The 53T6 (NATO reporting name: ABM-3 Gazelle, previously SH-08)[1] is a Russian anti-ballistic missile. Designed in 1978 and in service since 1995,[11] it is a component of the A-135 anti-ballistic missile system.

The missile is able to intercept incoming re-entry vehicles at a distance of 80 km. The 53T6 is a two-stage solid-propellant rocket armed with a 10 kt thermonuclear weapon. The missile is about 10 meters in length and 1.8 meters in diameter. Its launch weight is 10 tons.[1][12]

The 53T6 missile is kept in a silo-based launch container. Prior to launch its cover is blown off.

The missile achieves speeds of approximately Mach 17 (20,826 km/h; 12,941 mph; 5.7849 km/s).[12] Maximal load manoeuvre capability is 210 g longitudinal and 90 g transverse.[5]

53T6 (ABM-3 Gazelle)
ABM Pushkino
TypeAnti-ballistic missile
Place of originSoviet Union
Service history
In serviceSince 1995
Used byRussia
WarsCold War
Production history
DesignerNPO Novator Design Bureau
No. built68[1]
VariantsA modernized variant is in service as of July 2018[2]
Mass10,000  kg (22,000 lbs)
Length12 m
Diameter1.8 m[3][4][5]
Warheadnuclear 10 kt

Engine2-stage solid fuel
80–100 km[3][6][7][8]
Flight ceiling80–100 km
SpeedMach 17 (20,826 km/h; 12,941 mph)

Radar support

The Gazelle missile system is supported by the Don-2N Pill Box radar.

See also

Related US missiles



  1. ^ a b c d e Gazelle (SH-08/ABM-3) Archived 2010-08-09 at the Wayback Machine.
  2. ^ Sputnik. "Russian MoD: New Air Defense Missile Succesfully Test-Fired in Kazakhstan". sputniknews.com.
  3. ^ a b "PRS-1/53T6 antimissile missile complex and A-135/RTTS-181 Cupid / 5ZH60". Tonnel-ufo.ru. Retrieved 2018-08-22.
  4. ^ Sean, O'Connor, (12 December 2009). "Russian/Soviet Anti-Ballistic Missile Systems".
  5. ^ a b "Отечественная военная техника (после 1945г.) - Статьи - Система А-135 ракета 53Т6 - ABM-3 GAZELLE / SH-08". 8 September 2010. Archived from the original on 2010-09-08.
  6. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-10-29. Retrieved 2015-06-09.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  7. ^ Pike, John. "53T6 Gazelle". www.globalsecurity.org.
  8. ^ "Encyclopedia Astronautica Index: 1". www.astronautix.com.
  9. ^ Sean, O'Connor, (12 December 2009). "Russian/Soviet Anti-Ballistic Missile Systems".
  10. ^ 53t6 (25 September 2007). "Anti-ballistic missile 53T6 Gazelle Test mission Launch" – via YouTube.
  11. ^ A-135.
  12. ^ a b СИСТЕМА ПРО А-135.

External links

9M17 Fleyta

The AT-2 Swatter is the NATO reporting name for the 3M11 Fleyta (flute) MCLOS radio command anti-tank missile of the Soviet Union.

9M730 Burevestnik

The 9M730 Burevestnik (Russian: Буревестник; "Petrel", NATO reporting name: SSC-X-9 Skyfall) is a Russian nuclear-powered, nuclear-tipped cruise missile with virtually unlimited range.The Burevestnik is one of the six new Russian strategic weapons unveiled by Russian President Vladimir Putin on 1 March 2018.

A-135 anti-ballistic missile system

The A-135 (NATO: ABM-3 Gorgon) anti-ballistic missile system is a Russian military complex deployed around Moscow to counter enemy missiles targeting the city or its surrounding areas. It became operational during 1995. It is a successor to the previous A-35, and complies with the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty.

