57th United States Congress

The Fifty-seventh United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, DC from March 4, 1901, to March 4, 1903, during the final six months of U.S. President William McKinley's presidency, and the first year and a half of the first administration of his successor, U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Eleventh Census of the United States in 1890. Both chambers had a Republican majority.

57th United States Congress
56th ←
→ 58th
March 4, 1901 – March 4, 1903
Senate PresidentTheodore Roosevelt (R)
until September 14, 1901
from September 14, 1901
Senate President pro temWilliam P. Frye (R)
House SpeakerDavid B. Henderson (R)
Members90 senators
357 members of the House
5 non-voting delegates
Senate MajorityRepublican
House MajorityRepublican
Special: March 4, 1901 – March 9, 1901
1st: December 2, 1901 – July 1, 1902
2nd: December 1, 1902 – March 3, 1903

Major events

Major legislation

Party summary


(shading shows control)
Total Vacant

End of the previous congress 25 5 55 3 2 90 1
Begin 28 3 54 2 0 87 3
End 29 2 56 891
Final voting share 32.6% 2.2% 62.9% 2.2% 0.0%
Beginning of the next congress 33 0 55 2 0 90 0

House of Representatives

TOTAL members: 357


Theodore Roosevelt by Rockwood, 1900
President of the Senate
Theodore Roosevelt


House of Representatives

Majority (Republican) leadership

Minority (Democratic) leadership


This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed by class, and Representatives are listed by district.

Skip to House of Representatives, below


At this time, Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. The Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election, precede the names in the list below. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1904; Class 2 meant their term began with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1906; and Class 3 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1902.


























New Hampshire

New Jersey

New York

North Carolina

North Dakota




Rhode Island

South Carolina

South Dakota







West Virginia



House of Representatives

57 us house membership
House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80+% to 100% Democratic
  80+% to 100% Republican
  60+% to 80% Democratic
  60+% to 80% Republican
  Up to 60% Democratic
  Up to 60% Republican
Speaker of the House
David B. Henderson

Changes in Membership

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.


Note:Delaware's Class 1 Senate seat remained vacant for entire Congress due to the legislature's failure to elect.

  • Replacements: 4
  • Deaths: 3
  • Resignations: 0
  • Vacancy: 1
  • Total seats with changes: 6
Vacator Reason for vacancy Subsequent Date of successor's installation
Vacant Senator William A. Clark vacated his seat during previous congress.
Successor was elected March 7, 1901.
Paris Gibson (D) March 7, 1901
Vacant Legislature failed to elect to fill vacancy in term.
Successor was elected March 2, 1903.
L. Heisler Ball (R) March 2, 1903
Vacant Legislature failed to elect to fill vacancy in term.
Successor was elected March 2, 1903.
J. Frank Allee (R) March 2, 1903
William V. Allen (Pop.) Interim appointee did not run to finish the term.
Successor was elected March 28, 1901.
Successor delayed taking seat until December 2, 1901, after resigning as Governor of Nebraska on May 1, 1901, but his service began on the date of his election, March 28, 1901.
Charles H. Dietrich (R) December 2, 1901
South Dakota
James H. Kyle (R) Died July 1, 1901.
Successor was appointed July 11, 1901, to continue the term and subsequently elected January 20, 1903, to finish the term.[2]
Alfred B. Kittredge (R) July 11, 1901
New Jersey
William J. Sewell (R) Died December 27, 1901.
Successor was elected.
John F. Dryden (R) January 29, 1902
James McMillan (R) Died August 10, 1902.
Successor was appointed September 27, 1902, to continue the term and subsequently elected December 7, 1902, to finish the term..
Russell A. Alger (R) September 27, 1902

