52nd United States Congress

The Fifty-second United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1891, to March 4, 1893, during the third and fourth years of Benjamin Harrison's presidency.

The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Tenth Census of the United States in 1880. The Senate had a Republican majority, and the House had a Democratic majority.

52nd United States Congress
51st ←
→ 53rd
USCapitol1906
March 4, 1891 – March 4, 1893
Senate PresidentLevi P. Morton (R)
Senate President pro temCharles F. Manderson (R)
House SpeakerCharles F. Crisp (D)
Members88 senators
332 members of the House
4 non-voting delegates
Senate MajorityRepublican
House MajorityDemocratic
Sessions
1st: December 7, 1891 – August 5, 1892
2nd: December 5, 1892 – March 3, 1893

Major legislation

Party summary

The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this Congress, and includes members from vacancies and newly admitted states, when they were first seated. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section.

Senate

Party
(shading shows control)
Total Vacant
Democratic
(D)
Populist
(P)
Republican
(R)
Other
End of the previous congress 35 0 51 0 86 2
Begin 36 2 46 0 84 4
End 39 47 880
Final voting share 44.3% 2.3% 53.4% 0.0%
Beginning of the next congress 44 3 37 1
(Silver)
85 3

House of Representatives

TOTAL members: 332

Leadership

Levi Morton - Brady-Handy portrait - standard crop
President of the Senate
Levi P. Morton

Senate

House of Representatives

Members

This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed by class, and Representatives are listed by district.

Skip to House of Representatives, below

Senate

Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Senators are listed by Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring re-election in 1892; Class 2 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring re-election in 1894; and Class 3 meant their term began in this Congress, requiring re-election in 1896.

Charles F. Manderson - Brady-Handy
President pro tempore
Charles F. Manderson

House of Representatives

Members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers.

CharlesFrederickCrisp
Speaker of the House
Charles F. Crisp
52 us house membership
House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80+% to 100% Democratic
  80+% to 100% Republican
  60+% to 80% Democratic
  60+% to 80% Republican
  Up to 60% Democratic
  Up to 60% Republican

Changes in membership

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of this Congress.

Senate

  • replacements: 7
  • deaths: 4
  • resignations: 5
  • interim appointments: 1
  • Total seats with changes: 10
State
(class)
Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation
California
(1)
Vacant George Hearst died during previous congress.
Successor was elected.
Charles N. Felton (R) March 19, 1891
Maryland
(3)
Vacant Ephraim K. Wilson died during previous congress.
Successor was appointed and subsequently elected (January 21, 1892).
Charles H. Gibson (D) November 19, 1891
New York
(3)
Vacant Chose to finish his term as Governor of New York before being installed as U.S. Senator. David B. Hill (D) January 17, 1892
Florida
(3)
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect.
Incumbent was elected late.
Wilkinson Call (D) May 26, 1891
Texas
(1)
John H. Reagan (D) Resigned June 10, 1891.
Successor was appointed.
Horace Chilton (D) June 10, 1891
Vermont
(1)
George F. Edmunds (R) Resigned November 1, 1891.
Successor was appointed and subsequently elected (October 19, 1892).
Redfield Proctor (R) November 2, 1891
Kansas
(2)
Preston B. Plumb (R) Died December 20, 1891.
Successor was appointed.
Bishop W. Perkins (R) January 1, 1892
Texas
(1)
Horace Chilton (D) Successor was elected March 22, 1892. Roger Q. Mills (D) March 29, 1892
Virginia
(2)
John S. Barbour Jr. (D) Died May 14, 1892.
Successor was appointed and subsequently elected (December 20, 1893).
Eppa Hunton (D) June 10, 1891
Louisiana
(2)
Randall L. Gibson (D) Died December 15, 1892.
Successor was appointed and subsequently elected (May 23, 1894).
Donelson Caffery (D) December 31, 1892
West Virginia
(2)
John E. Kenna (D) Died January 11, 1893.
Successor was elected.
Johnson N. Camden (D) January 25, 1893
Kentucky
(2)
John G. Carlisle (D) Resigned February 4, 1893, after being appointed United States Secretary of the Treasury.
Successor was elected.
William Lindsay (D) February 15, 1893

