55th parallel north

The 55th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 55 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane. It crosses Europe, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, North America, and the Atlantic Ocean.

At this latitude the sun is visible for 17 hours, 22 minutes during the summer solstice and 7 hours, 10 minutes during the winter solstice.[1]

Line across the Earth
55th parallel north

Around the world

Starting at the Prime Meridian and heading eastwards, the parallel 55° north passes through:

Co-ordinates Country, territory or sea Notes
55°0′N 0°0′E / 55.000°N 0.000°E North Sea
55°0′N 8°21′E / 55.000°N 8.350°E  Germany Island of Sylt, close to Germany's northernmost point
55°0′N 8°23′E / 55.000°N 8.383°E Wadden Sea
55°0′N 8°39′E / 55.000°N 8.650°E  Denmark Jutland (mainland) and the island of Als
55°0′N 9°58′E / 55.000°N 9.967°E Little Belt
55°0′N 10°27′E / 55.000°N 10.450°E  Denmark Islands of Skarø, Tåsinge and Langeland
55°0′N 10°54′E / 55.000°N 10.900°E Great Belt
55°0′N 11°5′E / 55.000°N 11.083°E Smålandsfarvandet
55°0′N 11°53′E / 55.000°N 11.883°E  Denmark Islands of Sjælland and Møn
55°0′N 12°32′E / 55.000°N 12.533°E Baltic Sea
55°0′N 14°59′E / 55.000°N 14.983°E  Denmark Island of Bornholm. There is a small memorial at 55°N 15°E / 55°N 15°E
55°0′N 15°6′E / 55.000°N 15.100°E Baltic Sea
55°0′N 20°33′E / 55.000°N 20.550°E  Russia Kaliningrad Oblast - passing through the Curonian Lagoon
55°0′N 22°38′E / 55.000°N 22.633°E  Lithuania Marijampolė County
55°0′N 26°13′E / 55.000°N 26.217°E  Belarus Vitebsk Region
55°0′N 30°58′E / 55.000°N 30.967°E  Russia Smolensk Oblast
55°0′N 68°12′E / 55.000°N 68.200°E  Kazakhstan North Kazakhstan Region
55°0′N 71°1′E / 55.000°N 71.017°E  Russia Passing just north of Omsk at 54°59′N 73°22′E / 54.983°N 73.367°E
Passing just south of Novosibirsk at 55°3′N 82°57′E / 55.050°N 82.950°E
55°0′N 135°24′E / 55.000°N 135.400°E Sea of Okhotsk
55°0′N 136°47′E / 55.000°N 136.783°E  Russia Feklistova Island
55°0′N 137°4′E / 55.000°N 137.067°E Sea of Okhotsk
55°0′N 137°26′E / 55.000°N 137.433°E  Russia Bolshoy Shantar Island
55°0′N 138°11′E / 55.000°N 138.183°E Sea of Okhotsk
55°0′N 155°35′E / 55.000°N 155.583°E  Russia Kamchatka Peninsula
55°0′N 161°59′E / 55.000°N 161.983°E Pacific Ocean
55°0′N 166°8′E / 55.000°N 166.133°E  Russia Bering Island
55°0′N 166°23′E / 55.000°N 166.383°E Bering Sea Passing just north of Medny Island,  Russia
55°0′N 163°57′W / 55.000°N 163.950°W  United States Alaska - Unimak Island and the Alaska Peninsula
55°0′N 162°34′W / 55.000°N 162.567°W Pacific Ocean Gulf of Alaska - passing just south of Dolgoi Island and Unga Island, Alaska,  United States
55°0′N 160°8′W / 55.000°N 160.133°W  United States Alaska - Nagai Island
55°0′N 160°4′W / 55.000°N 160.067°W Pacific Ocean Gulf of Alaska
55°0′N 159°25′W / 55.000°N 159.417°W  United States Alaska - Little Koniuji Island
55°0′N 159°21′W / 55.000°N 159.350°W Pacific Ocean Gulf of Alaska
55°0′N 133°9′W / 55.000°N 133.150°W  United States Alaska - Dall Island, Sukkwan Island and Prince of Wales Island
55°0′N 131°59′W / 55.000°N 131.983°W Clarence Strait
55°0′N 131°36′W / 55.000°N 131.600°W  United States Alaska - Annette Island and Duke Island
55°0′N 131°15′W / 55.000°N 131.250°W Revillagigedo Channel
55°0′N 131°0′W / 55.000°N 131.000°W  United States Alaska - Alaska Panhandle
55°0′N 130°15′W / 55.000°N 130.250°W  Canada British Columbia - Pearse Island and the mainland
55°0′N 82°16′W / 55.000°N 82.267°W Hudson Bay
55°0′N 78°28′W / 55.000°N 78.467°W  Canada Quebec
Newfoundland and Labrador - for about 12 km
Newfoundland and Labrador - for about 5 km
Quebec - for about 3 km
Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador - mainland and the Adlavik Islands
55°0′N 58°40′W / 55.000°N 58.667°W Atlantic Ocean
55°0′N 8°33′W / 55.000°N 8.550°W  Ireland Island of Arranmore and mainland
55°0′N 7°24′W / 55.000°N 7.400°W  United Kingdom Northern Ireland (passing through the city of Derry)
55°0′N 5°59′W / 55.000°N 5.983°W North Channel
55°0′N 5°10′W / 55.000°N 5.167°W  United Kingdom Scotland (passing through Gretna)
England (passing through the Newcastle-upon-Tyne urban area)
55°0′N 1°25′W / 55.000°N 1.417°W North Sea

Notable cities and towns on 55°N

Use as a boundary

The 55th parallel serves as the southern boundary of Nunavik territory in Quebec.

See also


  1. ^ "Duration of Daylight/Darkness Table for One Year". aa.usno.navy.mil.
51st parallel north

The 51st parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 51 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane. It crosses Europe, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, North America, and the Atlantic Ocean.

At this latitude the sun is visible for 16 hours, 33 minutes during the summer solstice and 7 hours, 55 minutes during the winter solstice.Capital cities between the 51st and 52nd parallels are London and Astana.

54th parallel north

The 54th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 54 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane. It crosses Europe, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, North America, and the Atlantic Ocean.

At this latitude the sun is visible for 17 hours, 9 minutes during the summer solstice and 7 hours, 22 minutes during the winter solstice.

55th parallel

55th parallel may refer to:

55th parallel north, a circle of latitude in the Northern Hemisphere

55th parallel south, a circle of latitude in the Southern HemisphereLatitude 55°, a 1982 Canadian film

56th parallel north

The 56th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 56 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane. It crosses Europe, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, North America, and the Atlantic Ocean.

At this latitude the sun is visible for 17 hours, 37 minutes during the summer solstice and 6 hours, 57 minutes during the winter solstice.


Canada (Canadian French: [kanadɑ]) is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres (3.85 million square miles), making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States, stretching some 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world's longest bi-national land border. Its capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra. Consequently, its population is highly urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, with 70% of citizens residing within 100 kilometres (62 mi) of the southern border. Canada's climate varies widely across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons.

Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century, British and French expeditions explored, and later settled, along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament.

Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government. The country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and officially bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture.

A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index. Its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7 (formerly G8), the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.

Cassiar Land District

The Cassiar Land District is a cadastral survey subdivision of the province of British Columbia, Canada, created with rest of those on Mainland British Columbia via the Lands Act of the Colony of British Columbia in 1860. The British Columbia government's BC Names system, a subdivision of GeoBC, defines a land district as "a territorial division with legally defined boundaries for administrative purposes" All land titles and surveys use the Land District system as the primary point of reference, and entries in BC Names for placenames and geographical objects are so listed.

Economy of Alberta

Alberta's economy is the sum of all economic activity in Alberta, Canada's fourth largest province by population. Although Alberta has a presence in many industries such as agriculture, forestry, education, tourism, finance, and manufacturing, the politics and culture of the province have been closely tied to the production of fossil energy since the 1940s. Alberta—with an estimated 1.4 billion cubic metres of unconventional oil resource in the bituminous oil sands—leads Canada as an oil producer. Revenue from oil and natural gas extraction has fueled a series of economic booms in the province's recent history, and economic spin-offs have included petrochemical and pipelines. In 1985 36.1% of Alberta's $66.8 billion GDP was from energy industries. In 2012, "the mining and oil and gas extraction industry made up 23.3% of Alberta's GDP." By 2013 Alberta's GDP was $331.9 billion with 24.6% in energy. The energy industry provided 7.7% of all jobs in Alberta in 2013.From 1990 to 2003, Alberta's economy grew by 57% compared to 43% for all of Canada—the strongest economic growth of any region in Canada. In 2006 Alberta's per capita GDP was higher than all US states, and one of the highest figures in the world. In 2006, the deviation from the national average was the largest for any province in Canadian history. Alberta's per capita GDP in 2007 was by far the highest of any province in Canada at C$74,825 (approx. US$75,000). Alberta's per capita GDP in 2007 was 61% higher than the Canadian average of C$46,441 and more than twice that of all the Maritime provinces. From 2004 to 2014 Alberta's "exports of commodities rose 91%, reaching $121 billion in 2014" and 500,000 new jobs were created. In 2014, Alberta's real GDP by expenditure grew by 4.8%, the strongest growth rate among the provinces."

Beginning in June 2014 the record high volume of worldwide oil inventories in storage—referred to as a global oil glut—caused crude oil prices to collapse at near ten-year low prices. By 2016 West Texas Intermediate (WTI)—the benchmark light, sweet crude oil—reached its lowest price in ten years—US$26.55. In 2012 the price of WTI had reached US$125 and in 2014 the price was $100. By February 2016 the price of Western Canadian Select WCS—the Alberta benchmark heavy crude oil—was US$14.10—the cheapest oil in the world. Alberta's economy suffered with over 100,000 oil patch jobs lost. In spite of the surplus with the low price of WCS in 2015—99% of Canada's oil exports went to the United States and in 2015 Canada was still their largest exporter of total petroleum—3,789 thousand bpd in September, 3,401 thousand bpd in October up from 3,026 thousand bpd in September 2014.

Eeyou Istchee (territory)

Eeyou Istchee (/iːjoʊ̯ ɪst͡ʃi/, Northern East Cree: ᐄᔨᔨᐤ ᐊᔅᒌ Iiyiyiu Aschii /ijɪjɪu əstʃi/, Southern East Cree: ᐄᔨᔫ ᐊᔅᒌ Iiyiyuu Aschii /ijɪju əstʃi/ or ᐄᓅ ᐊᔅᒌ Iinuu Aschii /inu əstʃi/, all meaning "The People's Land") is a territory equivalent to a regional county municipality (TE) of Quebec, represented by the Grand Council of the Crees. On July 24, 2012, the Quebec government signed an accord with the Cree Nation that resulted in the abolition of the neighbouring municipality of Baie-James and the creation of the new Eeyou Istchee James Bay Regional Government, providing for the residents of neighbouring Jamésie TE and Eeyou Istchee to jointly govern the territory formerly governed by the municipality of Baie-James.The total land area of Eeyou Istchee is 5,271 km2 (2,035 sq mi). Note that the Grand Council of the Crees sees Eeyou Istchee as a much larger contiguous traditional territory and homeland of 450,000 square kilometres (170,000 sq mi). The total population of the area was 14,131 in 2006, according to the 2006 Canadian Census, and the largest municipality is the Cree village municipality of Chisasibi on the south bank of La Grande River near the northeast shore of James Bay.

Eeyou Istchee TE was created on November 30, 2007. Its territory had previously belonged to the TE of Jamésie. While most of Eeyou Istchee is enclaved within Jamésie TE, the Cree reserved land (TC) and Cree village municipality (VC) of Whapmagoostui lie north of the 55th parallel north and are enclaved within Kativik TE.

Together with the TEs of Jamésie and Kativik, it forms the region and census division (CD) of Nord-du-Québec.

Grande Prairie

Grande Prairie is a city in northwest Alberta, Canada within the southern portion of an area known as Peace River Country. It is located at the intersection of Highway 43 (part of the CANAMEX Corridor) and Highway 40 (the Bighorn Highway), approximately 456 km (283 mi) northwest of Edmonton. The city is surrounded by the County of Grande Prairie No. 1.

Grande Prairie was the seventh-largest city in Alberta in 2016 with a population of 63,166, and was one of Canada's fastest growing cities between 2001 and 2006.The city adopted the trumpeter swan as an official symbol due to its proximity to the migration route and summer nesting grounds of this bird. For that reason, Grande Prairie is sometimes nicknamed the "Swan City". The dinosaur has emerged as an unofficial symbol of the city due to paleontology discoveries in the areas north and west of the Grande Prairie.

Ilford Road Metro station

Ilford Road Metro station is located in the Newcastle upon Tyne suburb of Jesmond. The station opened in August 1980 and is served by the Tyne and Wear Metro service. It was the "typical Metro halt" used in publicity when the system first opened; when other stations were being repainted red, green or blue in the early years of the 21st century, Ilford Road was repainted in original brown, with much of the unpainted concrete being painted cream.

The station is unique on the Metro system in that it does not provide any means for passengers to cross from one platform to the other (such as a footbridge, level crossing, or pedestrian subway). Passengers must instead use the nearby road bridge to cross the line (a distance of approximately 350m).

The station platforms at Ilford Road cross the 55th parallel north line of latitude.

List of circles of latitude

Following is a list of circles of latitude on Earth.

Mid-Canada Line

The Mid-Canada Line (MCL), also known as the McGill Fence, was a line of radar stations running east-west across the middle of Canada, used to provide early warning of a Soviet bomber attack on North America. It was built to supplement the less-advanced Pinetree Line, which was located further south. The majority of Mid-Canada Line stations were used only briefly from the late 1950s to the mid-1960s, as the attack threat changed from bombers to ICBMs. As the MCL was closed down, the early warning role passed almost entirely to the more capable DEW Line further north.

The MCL was based on the bistatic radar principle, using separated transmitters and receivers. An aircraft flying anywhere between the stations would reflect some of the transmitted signal towards the receiver, where it would mix with the signal travelling directly from the transmitter. The resulting change in signal is very easy to detect using simple electronics, and the transmitter is not pulsed so it does not require high voltages and is very simple as well. This leads to a very low-cost system that can cover huge areas, at the cost of providing no information about the precise location of the target.

Throughout its history, the MCL suffered from a problem that was never solved; because of the way bistatic radar works, any object near the transmitter or receiver makes a large signal, in contrast to conventional monostatic (single site) radars where this effect is limited to the area around the site. In the case of the MCL, this caused problems when flocks of birds would fly anywhere near either station and swamp the signal of a more distant aircraft. Solving this problem using the Doppler effect was a major design criterion for the AN/FPS-23 "Fluttar" that filled a similar role in the DEW line.

Percy Main Metro station

Percy Main Metro station is on the Yellow line of the Tyne and Wear Metro in the village of Percy Main in North Tyneside, England.

The original station of the Newcastle & North Shields Railway opened in 1839 to serve a small riverside community clustered around a colliery. All of the original buildings were demolished when the station was converted for Metro use. The footbridge originally installed there by the North Eastern Railway has been preserved by the National Railway Museum in York. The footbridge is very similar to one still in situ at South Gosforth station.

From here, it is a 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) walk to the DFDS Seaways ferry terminal, and to Royal Quays. Also, it is a short walk to the south terminus of the North Tyneside Steam Railway.

The Metro tracks cross the 55th parallel north line of latitude just east of Percy Main station.

The station is in between the Meadow Well and Howdon Metro stations.

Population of Canada

Canada ranks 38 comprising about 0.5% of the world's total population, with over 37 million Canadians as of 2018. Despite having the 2nd largest landmass, the vast majority of the country is sparsely inhabited, with most of its population south of the 55th parallel north. Though Canada's population density is low, many regions in the south such as Southern Ontario, have population densities higher than several European countries. Canada's largest population centres are Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Calgary, Edmonton and Ottawa with those six being the only ones with more than one million people. The large size of Canada's north which is not arable, and thus cannot support large human populations, significantly lowers the carrying capacity. Therefore, the population density of the habitable land in Canada can be modest to high depending on the region.

The historical growth of Canada's population is complex and has been influenced in many different ways, such as indigenous populations, expansion of territory, and human migration. Being a new world country, Canada has been predisposed to be a very open society with regards to immigration, which has been the most important factor in its historical population growth. The 2016 Canadian census counted a total population of 35,151,728, an increase of around 5.0 percent over the 2011 figure. Between 1990 and 2008, the population increased by 5.6 million, equivalent to 20.4 percent overall growth.

RAF Saxa Vord

Remote Radar Head Saxa Vord or RRH Saxa Vord, is a Royal Air Force radar station located on the island of Unst, the most northern of the Shetland Islands in Scotland. As of February 2018 it is currently in the process of reactivation, after closure in 2006. The station's motto "Praemoneo de Periculis" (Premonition of Peril) reflects its role.

RAF Saxa Vord is further north than Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg), and on the same latitude as Anchorage, Alaska. The station was named after Saxa Vord, which is the highest hill on Unst at 935 ft (285 m). It holds the unofficial British record for wind speed, which in 1992 was recorded at 197 mph (317 km/h) — just before the measuring equipment blew away.

Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Grouard–McLennan

The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Grouard–McLennan (Latin: Archidioecesis Gruardensis–McLennanpolitana) is a Latin archdiocese of the Roman Catholic Church in Canada and the metropolitan see of an ecclesiastical province for the Roman Catholic Church in northwestern Canada.

The archbishop is the Most Reverend Gérard Pettipas, C.Ss.R.. As archbishop, Pettipas also serves as pastor of the Cathedral of Saint John the Baptist, the mother church and episcopal see of the archdiocese.

Trans-Taiga Road

The Trans-Taiga Road (French: Route Transtaïga) is an extremely remote wilderness road in northern Quebec, Canada. It is 582 kilometres (362 mi) long to Centrale Brisay and another 84 kilometres (52 mi) along the Caniapiscau Reservoir, all of it unpaved.

The road's northeastern terminus is almost at the 55th parallel north, making it the northernmost continuous road in Eastern North America. Though the terminus is also the farthest point from any town (745 kilometres (463 mi) from Radisson) via road in North America, it is nonetheless relatively close – 190 kilometres (120 mi) – to Schefferville geographically. It does not, however, provide access to it, as the intervening terrain is impassable even in an all-terrain vehicle. The road's end is also close to the southern limit of Nunavik, Quebec's Inuit region which is negotiating for autonomous status within Quebec.

The Trans-Taiga Road branches off from the James Bay Road (French: Route de la Baie James) at kilometer 544. It was built as an access road to the hydro-electric generating stations of Hydro-Québec along the La Grande River and Caniapiscau River. Several outfitters are established along this road, providing wilderness hunting and fishing expeditions, and some may also provide fuel, food and lodging. Otherwise, there are no services along this road.

While the Trans-Taiga Road is reportedly drivable by ordinary passenger vehicles for its entire length, Hydro-Québec recommends use of 4WD vehicles for the section between Brisay and Caniapiscau, which is of a rougher grade than the rest of the road.

As the name of the road indicates, this road winds its way through Quebec's vast boreal forest, characterized by stunted spruce and pine, bogs and rocky outcroppings. Taiga is the Russian term for the same type of forest.

Regional and provincial officials have suggested building a link from the road's northeastern terminus in Caniapiscau to Kuujjuaq, several hundred kilometres to the north in Nunavik, also accessing Schefferville along the way. As the road east of Centrale Brisay is extremely rough (large rocks on the road surface), part of the existing road would also require upgrade; an extension via Schefferville would likely require crossing the province of Newfoundland and Labrador.

Ukase of 1799

The Ukase of 1799 (Russian: Указ 1799 года) was a decree of Tsar Paul I issued on 8 July 1799 which claimed a southern border of Russian America along the 55th parallel north. The United American Company was given a controlling interest in the chartered Russian-American Company and a monopoly of commercial activities in Russian America and on the Kuril Islands was granted for a period of twenty years. Russian fur traders were forbidden to operate in Russian America unless affiliated with the RAC, although foreign traders were still allowed access. The Company was also authorised to establish colonies where its directors deemed prudent. The patent was later superseded by Tsar Alexander I's Ukase of 1821.

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