The A-135 system attained "alert" (operational) status on February 17, 1995. It is operational although its 51T6 (NATO reporting name: SH-11) component was deactivated in February 2007. A newer missile (PRS-1M) is expected to replace it. There is an operational test version of the system at the test site in Sary Shagan, Kazakhstan.

The system is operated by the 9th Division of Anti-Missile Defence, part of the Air Defence and Missile Defence Command of the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces.

A-235 anti-ballistic missile system

A-235 PL-19 Nudol (Russian: Система А-235 / РТЦ-181М RTTs-181M / Нудоль) is a Russian anti-ballistic missile and anti-satellite weapon system in development. This system is designed to deflect a nuclear attack on Moscow and important industrial regions. The main developer of the system is JSC Concern VKO Almaz-Antey. The new system should replace the current one — A-135. The 2 main differences will be that the A-235 will use conventional warheads and it will be mobile.Missile defense system A-235 will be using the Don-2N radar and the range radar Don 2NP / 5N20P with updated software and hardware; the guidance system of the A-235 complex will be similar to the existing system A-135. The A-235 when deployed could possibly be equipped with a nuclear warhead which would greatly increase its ability to kill incoming warheads. Yield on which it would be deployed is not yet known. According to reports in early 2018, the system will not be equipped with nuclear warheads. The system will be deployed at points surrounding Moscow by the end of 2018.

The new PRS-1M (45T6) is a modernized variant of the PRS-1 (53T6 Gazelle) and can use nuclear or conventional warheads. It can hit targets at ranges of 350 km and altitudes of 50 km.The A-235 will have missiles capable of operating at three different ranges: long-range, based on the 51T6 and capable of destroying targets at distances up to 1500 km (930 miles), at altitudes up to 800,000 m; medium-range, an update of the 58R6, designed to hit targets at distances up to 1000 km (620 miles), at altitudes up to 120,000 m; and short-range (the 53T6M or 45T6 (based on the 53T6)), with an operating range of 350 km (215 miles) and a flight ceiling of 40,000-50,000 m. The long-range missiles will most likely be equipped with nuclear warheads, while the others will have kinetic energy warheads. Testing of new missiles for the A-235 Samolyot-M system began in August 2014.


The DF-ZF is a Chinese experimental hypersonic glide vehicle (HGV), previously known by the Pentagon as WU-14.

Kh-47M2 Kinzhal

The Kh-47M2 Kinzhal ("Dagger") is a Russian nuclear-capable air-launched ballistic missile (ALBM). It has a claimed range of more than 2,000 km (1,200 mi), Mach 10 speed, and an ability to perform evasive maneuvers at every stage of its flight. It can carry both conventional and nuclear warheads and can be launched from Tu-22M3 bombers or MiG-31K interceptors. It has been deployed at airbases in Russia's Southern Military District.The Kinzhal entered service in December 2017 and it is one of the six new Russian strategic weapons unveiled by Russian President Vladimir Putin on 1 March 2018.

List of NATO reporting names for air-to-air missiles

NATO reporting name for AA series air-to-air missiles, with Soviet designations:

AA-1 "Alkali" (Kaliningrad K-5)

AA-2 "Atoll" (Vympel K-13)

AA-3 "Anab" (Kaliningrad K-8)

AA-4 "Awl" (Raduga K-9)

AA-5 "Ash" (Bisnovat R-4)

AA-6 "Acrid" (Bisnovat R-40)

AA-7 "Apex" (Vympel R-23)

AA-8 "Aphid" (Molniya R-60)

AA-9 "Amos" (Vympel R-33)

AA-10 "Alamo" (Vympel R-27)

AA-11 "Archer" (Vympel R-73)

AA-12 "Adder" (Vympel R-77)

AA-X-13 "Arrow" (Vympel R-37)

- none - Novator K-100 (was KS-172, R-172 etc.)See also: NATO reporting name

List of NATO reporting names for air-to-surface missiles

NATO reporting name for AS series air-to-surface missiles, with Soviet designations:

Note: the Soviet / Russian designation is a Cyrillic letter "Х", which is translated as "Kh" or "H". Also, sometimes a combination ("complex") of a missile with its aircraft is marked with a letter "K" (for example, a missile Kh-22 with an aircraft is a "complex K-22"). The Cyrillic "X" (read "Kh") in the designation of Soviet ASMs is in fact a Latin "X" ("ecs") for Xperimental, as used by the design bureau. With passing time, however, this was ignored and used in Soviet/Russian as well as foreign literature as the Cyrillic Kh.