House of Representatives

  • replacements: 15
  • deaths: 10
  • resignations: 8
  • contested election: 1
  • Total seats with changes: 18
District Vacator Reason for change Successor Date successor seated
New York 10th Francis B. Spinola (D) Died April 14, 1891 W. Bourke Cockran (D) November 3, 1891
Michigan 5th Melbourne H. Ford (D) Died April 20, 1891 Charles E. Belknap (R) November 3, 1891
Tennessee 2nd Leonidas C. Houk (R) Died May 25, 1891 John C. Houk (R) December 7, 1891
South Dakota At-large John R. Gamble (R) Died August 14, 1891 John L. Jolley (R) December 7, 1891
New York 22nd Leslie W. Russell (R) Resigned September 11, 1891, after being elected judge for the New York Supreme Court Newton M. Curtis (R) November 3, 1891
New York 12th Roswell P. Flower (D) Resigned September 16, 1891, to run for Governor of New York Joseph J. Little (D) November 3, 1891
New York 2nd David A. Boody (D) Resigned October 13, 1891, to run for Mayor of Brooklyn, New York Alfred C. Chapin (D) November 3, 1891
Virginia 8th William H. F. Lee (D) Died October 15, 1891 Elisha E. Meredith (D) December 9, 1891
Pennsylvania 24th Andrew Stewart (R) Election was successfully challenged February 26, 1892 Alexander K. Craig (D) February 26, 1892
Kentucky 10th John W. Kendall (D) Died March 7, 1892 Joseph M. Kendall (D) April 21, 1892
California 3rd Joseph McKenna (R) Resigned March 28, 1892 Samuel G. Hilborn (R) December 5, 1892
Texas 9th Roger Q. Mills (D) Resigned March 28, 1892, after being elected to the U.S. Senate Edwin Le Roy Antony (D) June 14, 1892
South Carolina 6th Eli T. Stackhouse (D) Died June 14, 1892 John L. McLaurin (D) December 5, 1892
Pennsylvania 24th Alexander K. Craig (D) Died July 29, 1892 William A. Sipe (D) December 5, 1892
Ohio 16th John G. Warwick (D) Died August 14, 1892 Lewis P. Ohliger (D) December 5, 1892
Maryland 1st Henry Page (D) Resigned September 3, 1892, to become judge for the Maryland Court of Appeals John B. Brown (D) November 8, 1892
New Jersey 7th Edward F. McDonald (D) Died November 5, 1892 Vacant until next Congress
New York 2nd Alfred C. Chapin (D) Resigned November 16, 1892 Vacant until next Congress
Massachusetts 6th Henry Cabot Lodge (R) Resigned March 3, 1893, after being elected to the U.S. Senate Vacant until next Congress
Wisconsin 4th John L. Mitchell (D) Resigned March 3, 1893, after being elected to the U.S. Senate Vacant until next Congress

Committees

Lists of committees and their party leaders, for members (House and Senate) of the committees and their assignments, go into the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of the article and click on the link (4 links), in the directory after the pages of terms of service, you will see the committees of the Senate, House (Standing with Subcommittees, Select and Special) and Joint and after the committee pages, you will see the House/Senate committee assignments in the directory, on the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.

Senate

House of Representatives

Joint committees

  • Conditions of Indian Tribes (Special)
  • Disposition of (Useless) Executive Papers

Caucuses

Employees

Senate

House of Representatives

See also

References

  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1982). The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.

External links

1890 United States elections

The 1890 United States elections occurred in the middle of Republican President Benjamin Harrison's term. Members of the 52nd United States Congress were chosen in this election. The Republicans suffered major losses due to the Panic of 1890 and the unpopularity of the McKinley Tariff. The Populist Party also emerged as an important third party.

Republicans suffered massive losses to Democrats in the House, and the Democrats took control of the chamber.In the Senate, Democrats made minor gains, but Republicans kept control of the chamber. The Populists joined the Senate for the first time, electing two Senators.

