57th (West Middlesex) Regiment of Foot

The 57th (West Middlesex) Regiment of Foot was a regiment of line infantry in the British Army, raised in 1755. Under the Childers Reforms it amalgamated with the 77th (East Middlesex) Regiment of Foot to form the Middlesex Regiment in 1881.

57th (West Middlesex) Regiment of Foot
57th (West Middlesex) Regiment of Foot badge.jpeg
Badge of the 57th (West Middlesex) Regiment of Foot
Active1755 to 1881
Country Kingdom of Great Britain (1755–1800)
 United Kingdom (1801–1881)
Branch British Army
TypeLine Infantry
RoleLight Infantry
SizeOne battalion (two battalions 1803–1815)
Garrison/HQHounslow Barracks
Nickname(s)"The Die Hards"
Motto(s)Honi soit qui mal y pense (Evil be to Him, who Evil Thinks)
ColorsYellow facings, gold braided lace
MarchQuick: Sir Manley Power
Slow: Caledonian
EngagementsAmerican Revolutionary War
French Revolutionary Wars
Napoleonic Wars
Crimean War
Indian Rebellion
New Zealand Wars
Anglo-Zulu War

History

Early wars

Fort Montgomery 04
Ruins of Fort Montgomery, stormed by the regiment in October 1777

The regiment was raised in Somerset and Gloucester by Colonel John Arabin as the 59th Regiment of Foot in 1755 for service in the Seven Years' War.[1] It was re-ranked as the 57th Regiment of Foot, following the disbandment of the existing 50th and 51st regiments, in 1756.[1] The regiment, which originally operated as marines, was deployed to Gibraltar in 1757, to Menorca in 1763 and to Ireland in 1767.[2] It was dispatched to Charleston, South Carolina in February 1776 for service in the American Revolutionary War.[2] The regiment saw action at the Battle of Long Island in August 1776[2] and stormed Fort Montgomery at the Battle of Forts Clinton and Montgomery in October 1777.[3] The regiment's light company then served under General Lord Cornwallis and was taken prisoner at the Siege of Yorktown in October 1781.[4] It adopted a county designation as the 57th (the West Middlesex) Regiment of Foot in August 1782.[1][5] After this it moved to Nova Scotia in October 1783 and returned to England in November 1790.[6]

Napoleonic Wars

GenSirWilliamInglis
Colonel William Inglis, struck down while commanding the 1st battalion at the Battle of Albuera, May 1811
Lady Elizabeth Butler - steady the drums and fifes
The drummer boys of the 57th Regiment at the Battle of Albuera, May 1811; "Steady the Drums and Fifes" by Lady Elizabeth Butler

In 1793 the regiment embarked for the Low Countries for service in the Flanders Campaign and re-enforced the garrison at Nieuwpoort for some months before returning home later in the year.[7] The regiment returned to Flanders in 1794 before returning home again in 1795.[8] It embarked for the West Indies in spring 1796 and took part in the capture of Saint Lucia in May 1796 before embarking for Trinidad in 1797 and returning home in 1803.[9] A second battalion was raised in 1803 to increase the strength of the regiment but spent most of the war in Jersey.[1] The 1st battalion embarked for the Mediterranean Sea in November 1805 and, after four years at Gibraltar, landed in Portugal for service in the Peninsula War in July 1809.[10] The battalion fell back to the Lines of Torres Vedras in October 1810.[11]

The battalion earned the regiment its nickname of "the Die Hards" after their participation in the Battle of Albuera, one of the bloodiest battles of the war, in May 1811.[12] The commanding officer of the battalion, Colonel William Inglis, was struck down by a charge of canister shot which hit him in the neck and left breast. He refused to be carried to the rear for treatment, but lay in front of his men calling on them to hold their position and when the fight reached its fiercest cried, "Die hard the 57th, die hard!".[13] The casualties of the battalion were 422 out of the 570 men in the ranks and 20 out of the 30 officers.[5] The Allied commander of the Anglo-Portuguese force General William Beresford wrote in his dispatch, "our dead, particularly the 57th Regiment, were lying as they fought in the ranks, every wound in front".[14]

