59th Air Defense Artillery Regiment

The 59th Coast Artillery Regiment, later the 59th Air Defense Artillery Regiment, was a regiment in the United States Army. It served as a heavy artillery regiment in France in World War I, and was in the Battle of Corregidor, Philippine Islands, in World War II.

59th Coast Artillery Regiment
59 ADA COA
Coat of arms
Active1917
Country United States
BranchArmy
TypeAir defense artillery
SizeRegiment
Motto(s)Defendimus
Mascot(s)Oozlefinch
Engagements
Commanders
Notable
commanders
Colonel Paul Bunker

History

During the Philippines Campaign (1941–42) the regiment garrisoned much of the Harbor Defenses of Manila and Subic Bays, along with the 91st Coast Artillery and 92nd Coast Artillery of the Philippine Scouts. It operated at least the following batteries, at Fort Mills, Corregidor unless otherwise noted:

  • A Battery Hearn
  • B Battery Crockett
  • C Battery Wheeler
  • D Battery Cheney
  • E Battery Fort Drum (El Fraile Island)
  • F Battery Smith
  • G Battery Fort Hughes
  • H Battery Geary
  • I Battery (AA) Fort Hughes
  • K Battery James

Lineage

Constituted 1 December 1917 in the Regular Army as the 59th Artillery (Coast Artillery Corps) (CAC) and organized 1 January 1918 at Fort Hamilton, New York from existing Regular Army and New York National Guard Companies of Coast Artillery. Moved to France March 1918, armed there with 24 British-made 8-inch howitzers, served with the 32nd Brigade (CAC) on the Western Front, including support of I and IV Army Corps. Returned to the US in January 1919 and later moved to Camp Lewis, Washington state (National Guard Companies demobilized at Camp Upton, New York during January and February 1919 but regiment continued on active status).[1][2]

  • (Service Battery; Headquarters Detachment and Combat train, 1st, 2nd and 3rd Battalions inactivated 30 September 1922 at Fort Mills, Philippine Islands, in the Harbor Defenses of Manila and Subic Bays. Batteries G, and H activated 11 October 1922 at Fort Mills). Redesignated 20 February 1924 as the 59th Coast Artillery (Tractor Drawn); Concurrently batteries C, D, E, and F activated at Fort Mills. In 1935 the regiment was redesignated as Harbor Defense. Remainder of regiment activated 30 May 1941 at Fort Mills.
  • Heavily engaged in the Battle of Corregidor, surrendered 6 May 1942 to the Japanese forces on Corregidor Island, Philippine Islands.
  • Inactivated 2 April 1946 at Fort Mills.
  • Redesignated 26 December 1947 as the 59th Antiaircraft Artillery Automatic Weapons Battalion and activated 1 January 1948 at Fort Bliss, Texas.
  • Redesignated 24 February 1953 as the 59th Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion. Inactivated 1 September 1958 at Fort Bliss.
  • Reorganized and redesignated 31 July 1959 as the 59th Artillery, a parent regiment under the Combat Arms Regimental System.

Distinctive unit insignia

  • Description

A Gold color metal and enamel device 1 1/8 inches (2.86 cm) in height overall consisting of a shield blazoned: Per fess vair and Argent, in base a thistle Proper. Attached above from a wreath Argent and Azure a demi-lion rampant Gules grasping in dexter claw a sword Or. Attached above and to the sides of the shield a Gold scroll inscribed “DEFENDIMUS” in Red letters.

  • Symbolism

The vair on the shield is from the arms of the Coast Defenses of Southern New York, the thistle is one of the emblems of Lorraine and is borne on the arms of Nancy not far from St. Mihiel. The crest is taken from the arms of St. Menehould in red for Artillery.[3] The motto translates to “We Defend.”

  • Background

The distinctive unit insignia was originally approved for the 59th Artillery Regiment on 15 August 1930. It was redesignated for the 59th Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion (Automatic Weapons) on 23 November 1953. The insignia was redesignated for the 59th Artillery Regiment on 5 December 1958. It was redesignated effective 1 September 1971, for the 59th Air Defense Artillery Regiment.

Coat of arms

Blazon

  • Shield

Per fess vair and Argent, in base a thistle Proper.

  • Crest

On a wreath Argent and Azure a demi-lion rampant Gules armed and langued of the second grasping in dexter claw a sword Or. Motto: DEFENDIMUS (We Defend).

Symbolism

  • Shield

The vair on the shield is from the arms of the Coast Defenses of New York, the thistle is one of the emblems of Lorraine and is borne on the arms of Nancy not far from St. Mihiel.

  • Crest

The crest it taken from the arms of St. Menehould in red for Artillery.

Background

The coat of arms was originally approved for the 59th Artillery Regiment on 1 April 1921. It was amended to correct the motto on 28 April 1927. It was redesignated for the 59th Antiaircraft Artillery Automatic Weapons Battalion on 21 April 1949. The insignia was redesignated for the 59th Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion (Automatic Weapons) on 23 November 1953. It was redesignated for the 59th Artillery Regiment on 5 December 1958. It was redesignated effective 1 September 1971, for the 59th Air Defense Artillery Regiment.

Campaign streamers

World War I

  • St Mihiel
  • Meuse-Argonne
  • Lorraine 1918

World War II

  • Philippine Islands

Decorations

See also

References

  1. ^ Rinaldi, p. 163
  2. ^ Gaines, pp. 34-35
  3. ^ All of these place names are areas US forces served in during World War I.
  • Heitman, Francis B. (1903). Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army, 1789-1903, Vol. 1. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
  • Emerson, William K. (1996). Encyclopedia of United States Army insignia and uniforms. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 51. ISBN 978-0806126-22-7.
  • Official Field Artillery lineage site
  • Army Lineage Series: Field Artillery Part 2
  • Coast Artillery Battery assignments in the Philippines at Corregidor.org
  • Gaines, William C., Coast Artillery Organizational History, 1917-1950, Coast Defense Journal, vol. 23, issue 2
  • Rinaldi, Richard A. (2004). The U. S. Army in World War I: Orders of Battle. General Data LLC. ISBN 0-9720296-4-8.
  •  This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Army Institute of Heraldry document "59th Air Defense Artillery".

External links

59th Regiment

59th Regiment or 59th Infantry Regiment may refer to:

59th Regiment of Foot (disambiguation), three British Army units carried this name

59th (Warwickshire) Searchlight Regiment, Royal Artillery, a unit of the British Army

59th Scinde Rifles (Frontier Force), a unit of the British Indian Army

59th Infantry Regiment (United States), a unit of the United States Army

59th Air Defense Artillery Regiment, a unit of the United States ArmyAmerican Civil WarUnion (Northern) Army59th Illinois Volunteer Infantry Regiment

59th Indiana Infantry Regiment

59th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment

59th Ohio InfantryConfederate (Southern) Army59th Virginia Infantry

Artillery formations of the United States
Misc. formations
Air Defense Artillery
Coast Artillery
Field Artillery

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