1891 State of the Union Address

The 1891 State of the Union Address was written by Benjamin Harrison, the 23rd President of the United States. It was to both houses of the 52nd United States Congress on Wednesday, December 9, 1891, by a clerk. He said, "The vista that now opens to us is wider and more glorious than ever before. Gratification and amazement struggle for supremacy as we contemplate the population, wealth, and moral strength of our country."

1891 United States Senate election in New York

The 1891 United States Senate election in New York was held on January 20 and 21, 1891, by the New York State Legislature to elect a U.S. Senator (Class 3) to represent the State of New York in the United States Senate.

Archibald Hunter Arrington Williams

Archibald Hunter Arrington Williams (October 22, 1842 – September 5, 1895) was a Democratic U.S. Congressman from North Carolina between 1891 and 1893.

Born near Louisburg, North Carolina, he attended local schools and then Emory and Henry College in Virginia. He enlisted in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War and served in the Army of Northern Virginia.

After the Confederate surrender, Williams returned to Granville County, North Carolina and developed the Oxford and Henderson Railroad, of which he was the president. In 1883, he was elected to the North Carolina House of Representatives for a single term.

In 1890, Williams was elected to the 52nd United States Congress and served for a single term; he was defeated for re-election in 1892 by Republican Thomas Settle III.

Williams died in Chase City, Virginia in 1895 and is buried in Oxford, North Carolina.

Colorado's congressional districts

Colorado is divided into 7 congressional districts, each represented by a member of the United States House of Representatives.

The districts are currently represented in the 116th United States Congress by 4 Democrats and 3 Republicans.

George D. Perkins

George Douglas Perkins (February 29, 1840 – February 3, 1914) was a longtime newspaper editor, Republican U.S. Representative from Iowa's 11th congressional district in the northwestern portion of the state, and a candidate for his party's nomination as governor.

He was born in Holley, New York, the son of John Dyer Perkins and Lucy Forsyth. John Dyer Perkins was a Presidenial elector from Orleans County, New York in 1844. John Dyer Perkins was also the brother of Elizabeth Rogers Perkins Humphrey, the great-grandmother of Humphrey Bogart, the actor.

In 1860, he established the Cedar Falls Gazette in Cedar Falls, Iowa. On August 12, 1862, after the outbreak of the American Civil War, he enlisted as a private in Company B of the 31st Iowa Volunteer Infantry Regiment. His military service ended seven months later on January 12, 1863, when he returned to The Gazette. After 1866, he moved to Chicago, Illinois, and was engaged as agent of the Northwestern Associated Press until 1869.

He moved to Sioux City, Iowa, having become engaged in Chicago to Louise Julien, daughter of diamond jeweler Narcissus Julien, and in 1869 became editor and publisher of the Sioux City Journal.

He was elected to one term in the Iowa State Senate, having served from 1874 to 1876. He served from 1880 to 1882 as Iowa's commissioner of immigration. On January 29, 1883, U.S. President Chester A. Arthur named Perkins as the United States marshal for the Northern District of Iowa. In 1885, he was removed by the Democratic President Grover Cleveland.

In 1890, Perkins was one of three major candidates who challenged incumbent 11th district Congressman Isaac S. Struble for the Republican nomination. At the district convention, Struble consistently outpolled the other three until, on the 43rd ballot, his opponents united behind Perkins and hence gave Perkins the nomination. In the worst midterm election for Republican candidates since the Civil War, Perkins was still elected in November 1890 to the 52nd United States Congress, the one known as "the billion dollar Congress." He was re-elected to the three succeeding Congresses. In 1894, he was one of seven Republican candidates for the U.S. Senate seat vacated by the retirement of James F. Wilson, the winner was John H. Gear. In February 1898, Lot Thomas, a state court judge, challenged Perkins for the Republican nomination to the district nominating convention on the 217th ballot. In all, Perkins served in Congress from March 4, 1891 to March 3, 1899.

George Douglas Perkins Statesman

Publisher of a statement essay by Red Cloud in the editorial section of the Sioux City Journal along with the anniversary articles of the papers' founding with the founders' photos.

