Year 541 (DXLI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Basilius without colleague (or, less frequently, year 1294 Ab urbe condita). Basilius was the last person to be officially appointed Roman consul, since after this year, the office was permanently merged with the office of Roman/Byzantine emperor. Thus, from the next year forward, the consular year dating was abandoned. The denomination 541 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
|541 in various calendars|
|Ab urbe condita||1294|
|Balinese saka calendar||462–463|
|Chinese calendar||庚申年 (Metal Monkey)|
3237 or 3177
— to —
辛酉年 (Metal Rooster)
3238 or 3178
|- Vikram Samvat||597–598|
|- Shaka Samvat||462–463|
|- Kali Yuga||3641–3642|
|Iranian calendar||81 BP – 80 BP|
|Islamic calendar||84 BH – 83 BH|
|Minguo calendar||1371 before ROC|
|Seleucid era||852/853 AG|
|Thai solar calendar||1083–1084|
667 or 286 or −486
— to —
668 or 287 or −485
The Airbus A340 is a long-range, four-engine, wide-body commercial passenger jet airliner that was developed and produced by the European aerospace company Airbus. The A340 was assembled in Toulouse, France. It seats up to 375 passengers in the standard variants and 440 in the stretched -600 series. Depending on the model, it has a range of 6,700 to 9,000 nautical miles (12,400 to 16,700 km; 7,700 to 10,400 mi). Its distinguishing features are four high-bypass turbofan engines and three leg main landing gear.
The A340 was manufactured in four fuselage lengths. The initial variant, A340-300, which entered service in 1993, measured 63.69 metres (209.0 ft). The shorter -200 was developed next, and the A340-600 was a 15.96 metres (52.4 ft) stretch of the -200. The -600 was developed alongside the shorter A340-500, which would become the longest-range commercial airliner until the arrival of the Boeing 777-200LR. The -200 and -300 models were powered by the 151 kilonewtons (34,000 lbf) CFM56-5C, while the 267-kilonewton (60,000 lbf) Rolls-Royce Trent 500 was the exclusive powerplant for the extended-range -500 and -600 models. The initial A340-200 and -300 variants share the fuselage and wing of the twin-engine Airbus A330 with which it was concurrently designed. The heavier A340-500 and -600 are stretched and have enlarged wings.Launch customers Lufthansa and Air France placed the A340 into service in March 1993. In September 2011, 379 orders had been placed (not including private operators), of which 375 were delivered. The most common type were the A340-300 model, with 218 aircraft delivered. Lufthansa is the biggest operator of the A340, having acquired 59 aircraft. The A340 is used on long-haul, trans-oceanic routes due to its immunity from ETOPS restrictions; however, with reliability and fuel efficiency in engines improving, airlines have gradually phased out the type in favour of more economical twinjets of comparable capacity such as the Boeing 777, while Airbus has positioned the larger variants of the Airbus A350 as a successor. Airbus announced on 10 November 2011 that A340 production had been concluded.Arcturus
Arcturus, also designated α Boötis (Latinized to Alpha Boötis, abbreviated Alpha Boo, α Boo), is the brightest star in the constellation of Boötes, the fourth-brightest in the night sky, and the brightest in the northern celestial hemisphere. Together with Spica and Denebola (or Regulus, depending on the source), Arcturus is part of the Spring Triangle asterism and, by extension, also of the Great Diamond along with the star Cor Caroli.
Relatively close at 36.7 light-years from the Sun, Arcturus is a red giant of spectral type K0III—an ageing star around 7.1 billion years old that has used up its core hydrogen and moved off the main sequence. It is 1.08±0.06 times as massive as the Sun, but has expanded to 25.4±0.2 times its diameter and is around 170 times as luminous.Area codes 541 and 458
North American area code 541 covers the majority of Oregon in terms of surface area, except the northwest part of the state. Its service area includes the cities of Eugene, Springfield, Corvallis, Albany, Medford, Bend, Ashland, The Dalles, and Pendleton, as well as the coastal region from Lincoln County to the California border. It began its split from area code 503 on November 5, 1995, and finished June 30, 1996. It is overlaid with area code 458, effective February 10, 2010.German submarine U-541
German submarine U-541 was a Type IXC U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II.
She was laid down at the Deutsche Werft (yard) in Hamburg as yard number 362 on 5 May 1942, launched on 5 January 1943 and commissioned on 24 March with Kapitänleutnant Kurt Petersen (Crew 36) in command.
U-541 began her service career with training as part of the 4th U-boat Flotilla from 24 March 1943. She was re-assigned to the 10th flotilla for operations on 1 November, then the 33rd flotilla on 1 November 1944.