AS-1 "Kennel" (KS-1 Kometa)

AS-2 "Kipper" (K-10S Yen)

AS-3 "Kangaroo" (Kh-20)

AS-4 "Kitchen" (Kh-22 Burya)

AS-5 "Kelt" (Kh-11/KSR-2)

AS-6 "Kingfish" (Kh-26/KSR-5)

AS-7 "Kerry" (Kh-66, Kh-23 Grom)

AT-6 AS-8 (9M114V Shturm-V)

AS-9 "Kyle" (Kh-28)

AS-10 "Karen" (Kh-25)

AS-11 "Kilter" (Kh-58 Izdeliye D-7)

AS-12 "Kegler" (Kh-25MP, Kh-27PS)

AS-13 "Kingbolt" (Kh-59 Ovod)

AS-14 "Kedge" (Kh-29)

AS-15 "Kent" (Kh-55/Kh-65S Izdeliye 120)

AS-16 "Kickback" (Kh-15)

AS-17 "Krypton" (Kh-31)

AS-18 "Kazoo" (Kh-59M Ovod-M)

AS-19 "Koala" (P-750 Grom)

AS-19 "Koala" (3M25A Meteorit-A)

AS-20 "Kayak" (Kh-35/Kh-37 Uran)

AS-X-21 (Kh-90 (GELA) )See also: NATO reporting name

List of NATO reporting names for anti-tank missiles

NATO reporting name for AT series anti-tank guided missiles, with Soviet designations:

AT-1 Snapper (3M6 Shmel)

AT-2 Swatter (3M11 Falanga)

AT-3 Sagger (9M14 Malyutka)

AT-4 Spigot (9M111 Fagot)

AT-5 Spandrel (9M113 Konkurs)

AT-6 Spiral (9M114 Shturm)

AT-7 Saxhorn (9M115 Metis)

AT-8 Songster (9M112 Kobra)

AT-9 Spiral-2 (9M120 Ataka)

AT-10 Stabber (9M117 Bastion)

AT-11 Sniper (9M119 Svir" / "Refleks)

AT-12 Swinger (9M118 Sheksna)

AT-13 Saxhorn-2 (9M131 Metis-M)

АТ-14 Spriggan (9M133 Kornet)

АТ-15 Springer (9M123 Khrizantema)

AT-16 Scallion (9A1472? Vikhr / Vikhr-M?)

Hermes (missile) air-launched: anti-tank option.See also: NATO reporting name, List of anti-tank guided missiles

Neutron bomb

A neutron bomb, officially defined as a type of enhanced radiation weapon (ERW), is a low yield thermonuclear weapon designed to maximize lethal neutron radiation in the immediate vicinity of the blast while minimizing the physical power of the blast itself. The neutron release generated by a nuclear fusion reaction is intentionally allowed to escape the weapon, rather than being absorbed by its other components. The neutron burst, which is used as the primary destructive action of the warhead, is able to penetrate enemy armor more effectively than a conventional warhead, thus making it more lethal as a tactical weapon.