House of Representatives

  • replacements: 17
  • deaths: 14
  • resignations: 5
  • contested elections: 2
  • Total seats with changes: 24
District Previous Reason for change Subsequent Date of successor's installation
Maine 4th Vacant Rep. Charles A. Boutelle resigned during previous congress Llewellyn Powers (R) April 8, 1901
New York 24th Vacant Rep. Albert D. Shaw died during previous congress Charles L. Knapp (R) November 5, 1901
Pennsylvania 10th Marriott H. Brosius (R) Died March 16, 1901 Henry B. Cassel (R) November 5, 1901
Michigan 10th Rousseau O. Crump (R) Died May 1, 1901 Henry H. Aplin (R) October 15, 1901
Texas 6th Robert E. Burke (D) Died June 5, 1901. Morris Sheppard (D) November 15, 1902
South Carolina 7th J. William Stokes (D) Died July 6, 1901. Dudley G. Wooten (D) July 13, 1901
Pennsylvania 17th Rufus K. Polk (D) Died March 5, 1902. Alexander Billmeyer (D) November 4, 1902
Kentucky 3rd John S. Rhea (D) Lost contested election March 25, 1902 J. McKenzie Moss (R) March 25, 1902
Massachusetts 6th William H. Moody (R) Resigned May 1, 1902, after being appointed U.S. Secretary of the Navy Augustus P. Gardner (R) November 4, 1902
Missouri 12th James J. Butler (D) Seat declared vacant May 1, 1902. Butler elected to fill his own vacancy. James J. Butler (D) November 4, 1902
New York 10th Amos J. Cummings (D) Died May 2, 1902. Edward Swann (D) November 4, 1902
Virginia 6th Peter J. Otey (D) Died May 4, 1902. Carter Glass (D) November 4, 1902
New Jersey 4th Joshua S. Salmon (D) Died May 6, 1902. De Witt C. Flanagan (D) June 18, 1902
Texas 3rd Reese C. De Graffenreid (D) Died August 29, 1902. Gordon J. Russell (D) November 4, 1902
New York 26th George W. Ray (R) Resigned September 11, 1902, after being appointed judge for the United States District Court for the Northern District of New York John W. Dwight (R) November 4, 1902
Texas 4th John L. Sheppard (D) Died October 11, 1902. Morris Sheppard (D) November 15, 1902
Connecticut 3rd Charles A. Russell (R) Died October 23, 1902 Frank B. Brandegee (R) November 4, 1902
Pennsylvania 28th James K. P. Hall (D) Resigned November 29, 1902 Seat remained vacant until next Congress
New York 7th Nicholas Muller (D) Resigned December 1, 1902. Montague Lessler (R) January 7, 1903
Oregon 1st Thomas H. Tongue (R) Died January 11, 1903. Seat remained vacant until next Congress
Texas 8th S. W. T. Lanham (D) Resigned January 15, 1903, after being elected Governor of Texas Seat remained vacant until next Congress
Iowa 2nd John N. W. Rumple (R) Died January 31, 1903 Seat remained vacant until next Congress
North Carolina 9th James M. Moody (R) Died February 5, 1903. Seat remained vacant until next Congress
Missouri 12th James J. Butler (D) Lost contested election February 26, 1903. George C. R. Wagoner (R) February 26, 1903
Kansas 7th Chester I. Long (R) Resigned March 4, 1903, after becoming U.S. Senator Seat remained vacant until next Congress


Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members (House and Senate) of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link (4 links), in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate, House (Standing with Subcommittees, Select and Special) and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.


House of Representatives

Joint committees

  • Conditions of Indian Tribes (Special)
  • Disposition of (Useless) Executive Papers




House of Representatives

See also


  1. ^ "SENATORS FIGHT ON SENATE FLOOR; McLaurin and Tillman of South Carolina Come to Blows. BOTH ADJUDGED IN CONTEMPT They Apologize, but Committee Will Pass on the Affair. Fisticuffs Followed McLaurin's Assertion That Tillman Had Lied About Him in the Course of Philippine Debate". The New York Times. February 23, 1902.
  2. ^ Journal of the Senate of the South Dakota Legislature Commencing January 6, 1903, Eighth Session. Pierre, South Dakota. 1903. p. 296.
1900 United States House of Representatives elections in California

The United States House of Representatives elections in California, 1900 was an election for California's delegation to the United States House of Representatives, which occurred as part of the general election of the House of Representatives on November 6, 1900. California's seven-seat delegation remained all-Republican.

1900 United States elections

The 1900 United States elections elected the 57th United States Congress. The election was held during the Fourth Party System. Republicans retained control of the Presidency and both houses of Congress, while third parties suffered defeats.

In a re-match of the 1896 presidential election, Republican President William McKinley defeated Democratic former Representative William Jennings Bryan of Nebraska. McKinley's previous running mate, Vice President Garret Hobart, had died in office, so the Republicans nominated New York Governor Theodore Roosevelt as their vice presidential candidate. McKinley again won by a comfortable margin in both the popular vote and the electoral college, and he picked up a handful of states in the West and the Midwest. McKinley's win made him the first sitting President to win re-election since Ulysses S. Grant in 1872.

Republicans won minor gains in the House, maintaining their majority.In the Senate, the Democrats made moderate gains while the Populist Party lost three seats. Republicans continued to maintain a commanding majority in the chamber.

1901 South Carolina's 7th congressional district special election

The 1901 South Carolina 7th congressional district special election was held on November 5, 1901 to select a Representative for the 7th congressional district to serve out the remainder of the term for the 57th Congress. The special election resulted from the death of Representative J. William Stokes on July 6, 1901. Asbury Francis Lever, a former secretary to Stokes, won the Democratic primary and was unopposed in the general election.