She carried out four patrols and sank one ship. She was a member of four wolfpacks.
She surrendered on 12 May 1945 at Gibraltar and was transferred to Lisahally in Northern Ireland for Operation Deadlight. She was sunk in January 1946.List of United States Supreme Court cases, volume 541
This is a list of all the United States Supreme Court cases from volume 541 of the United States Reports:
Raymond B. Yates, M. D., P. C. Profit Sharing Plan v. Hendon, 541 U.S. 1 (2004)
Baldwin v. Reese, 541 U.S. 27 (2004)
Crawford v. Washington, 541 U.S. 36 (2004)
Iowa v. Tovar, 541 U.S. 77 (2004)
South Fla. Water Management Dist. v. Miccosukee Tribe, 541 U.S. 95 (2004)
United States v. Galletti, 541 U.S. 114 (2004)
Nixon v. Missouri Municipal League, 541 U.S. 125 (2004)
United States v. Flores-Montano, 541 U.S. 149 (2004)
National Archives and Records Admin. v. Favish, 541 U.S. 157 (2004)
BedRoc Limited, LLC v. United States, 541 U.S. 176 (2004)
United States v. Lara, 541 U.S. 193 (2004)
Household Credit Services, Inc. v. Pfennig, 541 U.S. 232 (2004)
Engine Mfrs. Assn. v. South Coast Air Quality Management Dist., 541 U.S. 246 (2004)
Vieth v. Jubelirer, 541 U.S. 267 (2004)
Jones v. R. R. Donnelley & Sons Co., 541 U.S. 369 (2004)
Dretke v. Haley, 541 U.S. 386 (2004)
Scarborough v. Principi, 541 U.S. 401 (2004)
Johnson v. California, 541 U.S. 428 (2004) (per curiam)
Middleton v. McNeil, 541 U.S. 433 (2004) (per curiam)
Tennessee Student Assistance Corporation v. Hood, 541 U.S. 440 (2004)
Till v. SCS Credit Corp., 541 U.S. 465 (2004)
Tennessee v. Lane, 541 U.S. 509 (2004)
Grupo Dataflux v. Atlas Global Group, L. P., 541 U.S. 567 (2004)
Sabri v. United States, 541 U.S. 600 (2004)
Thornton v. United States, 541 U.S. 615 (2004)
Nelson v. Campbell, 541 U.S. 637 (2004)
Yarborough v. Alvarado, 541 U.S. 652 (2004)
Republic of Austria v. Altmann, 541 U.S. 677 (2004)
Central Laborers' Pension Fund v. Heinz, 541 U.S. 739 (2004)
Department of Transportation v. Public Citizen, 541 U.S. 752 (2004)
City of Littleton v. Z. J. Gifts D-4, L. L. C., 541 U.S. 774 (2004)List of former Maryland state highways (500–599)
The Maryland highway system has several hundred former state highways. These highways were constructed, maintained, or funded by the Maryland State Roads Commission or Maryland State Highway Administration and assigned a unique or temporally unique number. Some time after the highway was assigned, the highway was transferred to county or municipal maintenance and the number designation was removed from the particular stretch of road. In some cases, a highway was renumbered in whole or in part. This list contains all or most of the state-numbered highways between 500 and 599 that have existed since highways were first numbered in 1927 but are no longer part of the state highway system or are state highways of a different number. Most former state highways have not had their numbers reused. However, many state highway numbers were used for a former highway and are currently in use. Some numbers have been used three times. The former highways below whose numbers are used presently, those that were taken over in whole or in part by another highway, or have enough information to warrant a separate article contain links to those separate highway articles. Highway numbers that have two or more former uses are differentiated below by year ranges. This list does not include former Interstate or U.S. Highways, which are linked from their respective lists.List of municipalities, communes, and arrondissements of Morocco
This is a list of municipalities (urban or rural communes), and arrondissements of Morocco, based on the 2004 census.