The concept was originally developed by the US in the late 1950s and early 1960s. It was seen as a "cleaner" bomb for use against massed Soviet armored divisions. As these would be used over allied nations, notably West Germany, the reduced blast damage was seen as an important advantage.ERWs were first operationally deployed for anti-ballistic missiles (ABM). In this role the burst of neutrons would cause nearby warheads to undergo partial fission, preventing them from exploding properly. For this to work, the ABM would have to explode within ca. 100 metres (300 ft) of its target. The first example of such a system was the W66, used on the Sprint missile used in the US's Nike-X system. It is believed the Soviet equivalent, the A-135's 53T6 missile, uses a similar design.The weapon was once again proposed for tactical use by the US in the 1970s and 1980s, and production of the W70 began for the MGM-52 Lance in 1981. This time it experienced a firestorm of protest as the growing anti-nuclear movement gained strength through this period. Opposition was so intense that European leaders refused to accept it on their territory. President Ronald Reagan bowed to pressure and the built examples of the W70-3 remained stockpiled in the US until they were retired in 1992. The last W70 was dismantled in 2011.

R-13 (missile)

The R-13 was a submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) developed by the Soviet Union starting around 1955. It was assigned the NATO reporting name SS-N-4 Sark and carried the GRAU index 4K50.

R-26 (missile)

The R-26 was a second-generation intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) designed but not deployed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War. Control system of it was designed at NPO "Electropribor" (Kharkiv, Ukraine). The missile was mistakenly identified as an R-9 Desna and given the NATO reporting name SS-8 Sasin. Within the Soviet Union, it carried the GRAU index 8K66.

R-29 Vysota

R-29 Vysota Р-29 Высота (height, altitude) is a family of Soviet submarine-launched ballistic missiles, designed by Makeyev Rocket Design Bureau.

All variants use astro-inertial guidance systems.

R-37 (missile)

The Vympel R-37 (NATO reporting name: AA-X-13/AA-13 Arrow) is a Russian hypersonic air-to-air missile with very long range. The missile and its variants also had the names K-37, izdeliye 610 and R-VD (Ракета Высокой Дальности (Raketa-Vysokoy Dalnosty), "Very Long Range Missile"), and the NATO codenames 'Arrow' and 'Andi'. It was developed from the R-33.

It was designed to shoot down tankers, AWACS and other C4ISTAR aircraft whilst keeping the launch platform out of range of any fighters that might be protecting the target.


R-39UTTH "Bark", NATO reporting name SS-NX-28, was a Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. The missile was an upgraded version of the R-39 missile that was designed for the Typhoon class. The new missile was to be carried by the new Russian nuclear submarines of the Borei class. The third test launch of a prototype R-39M on 25 November 1998 resulted in a catastrophic failure of the SLBM's booster. The missile exploded roughly 200 meters after take-off from its ground-based launch facility. Having failed its first three test firings the project was ordered abandoned by the Russian Security Council. The missile was later replaced by the Bulava and Layner missile systems.

R-40 (missile)

The Bisnovat (later Molniya then Vympel) R-40 (NATO reporting name AA-6 'Acrid') is a long-range air-to-air missile developed in the 1960s by the Soviet Union specifically for the MiG-25P interceptor, but can also be carried by the later MiG-31. It is the largest air-to-air missile in the world to ever go into production.

RPK-9 Medvedka

RPK-9 Medvedka ("Mole cricket", NATO Designation SS-N-29) is a modern missile system used to engage submarines. The system consists of a launcher with eight missiles, each with the small torpedo as the warhead. Currently this system is installed on Steregushchiy-class corvettes and will be utilised by the Admiral Gorshkov-class frigate in the future.


The RT-1 was an early intercontinental ballistic missile design that was tested but not deployed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War. It was not assigned a NATO reporting name, but did carry the GRAU index 8K95.

Development was led by OKB-1 (S. P. Korolev), and a total of five flight tests were carried out, of which two were successful. Two versions of the RT-1 were developed, with the first failing its first flight, but succeeding in its second in 1961. A second version was tested in 1965 with three flights, of which two failed. The RT-1 program was cancelled before any service.


The RT-20P was an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) developed but not deployed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War. The control system for it was designed at NPO "Electropribor" (Kharkiv, Ukraine). It was assigned the NATO reporting name SS-15 Scrooge and carried the GRAU index 8K99.

The RT-20 was the first mobile ICBM designed by the Soviet Union.

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