1901 State of the Union Address

The 1901 State of the Union Address was given on Tuesday, December 3, 1901, by the 26th President of the United States, Theodore Roosevelt. It was presented to both houses of the 57th United States Congress, but he was not present. He stated, "The Congress assembles this year under the shadow of a great calamity. On the sixth of September, President McKinley was shot by an anarchist while attending the Pan-American Exposition at Buffalo, and died in that city on the fourteenth of that month." He concluded it with, "Indeed, from every quarter of the civilized world we received, at the time of the President's death, assurances of such grief and regard as to touch the hearts of our people. In the midst of our affliction we reverently thank the Almighty that we are at peace with the nations of mankind; and we firmly intend that our policy shall be such as to continue unbroken these international relations of mutual respect and good will."

Ashton C. Shallenberger

Ashton Cokayne Shallenberger (December 23, 1862 – February 22, 1938) was a Nebraska Democratic politician and the 15th Governor of Nebraska from 1909 to 1911.

Biologics Control Act

The Biologics Control Act of 1902, also known as the Virus-Toxin Law, was the first law that implemented federal regulations of biological products such as vaccines in the United States. It was enacted in response to two incidents involving the deaths of 22 children who had contracted tetanus from contaminated vaccines. This law paved the way for further regulation of drug products under the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 and the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938. Biologics control is now under the supervision of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Colorado's congressional districts

Colorado is divided into 7 congressional districts, each represented by a member of the United States House of Representatives.

The districts are currently represented in the 116th United States Congress by 4 Democrats and 3 Republicans.

Edward Swann

Edward Swann (March 10, 1862 – September 19, 1945) was an American lawyer and politician from New York.

George Washington Steele

George Washington Steele (December 13, 1839 – July 12, 1922) was an American lawyer, soldier, and politician who twice served as a Congressman for Indiana, from 1881 to 1889 and again from 1895 to 1903. Steele was also the first Governor of Oklahoma Territory and was instrumental in developing the state's public education system and its two largest universities.

Immigration Act of 1903

The Immigration Act of 1903, also called the Anarchist Exclusion Act, was a law of the United States regulating immigration. It codified previous immigration law, and added four inadmissible classes: anarchists, people with epilepsy, beggars, and importers of prostitutes. It had little impact and its provisions related to anarchists were expanded in the Immigration Act of 1918.

J. McKenzie Moss

John McKenzie Moss (January 3, 1868 – June 11, 1929) was a United States Representative from Kentucky and a Judge of the Court of Claims.

Joseph A. Conry

Joseph Aloysius Conry (September 12, 1868 – June 22, 1943) was a United States Representative from Massachusetts. Although he served only a single term, he received national attention for his reformist views. He remained a highly popular speaker and writer, despite losing an election to Congress in 1908. Russia named him Consul to the United States in 1912, a position in which he served until 1919. He was also Director of the Port of Boston from 1911 to 1916.

Joseph T. Johnson

Joseph Travis Johnson (February 28, 1858 – May 8, 1919) was a United States Representative from South Carolina and a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Western District of South Carolina.

List of United States Senators in the 57th Congress by seniority

This is a complete list of members of the United States Senate during the 57th United States Congress listed by seniority, from March 4, 1901, to March 3, 1903.

Order of service is based on the commencement of the senator's first term. Behind this is former service as a senator (only giving the senator seniority within his or her new incoming class), service as vice president, a House member, a cabinet secretary, or a governor of a state. The final factor is the population of the senator's state.Senators who were sworn in during the middle of the Congress (up until the last senator who was not sworn in early after winning the November 1902 election) are listed at the end of the list with no number.

List of members of the United States House of Representatives in the 57th Congress by seniority

This is a complete list of members of the United States House of Representatives during the 57th United States Congress listed by seniority.As an historical article, the districts and party affiliations listed reflect those during the 57th Congress (March 4, 1901 – March 3, 1903). Current seats and party affiliations on the List of current members of the United States House of Representatives by seniority will be different for certain members.Seniority depends on the date on which members were sworn into office. Since many members are sworn in on the same day, subsequent ranking is based on previous congressional service of the individual and then by alphabetical order by the last name of the congressman.

Committee chairmanship in the House is often associated with seniority. However, party leadership is typically not associated with seniority.

Note: The "*" indicates that the representative/delegate may have served one or more non-consecutive terms while in the House of Representatives of the United States Congress.

Norton P. Otis

Norton Prentiss Otis (March 18, 1840 – February 20, 1905) was a U.S. Representative from New York.

Robert H. Foerderer

Robert Hermann Foerderer (May 16, 1860 – July 26, 1903) was a Republican member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania.

Thomas J. Creamer

Thomas James Creamer (May 26, 1843 – August 4, 1914) was an American lawyer and politician from New York.

Walter I. Smith

Walter Inglewood Smith (July 10, 1862 – January 27, 1922) was a United States Representative from Iowa and a United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit and the United States Circuit Courts for the Eighth Circuit.

United States Congresses (and year convened)

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