Perkins returned to Sioux City and to the Journal. In 1906, he challenged incumbent Republican Governor Albert B. Cummins for the party's nomination. He served as delegate to the Republican National Conventions in 1876, 1880, 1888, 1908, and 1912. Perkins died in Sioux City on February 3, 1914.

Halbert S. Greenleaf

Halbert Stevens Greenleaf (April 12, 1827 – August 25, 1906) was a U.S. Representative from New York.

Born in Guilford, Vermont, Greenleaf attended the common schools and completed an academic course.

He moved to Shelburne Falls, Massachusetts, and engaged in the manufacture of locks.

He was appointed Justice of the Peace in 1856.

He served as captain of Massachusetts Militia in 1857.

Organized the Yale &

Greenleaf Lock Co..

Enlisted as a private in the Union Army in August 1862.

Commissioned captain of Company E, Fifty-second Regiment, Massachusetts Volunteers, September 12, 1862.

Greenleaf was elected colonel of the regiment October 23, 1862.

He was employed in a salt works near New Orleans, Louisiana, for several years.

He settled in Rochester, New York, in 1867 and resumed the manufacture of locks.

Greenleaf was elected as a Democrat to the Forty-eighth Congress (March 4, 1883 – March 3, 1885).

He was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1884 to the Forty-ninth Congress.

Greenleaf was elected to the 52nd United States Congress (March 4, 1891 – March 3, 1893).

He was not a candidate for renomination in 1892.

He resumed his former business activities until retirement in 1896.

He died at his summer home in the town of Greece, near Charlotte, New York, on August 25, 1906.

He was interred in Mount Hope Cemetery, Rochester, New York.

Harrison H. Wheeler

Harrison H. Wheeler (March 22, 1839 – July 28, 1896) was a politician from the U.S. state of Michigan.

Henry M. Youmans

Henry Melville Youmans (May 15, 1832 – July 8, 1920) was a politician from the U.S. state of Michigan.

Youmans was born in Otego, New York and attended the common schools. He was in the employ of the York & Erie Railroad Co. on the Susquehanna division for ten years. He moved to East Saginaw, Michigan in 1862 and engaged in the manufacture of lumber and salt from 1863 to 1878. He moved to St. Clair County in 1878 and engaged in farming and lumbering until 1884 when he returned to East Saginaw. Youmans served as mayor of East Saginaw in 1886 and 1887, and also served four terms as alderman.

In the general election of 1890, Youmans ran as the candidate of the Democratic Party and defeated incumbent Republican Aaron T. Bliss to be elected from Michigan's 8th congressional district to the 52nd United States Congress, serving from March 4, 1891 to March 3, 1893. He was chairman of the Committee on Expenditures on Public Buildings. He was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1892, losing to Republican William S. Linton. He was also unsuccessful against Joseph W. Fordney in 1902.

After leaving Congress, Henry M. Youmans became a member of the Michigan Senate (22nd district) in 1896 and 1897. He engaged in agricultural pursuits in Bridgeport, Michigan until his death in Saginaw, where he was interred in Brady Hill Cemetery.

Hosea H. Rockwell

Hosea Hunt Rockwell (May 31, 1840 – December 18, 1918) was a U.S. Representative from New York.

Born in Lawrenceville, Pennsylvania, Rockwell attended the common schools.

He served as a private in the Twenty-third Regiment, New York Volunteers, in 1861 and 1862.

He studied law.

He was admitted to the bar in 1869 and commenced practice in Elmira, New York.

He was a member of the New York State Assembly (Chemung Co.) in 1877.

City attorney of Elmira.

Rockwell was elected as a Democrat to the 52nd United States Congress, holding office from March 4, 1891, to March 3, 1893.

He served as delegate to the 1896 Democratic National Convention.

He served as chairman of the Democratic State convention in 1896.

He resumed the practice of law in Elmira, New York.

He died in Elmira, New York, December 18, 1918.

He was interred in Woodlawn Cemetery.

James Castle (politician)

James Nathan Castle (May 23, 1836 – January 2, 1903) was a U.S. Representative from Minnesota; born in Shefford, Province of Quebec, