The Fifty-seventh United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, DC from March 4, 1901, to March 4, 1903, during the final six months of U.S. President William McKinley's presidency, and the first year and a half of the first administration of his successor, U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Eleventh Census of the United States in 1890. Both chambers had a Republican majority.
|57th United States Congress|
United States Capitol (1906)
|March 4, 1901 – March 4, 1903|
|Senate President||Theodore Roosevelt (R) |
until September 14, 1901
from September 14, 1901
|Senate President pro tem||William P. Frye (R)|
|House Speaker||David B. Henderson (R)|
357 members of the House
5 non-voting delegates
|Special: March 4, 1901 – March 9, 1901|
1st: December 2, 1901 – July 1, 1902
2nd: December 1, 1902 – March 3, 1903
(shading shows control)
|End of the previous congress||25||5||55||3||2||90||1|
|Final voting share||32.6%||2.2%||62.9%||2.2%||0.0%|
|Beginning of the next congress||33||0||55||2||0||90||0|
TOTAL members: 357
This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed by class, and Representatives are listed by district.
At this time, Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. The Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election, precede the names in the list below. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1904; Class 2 meant their term began with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1906; and Class 3 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1902.
The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.
Note:Delaware's Class 1 Senate seat remained vacant for entire Congress due to the legislature's failure to elect.
|Vacator||Reason for vacancy||Subsequent||Date of successor's installation|
|Vacant||Senator William A. Clark vacated his seat during previous congress.
Successor was elected March 7, 1901.
|Paris Gibson (D)||March 7, 1901|
|Vacant||Legislature failed to elect to fill vacancy in term.
Successor was elected March 2, 1903.
|L. Heisler Ball (R)||March 2, 1903|
|Vacant||Legislature failed to elect to fill vacancy in term.
Successor was elected March 2, 1903.
|J. Frank Allee (R)||March 2, 1903|
|William V. Allen (Pop.)||Interim appointee did not run to finish the term.
Successor was elected March 28, 1901.
Successor delayed taking seat until December 2, 1901, after resigning as Governor of Nebraska on May 1, 1901, but his service began on the date of his election, March 28, 1901.
|Charles H. Dietrich (R)||December 2, 1901|
|James H. Kyle (R)||Died July 1, 1901.
Successor was appointed July 11, 1901, to continue the term and subsequently elected January 20, 1903, to finish the term.
|Alfred B. Kittredge (R)||July 11, 1901|
|William J. Sewell (R)||Died December 27, 1901.
Successor was elected.
|John F. Dryden (R)||January 29, 1902|
|James McMillan (R)||Died August 10, 1902.
Successor was appointed September 27, 1902, to continue the term and subsequently elected December 7, 1902, to finish the term..
|Russell A. Alger (R)||September 27, 1902|
|District||Previous||Reason for change||Subsequent||Date of successor's installation|
|Maine 4th||Vacant||Rep. Charles A. Boutelle resigned during previous congress||Llewellyn Powers (R)||April 8, 1901|
|New York 24th||Vacant||Rep. Albert D. Shaw died during previous congress||Charles L. Knapp (R)||November 5, 1901|
|Pennsylvania 10th||Marriott H. Brosius (R)||Died March 16, 1901||Henry B. Cassel (R)||November 5, 1901|
|Michigan 10th||Rousseau O. Crump (R)||Died May 1, 1901||Henry H. Aplin (R)||October 15, 1901|
|Texas 6th||Robert E. Burke (D)||Died June 5, 1901.||Morris Sheppard (D)||November 15, 1902|
|South Carolina 7th||J. William Stokes (D)||Died July 6, 1901.||Dudley G. Wooten (D)||July 13, 1901|
|Pennsylvania 17th||Rufus K. Polk (D)||Died March 5, 1902.||Alexander Billmeyer (D)||November 4, 1902|
|Kentucky 3rd||John S. Rhea (D)||Lost contested election March 25, 1902||J. McKenzie Moss (R)||March 25, 1902|
|Massachusetts 6th||William H. Moody (R)||Resigned May 1, 1902, after being appointed U.S. Secretary of the Navy||Augustus P. Gardner (R)||November 4, 1902|
|Missouri 12th||James J. Butler (D)||Seat declared vacant May 1, 1902. Butler elected to fill his own vacancy.||James J. Butler (D)||November 4, 1902|
|New York 10th||Amos J. Cummings (D)||Died May 2, 1902.||Edward Swann (D)||November 4, 1902|
|Virginia 6th||Peter J. Otey (D)||Died May 4, 1902.||Carter Glass (D)||November 4, 1902|
|New Jersey 4th||Joshua S. Salmon (D)||Died May 6, 1902.||De Witt C. Flanagan (D)||June 18, 1902|
|Texas 3rd||Reese C. De Graffenreid (D)||Died August 29, 1902.||Gordon J. Russell (D)||November 4, 1902|
|New York 26th||George W. Ray (R)||Resigned September 11, 1902, after being appointed judge for the United States District Court for the Northern District of New York||John W. Dwight (R)||November 4, 1902|
|Texas 4th||John L. Sheppard (D)||Died October 11, 1902.||Morris Sheppard (D)||November 15, 1902|
|Connecticut 3rd||Charles A. Russell (R)||Died October 23, 1902||Frank B. Brandegee (R)||November 4, 1902|
|Pennsylvania 28th||James K. P. Hall (D)||Resigned November 29, 1902||Seat remained vacant until next Congress|
|New York 7th||Nicholas Muller (D)||Resigned December 1, 1902.||Montague Lessler (R)||January 7, 1903|
|Oregon 1st||Thomas H. Tongue (R)||Died January 11, 1903.||Seat remained vacant until next Congress|
|Texas 8th||S. W. T. Lanham (D)||Resigned January 15, 1903, after being elected Governor of Texas||Seat remained vacant until next Congress|
|Iowa 2nd||John N. W. Rumple (R)||Died January 31, 1903||Seat remained vacant until next Congress|
|North Carolina 9th||James M. Moody (R)||Died February 5, 1903.||Seat remained vacant until next Congress|
|Missouri 12th||James J. Butler (D)||Lost contested election February 26, 1903.||George C. R. Wagoner (R)||February 26, 1903|
|Kansas 7th||Chester I. Long (R)||Resigned March 4, 1903, after becoming U.S. Senator||Seat remained vacant until next Congress|
Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members (House and Senate) of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link (4 links), in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate, House (Standing with Subcommittees, Select and Special) and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.
The United States House of Representatives elections in California, 1900 was an election for California's delegation to the United States House of Representatives, which occurred as part of the general election of the House of Representatives on November 6, 1900. California's seven-seat delegation remained all-Republican.1900 United States elections
The 1900 United States elections elected the 57th United States Congress. The election was held during the Fourth Party System. Republicans retained control of the Presidency and both houses of Congress, while third parties suffered defeats.
In a re-match of the 1896 presidential election, Republican President William McKinley defeated Democratic former Representative William Jennings Bryan of Nebraska. McKinley's previous running mate, Vice President Garret Hobart, had died in office, so the Republicans nominated New York Governor Theodore Roosevelt as their vice presidential candidate. McKinley again won by a comfortable margin in both the popular vote and the electoral college, and he picked up a handful of states in the West and the Midwest. McKinley's win made him the first sitting President to win re-election since Ulysses S. Grant in 1872.
Republicans won minor gains in the House, maintaining their majority.In the Senate, the Democrats made moderate gains while the Populist Party lost three seats. Republicans continued to maintain a commanding majority in the chamber.1901 South Carolina's 7th congressional district special election
The 1901 South Carolina 7th congressional district special election was held on November 5, 1901 to select a Representative for the 7th congressional district to serve out the remainder of the term for the 57th Congress. The special election resulted from the death of Representative J. William Stokes on July 6, 1901. Asbury Francis Lever, a former secretary to Stokes, won the Democratic primary and was unopposed in the general election.1901 State of the Union Address
The 1901 State of the Union Address was given on Tuesday, December 3, 1901, by the 26th President of the United States, Theodore Roosevelt. It was presented to both houses of the 57th United States Congress, but he was not present. He stated, "The Congress assembles this year under the shadow of a great calamity. On the sixth of September, President McKinley was shot by an anarchist while attending the Pan-American Exposition at Buffalo, and died in that city on the fourteenth of that month." He concluded it with, "Indeed, from every quarter of the civilized world we received, at the time of the President's death, assurances of such grief and regard as to touch the hearts of our people. In the midst of our affliction we reverently thank the Almighty that we are at peace with the nations of mankind; and we firmly intend that our policy shall be such as to continue unbroken these international relations of mutual respect and good will."Ashton C. Shallenberger
Ashton Cokayne Shallenberger (December 23, 1862 – February 22, 1938) was a Nebraska Democratic politician and the 15th Governor of Nebraska from 1909 to 1911.Biologics Control Act
The Biologics Control Act of 1902, also known as the Virus-Toxin Law, was the first law that implemented federal regulations of biological products such as vaccines in the United States. It was enacted in response to two incidents involving the deaths of 22 children who had contracted tetanus from contaminated vaccines. This law paved the way for further regulation of drug products under the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 and the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938. Biologics control is now under the supervision of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).Colorado's congressional districts
Colorado is divided into 7 congressional districts, each represented by a member of the United States House of Representatives.