In 2009 a new administrative division of Morocco was adopted, creating 13 new provinces: Berrechid, Driouch, Fquih Ben Salah, Guercif, Midelt, Ouezzane, Rehamna, Sidi Bennour, Sidi Ifni, Sidi Slimane, Tarfaya, Tinghir and Youssoufia. Many municipalities and communes below are now part of these new provinces. The list below is not yet updated for this change.NGC 541
NGC 541 is a lenticular galaxy located in the constellation Cetus. It is located at a distance of circa 230 million light years from Earth, which, given its apparent dimensions, means that NGC 541 is about 130,000 light years across. It was discovered by Heinrich d'Arrest on October 30, 1864. It is a member of the Abell 194 galaxy cluster and is included in the Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies in the category galaxies with nearby fragments. NGC 541 is a radio galaxy of Fanaroff-Riley class I, also known as 3C 40A (3C 40B is more prominent and is associated with the nearby galaxy NGC 547).The galaxy was observed by the Hubble Space Telescope. It was found that it has a central disk seen nearly face-on with a diameter of 1".8. Inside the disk is an inner ring with a diameter of circa 0".44 arcseconds, maybe part of a hardly visible spiral structure. There is also a linear dust feature sticking out of the disk with nearly the same axis as the radio jet. H-alpha and [N II] emission presented a peak at the centre of the dusk disk and also was found to form a ring around the peak, which had two brighter spots lying diametrically opposed. Observations in CO emission revealed the presence of molecular gas in NGC 541, with estimated mass of approximately 108 M☉, and with a compact ring-like distribution with a radius of 1-2 kpc. In the centre of NGC 541 lies a supermassive black hole whose mass is estimated to be (1.9 – 9.2) × 108 M☉.At 45 arcseconds northeast of NGC 541 lies an irregular dwarf galaxy known as Minkowski's object. It is located in the path of the radio jet of NGC 541 and there is strong evidence that the jet has caused a starburst in Minkowski's object. There is a HI region downstream from the Minkowski's object with 4.9×108 M☉ that straddles the jet at the point where the jet changes direction. At least 20 regions with star clusters and associated HII regions have been detected in Minkowski's object. The stellar population in Minkowski's object is dominated by stars formed in a single event 7.5 million years ago. The current starbirth rate is 0.52 M☉ per year. Although it has been proposed that Minkowski's object was a dwarf galaxy that happened to pass through the radio jet of NGC 541, it is more probable that the HI region was warm intergalactic gas that was cooled by the jet, resulting in star formation, a model that has been reproduced by computer stimulations.A stellar bridge has been detected between NGC 541 and the galaxy pair NGC 545/547, which lies 4.5 arcminutes to the northeast (projected distance circa 100 kpc).Neoproterozoic
The Neoproterozoic Era is the unit of geologic time from 1,000 to 541 million years ago.It is the last era of the Precambrian Supereon and the Proterozoic Eon; it is subdivided into the Tonian, Cryogenian, and Ediacaran Periods. It is preceded by the Mesoproterozoic era and succeeded by the Paleozoic era.
The most severe glaciation known in the geologic record occurred during the Cryogenian, when ice sheets reached the equator and formed a possible "Snowball Earth".
The earliest fossils of multicellular life are found in the Ediacaran, including the Ediacarans, which were the earliest animals.
According to Rino and co-workers, the sum of the continental crust formed in the Pan-African orogeny and the Grenville orogeny makes the Neoproterozoic the period of Earth's history that has produced most continental crust.Nephrozoa
Nephrozoa is a major clade of bilaterians, divided into the protostomes and the deuterostomes, containing almost all animal phyla and over a million extant species. Its sister clade is the Xenacoelomorpha. The coelom, the excretory organs, and nerve cords developed in the Nephrozoa.Chordates (which include all the vertebrates) are deuterostomes. It seems very likely that the 555 million year old Kimberella was a member of the protostomes. If so, this means that the protostome and deuterostome lineages must have split some time before Kimberella appeared — at least 558 million years ago, and hence well before the start of the Cambrian 541 million years ago.No. 541 Squadron RAF
No. 541 Squadron RAF was a Royal Air Force Squadron formed as a photographic reconnaissance squadron in World War II.Ontario Highway 541
Secondary Highway 541, commonly referred to as Highway 541, was a provincially maintained secondary highway in the Canadian province of Ontario. The highway connected Highway 17 in Sudbury with the community of Skead on the southern shores of Lake Wanapitei, passing through the community of Garson en route. Within the urban region of Sudbury, the highway served to access Sudbury Airport. The designation was applied in 1956, along with many of the secondary highways in Ontario. The province transferred responsibility for the route shortly after the creation of the Regional Municipality of Sudbury in 1973. Highway 541 is now known as Sudbury Municipal Road 86, following Falconbridge Highway and Skead Road.Paleozoic
The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era ( ; from the Greek palaios (παλαιός), "old" and zoe (ζωή), "life", meaning "ancient life") is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon. It is the longest of the Phanerozoic eras, lasting from 541 to 251.902 million years ago, and is subdivided into six geologic periods (from oldest to youngest): the Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, and Permian. The Paleozoic comes after the Neoproterozoic Era of the Proterozoic Eon and is followed by the Mesozoic Era.