The battalion also fought at the Battle of Vitoria in June 1813.[15] It then pursued the French Army into France and saw further action at the Battle of the Pyrenees in July 1813,[16] the Battle of Nivelle in November 1813[17] and the Battle of the Nive in December 1813.[18] The battalion embarked for North America in May 1814 for service in the War of 1812[19] but, without seeing any action, it embarked for home in spring 1815.[20]

The Victorian era

57th West Middlesex Regiment of Foot
Two officers of the 57th (West Middlesex) Regiment of Foot, serving in the Crimean War, photographed in 1855 by Roger Fenton

The regiment traveled to New South Wales in detachments as escorts to prisoners in 1824.[21] It moved on to India in 1830[22] and, while there, helped to suppress a rebellion in Mangalore in 1837.[23][24] The regiment did not embark for home until April 1846.[25] In September 1854 the regiment embarked for service in the Crimean War:[26] it fought at the Battle of Inkerman in November 1854[27] and the Siege of Sevastapol in winter 1854.[28] It moved to Malta in June 1856[29] and then sailed for India to help suppress the Indian Rebellion in May 1858.[30] It then sailed for Auckland in New Zealand in November 1860 for service in the New Zealand Wars.[31] Ensign John Thornton Down and Drummer Dudley Stagpoole were both awarded the Victoria Cross for their actions during a skirmish at Allen's Hill near Omata in October 1863 during the Second Taranaki War.[32] The regiment returned to England in 1867[33] and then moved to Ceylon in 1873.[34] From Ceylon it sailed to South Africa in 1879 for service in the Anglo-Zulu War.[1]

As part of the Cardwell Reforms of the 1870s, where single-battalion regiments were linked together to share a single depot and recruiting district in the United Kingdom, the 57th was linked with the 77th (East Middlesex) Regiment of Foot, and assigned to district no. 50 at Hounslow Barracks.[35] On 1 July 1881 the Childers Reforms came into effect and the regiment amalgamated with the 77th (East Middlesex) Regiment of Foot to form the Middlesex Regiment.[5]

Regimental marches

The regiment's regimental marches were 'Sir Manley Power' (quick) and 'Caledonian' (slow).[5]

Victoria Cross

Battle honours

The regiment's battle honours were as follows:[1]

Colonels of the Regiment

Colonels of the Regiment were:[1]

59th Regiment of Foot

  • 1755–1757 Col. John Arabin

57th Regiment of Foot

57th (the West Middlesex) Regiment of Foot

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g "57th (the West Middlesex) Regiment of Foot". regiments.org. Archived from the original on 1 December 2006. Retrieved 17 July 2016.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  2. ^ a b c Warre, p. 30
  3. ^ Warre, p. 31
  4. ^ Warre, p. 32
  5. ^ a b c d Chant, p. 103
  6. ^ Warre, p. 33
  7. ^ Warre, p. 35
  8. ^ Warre, p. 44
  9. ^ Warre, p. 46
  10. ^ Warre, p. 47
  11. ^ Warre, p. 50
  12. ^ Warre, p. 53
  13. ^ "Lieutenant-Colonel William Inglis (1764-1835)". National Army Museum. 2009. Archived from the original on 2006-10-01. Retrieved 2009-01-12.
  14. ^ Gurwood, p. 576
  15. ^ Warre, p. 62
  16. ^ Warre, p. 64
  17. ^ Warre, p. 65
  18. ^ Warre, p. 66
  19. ^ Warre, p. 67
  20. ^ Warre, p. 68
  21. ^ Warre, p. 73
  22. ^ Warre, p. 76
  23. ^ Warre, p. 82
  24. ^ "1837: When the rebel flag fluttered high". Deccan Chronicle. 6 April 2016. Retrieved 14 January 2017.
  25. ^ Warre, p. 95
  26. ^ Warre, p. 115
  27. ^ Warre, p. 118
  28. ^ Warre, p. 121
  29. ^ Warre, p. 139
  30. ^ Warre, p. 145
  31. ^ Warre, p. 156
  32. ^ Warre, p. 179
  33. ^ Warre, p. 202
  34. ^ Warre, p. 220
  35. ^ "Training Depots". Regiments.org. Archived from the original on 10 February 2006. Retrieved 16 October 2016.

Sources

2nd Infantry Division (United Kingdom)

The 2nd Infantry Division was a Regular Army infantry division of the British Army, with a long history. Its existence as a permanently embodied formation dated from 1809, when it was established by Lieutenant General Sir Arthur Wellesley (later to become the Duke of Wellington), as part of the Anglo-Portuguese Army, for service in the Peninsular War. (Prior to this, it was common for formations with the same number to be temporarily established for a single campaign and disbanded immediately afterwards; divisions remained a permanent part of the British Army's structure only after the Napoleonic Wars).

The division was associated with the north of England. The divisional insignia, the Crossed Keys of Saint Peter, were originally part of the coat of arms of the Diocese of York, and were adopted before or during the First World War. It was disbanded on 1 April 2012.

57th Regiment

57th Regiment or 57th Infantry Regiment may refer to:

57th (West Middlesex) Regiment of Foot, a disestablished unit of the British Army

57th Infantry Regiment (Philippine Commonwealth Army), a unit of the Philippine Commonwealth Army during the Second World War from 1941 to 1946

57th Infantry Regiment (United States), a unit of Philippine scouts serving under United States command during World War II

57th Infantry Regiment (Ottoman Army), a unit of the Ottoman Army during WWI

57th Line Infantry Regiment a unit of the French Army

57th Field Artillery Regiment (2nd/10th Dragoons), RCA, a unit of the Canadian Army

57th Infantry Regiment (United States), a unit of the US ArmyAmerican Civil WarUnion (North) Army57th Illinois Volunteer Infantry Regiment

57th Indiana Infantry Regiment

57th New York Volunteer Infantry

57th Ohio Infantry

57th Pennsylvania Infantry

57th United States Colored InfantryConfederate (Southern) Army57th Virginia Infantry

57th Regiment of Foot (disambiguation)

57th Regiment of Foot may refer to:

55th (Westmoreland) Regiment of Foot, 57th Regiment of Foot, raised in 1755 and renumbered as the 55th in 1756

57th (West Middlesex) Regiment of Foot, raised in 1755 as the 59th and renumbered as the 57th in 1756

59th Regiment of Foot (disambiguation)

Three regiments of the British Army have been numbered the 59th Regiment of Foot:

48th (Northamptonshire) Regiment of Foot, 59th Regiment of Foot, British infantry regiment numbered as the 59th Foot in 1747 and renumbered as the 48th in 1751.

57th (West Middlesex) Regiment of Foot, 59th Regiment of Foot, British infantry regiment raised in 1755 and renumbered as the 57th in 1756

59th (2nd Nottinghamshire) Regiment of Foot, British infantry regiment raised as the 61st and renumbered as the 59th in 1756

77th (East Middlesex) Regiment of Foot

The 77th (East Middlesex) Regiment of Foot (The Duke of Cambridge's Own) was a line regiment of the British Army, raised in 1787. Under the Childers Reforms it amalgamated with the 57th (West Middlesex) Regiment of Foot to form the Duke of Cambridge's Own (Middlesex Regiment) in 1881.

Cavalry Barracks, Hounslow

Cavalry Barracks is a British Army installation located north of Hounslow Heath in Hounslow, west London. Hounslow was one of 40 new barracks established around London to guard against possible French invasion in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

Charles Richard Fox

General Charles Richard Fox (6 November 1796 – 13 April 1873) was a British army general, and later a politician.

Frederick Adam

General Sir Frederick Adam (17 June 1781 – 17 August 1853) was a Scottish major-general at the Battle of Waterloo, in command of the 3rd (Light) Brigade. He was the fourth son of William Adam of Blair Adam and his wife Eleanora, the daughter of Charles Elphinstone, 10th Lord Elphinstone. He was later a Lord High Commissioners of the Ionian Islands, who built Mon Repos, Corfu and other important landmarks in that Protectorate.

Frederick Love

General Sir James Frederick Love (1789 – 13 January 1866) was a British Army officer who served as Lieutenant Governor of Jersey.

Freeman Murray

General Freeman Murray CB (1803-1885) was a British Army officer who became General Officer Commanding Eastern District.

Hew Whitefoord Dalrymple

General Sir Hew Whitefoord Dalrymple, 1st Baronet (3 December 1750 – 9 April 1830) was a British Army general and Governor of Gibraltar.

Inglis Barracks

Inglis Barracks was a military installation in Mill Hill, London, NW7. Also was referred to as Mill Hill Barracks.

John Hely-Hutchinson, 2nd Earl of Donoughmore

General John Hely-Hutchinson, 2nd Earl of Donoughmore, GCB (15 May 1757 – 29 June 1832) was an Anglo-Irish politician, hereditary peer and soldier.

John Irwin (British Army officer)

General Sir John Irwin KB (1727/28 – May 1788) was an Irish soldier who served in the British Army.

Kimball Bent

Kimball Bent (24 August 1837 – 22 May 1916), also known as "Kimble Bent", was a soldier and adventurer, who deserted from the British Army during the New Zealand Wars and lived for the reminder of his life among the Maori people of New Zealand.

Bent was born in Eastport, Maine USA. He ran away to sea at 17 and spent three years travelling the Atlantic seaboard as a sailor/ gunner in the US Navy. He returned to Eastport but was restless and sailed to Liverpool, England. Penniless and seeking adventure on 18 October 1859 he enlisted in the 57th (West Middlesex) Regiment of Foot in the British Army. He served in India and his unit was posted to New Zealand in 1861. His record was dubious, and he was repeatedly disciplined for various military infractions including disobedience and drunkenness. This discipline included a prison sentence in Wellington, and receiving lashes in front of his company. Bent accordingly decided to desert in June 1865 while serving in Taranaki.

Bent was found by a local Māori chief of the Ngāti Ruanui iwi in South Taranaki and eventually became accepted as a part of the local tribe. He fell in with Titokowaru's followers in 1867 and fought with them against the colonists in what has become known as Titokowaru's War until their eventual defeat in 1869.

Bent then went into hiding first in the backblocks of Taranaki and later in Wairau, Blenheim. He spent his remaining years working in several trades including as a builder, fisherman, horticulturist, tattooist, traditional healer using Maori medicine and even a confectioner. He remained a wanted deserter with a reward on his head for many years, but eventually the authorities stopped looking for him. In 1903 he was rediscovered, and a book was written about his life by James Cowan. Entitled The adventures of Kimble Bent: a story of wild life in the New Zealand bush,, it was something of sensation at the time.

He died in Wairau Hospital on 22 May 1916.

More recently, his tale has been fictionalised by New Zealand author Maurice Shadbolt in his 1990 historical novel Monday's Warriors and in the 2011 graphic novel, Kimble Bent Malcontent: The Wild Adventures of a Runaway Soldier in Old-Time New Zealand by Chris Grosz.

List of nicknames of British Army regiments

This is a list of nicknames of regiments of the British Army. Many nicknames were used by successor regiments (following renaming or amalgamation).

Manley Power

Lieutenant General Sir Manley Power, KCB, ComTE (1773 – 7 July 1826) was a British military leader who fought in a number of campaigns for Britain and rose to the rank of Lieutenant General. He is chiefly remembered for leading a brigade of Portuguese troops under The Duke of Wellington in the Iberian Peninsular War. He is also remembered for jointly causing the removal of Sir George Prevost, governor-in-chief of British North America, for Prevost's refusal to press the attack on Plattsburgh, New York, in 1814, during the War of 1812. After his active military service Sir Manley Power was appointed Lieutenant Governor of Malta.

William Spring (British Army officer)

Lieutenant-Colonel William Collis Spring (1769 – 14 August 1825) was an Anglo-Irish British Army officer of the Napoleonic Wars.

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