of the founders of the Bank of Ridgely, and served as its first president.

Smith was elected as a Democrat to Congress in 1904, serving the 1st Congressional district for one full term from March 4, 1905 to March 3, 1907, but was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1906. He later served as a delegate to the Farmers’ National Congress of the United States held at Madison, Wisconsin, in 1908 and at Lincoln, Nebraska, in 1910. He was also land commissioner of Maryland from 1908 to 1912, internal revenue agent for the district of Maryland from January 1, 1920, to 1922. He died in Newark, Delaware, and is interred in Denton Cemetery.

Thomas Beall Davis

Thomas Beall Davis (April 25, 1828 – November 26, 1911), of Keyser, West Virginia, was an American Democratic politician.

United States Congresses (and year convened)

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