The Paleozoic was a time of dramatic geological, climatic, and evolutionary change. The Cambrian witnessed the most rapid and widespread diversification of life in Earth's history, known as the Cambrian explosion, in which most modern phyla first appeared. Arthropods, molluscs, fish, amphibians, synapsids and diapsids all evolved during the Paleozoic. Life began in the ocean but eventually transitioned onto land, and by the late Paleozoic, it was dominated by various forms of organisms. Great forests of primitive plants covered the continents, many of which formed the coal beds of Europe and eastern North America. Towards the end of the era, large, sophisticated diapsids and synapsids were dominant and the first modern plants (conifers) appeared.
The Paleozoic Era ended with the largest extinction event in the history of Earth, the Permian–Triassic extinction event. The effects of this catastrophe were so devastating that it took life on land 30 million years into the Mesozoic Era to recover. Recovery of life in the sea may have been much faster.Precambrian
The Precambrian (or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pЄ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic Eon. The Precambrian is so named because it preceded the Cambrian, the first period of the Phanerozoic eon, which is named after Cambria, the Latinised name for Wales, where rocks from this age were first studied. The Precambrian accounts for 88% of the Earth's geologic time.
The Precambrian (colored green in the timeline figure) is an informal unit of geologic time, subdivided into three eons (Hadean, Archean, Proterozoic) of the geologic time scale. It spans from the formation of Earth about 4.6 billion years ago (Ga) to the beginning of the Cambrian Period, about 541 million years ago (Ma), when hard-shelled creatures first appeared in abundance.Proterozoic
The Proterozoic ( ) is a geological eon spanning the time from the appearance of oxygen in Earth's atmosphere to just before the proliferation of complex life (such as trilobites or corals) on the Earth. The name Proterozoic combines the two forms of ultimately Greek origin: protero- meaning "former, earlier", and -zoic, a suffix related to zoe "life". The Proterozoic Eon extended from 2500 mya to 541 mya (million years ago), and is the most recent part of the Precambrian "supereon". The Proterozoic is the longest eon of the Earth's geologic time scale and it is subdivided into three geologic eras (from oldest to youngest): the Paleoproterozoic, Mesoproterozoic, and Neoproterozoic.The well-identified events of this eon were the transition to an oxygenated atmosphere during the Paleoproterozoic; several glaciations, which produced the hypothesized Snowball Earth during the Cryogenian Period in the late Neoproterozoic Era; and the Ediacaran Period (635 to 541 Ma) which is characterized by the evolution of abundant soft-bodied multicellular organisms and provides us with the first obvious fossil evidence of life on earth.SP-541
SP-541 is a state highway in the state of São Paulo in Brazil.Special routes of U.S. Route 41
Several special routes of U.S. Route 41 exist. In order from south to north they are as follows.Taroudant Province
Taroudannt is a province in the Moroccan economic region of Souss-Massa. Its population in 2004 was 780,661. 
The major cities and towns are: 
TaroudanntUSS Yarnall (DD-541)
USS Yarnall (DD-541), a Fletcher-class destroyer, was the second ship of the United States Navy to be named for Lieutenant
John Yarnall (1786–1815).
Yarnall was laid down on 5 December 1942 at San Francisco, Calif., by the Bethlehem Steel Co.; launched on 25 July 1943; sponsored by Mrs. Earl Groves; and commissioned on 30 December 1943, Commander Benjamin F. Tompkins in command.
The destroyer spent the first two months of 1944 conducting her shakedown cruise and other training exercises in the San Diego operating area. She departed the west coast early in March and arrived at Oahu on the 19th. For the next 10 weeks, Yarnall carried out additional tactical exercises in the Hawaiian Islands.United States v. Lara
United States v. Lara, 541 U.S. 193 (2004), was a United States Supreme Court case which held that both the United States and a Native American (Indian) tribe could prosecute an Indian for the same acts that constituted crimes in both jurisdictions. The Court held that the United States and the tribe were separate sovereigns; therefore, separate tribal and federal prosecutions did not violate the Double Jeopardy Clause.In the 1880s, Congress passed the Major Crimes Act, divesting tribes of criminal jurisdiction in regard to several felony crimes. In 1990, the Supreme Court ruled in Duro v. Reina that an Indian tribe did not have the authority to try an Indian criminally who was not a member of that tribe. The following year, Congress passed a law that stated that Indian tribes, because of their inherent sovereignty, had the authority to try non-member Indians for crimes committed within the tribe's territorial jurisdiction.
The defendant, Billy Jo Lara, was charged for acts that were criminal offenses under both the Spirit Lake Sioux Tribe's laws and the federal United States Code. Lara pleaded guilty to the tribal charges, but claimed double jeopardy against the federal charges. The Supreme Court ruled that double jeopardy did not apply to Lara since "the successive prosecutions were brought by separate and distinct sovereign bodies".