The districts are currently represented in the 116th United States Congress by 4 Democrats and 3 Republicans.Edward Swann
Edward Swann (March 10, 1862 – September 19, 1945) was an American lawyer and politician from New York.George Washington Steele
George Washington Steele (December 13, 1839 – July 12, 1922) was an American lawyer, soldier, and politician who twice served as a Congressman for Indiana, from 1881 to 1889 and again from 1895 to 1903. Steele was also the first Governor of Oklahoma Territory and was instrumental in developing the state's public education system and its two largest universities.Immigration Act of 1903
The Immigration Act of 1903, also called the Anarchist Exclusion Act, was a law of the United States regulating immigration. It codified previous immigration law, and added four inadmissible classes: anarchists, people with epilepsy, beggars, and importers of prostitutes. It had little impact and its provisions related to anarchists were expanded in the Immigration Act of 1918.J. McKenzie Moss
John McKenzie Moss (January 3, 1868 – June 11, 1929) was a United States Representative from Kentucky and a Judge of the Court of Claims.Joseph A. Conry
Joseph Aloysius Conry (September 12, 1868 – June 22, 1943) was a United States Representative from Massachusetts. Although he served only a single term, he received national attention for his reformist views. He remained a highly popular speaker and writer, despite losing an election to Congress in 1908. Russia named him Consul to the United States in 1912, a position in which he served until 1919. He was also Director of the Port of Boston from 1911 to 1916.Joseph T. Johnson
Joseph Travis Johnson (February 28, 1858 – May 8, 1919) was a United States Representative from South Carolina and a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Western District of South Carolina.List of United States Senators in the 57th Congress by seniority
This is a complete list of members of the United States Senate during the 57th United States Congress listed by seniority, from March 4, 1901, to March 3, 1903.
Order of service is based on the commencement of the senator's first term. Behind this is former service as a senator (only giving the senator seniority within his or her new incoming class), service as vice president, a House member, a cabinet secretary, or a governor of a state. The final factor is the population of the senator's state.Senators who were sworn in during the middle of the Congress (up until the last senator who was not sworn in early after winning the November 1902 election) are listed at the end of the list with no number.List of members of the United States House of Representatives in the 57th Congress by seniority
This is a complete list of members of the United States House of Representatives during the 57th United States Congress listed by seniority.As an historical article, the districts and party affiliations listed reflect those during the 57th Congress (March 4, 1901 – March 3, 1903). Current seats and party affiliations on the List of current members of the United States House of Representatives by seniority will be different for certain members.Seniority depends on the date on which members were sworn into office. Since many members are sworn in on the same day, subsequent ranking is based on previous congressional service of the individual and then by alphabetical order by the last name of the congressman.
Committee chairmanship in the House is often associated with seniority. However, party leadership is typically not associated with seniority.
Note: The "*" indicates that the representative/delegate may have served one or more non-consecutive terms while in the House of Representatives of the United States Congress.Norton P. Otis
Norton Prentiss Otis (March 18, 1840 – February 20, 1905) was a U.S. Representative from New York.Robert H. Foerderer
Robert Hermann Foerderer (May 16, 1860 – July 26, 1903) was a Republican member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania.Thomas J. Creamer
Thomas James Creamer (May 26, 1843 – August 4, 1914) was an American lawyer and politician from New York.Walter I. Smith
Walter Inglewood Smith (July 10, 1862 – January 27, 1922) was a United States Representative from Iowa and a United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit and the United States Circuit Courts for the Eighth Circuit.
United States Congresses (and year convened)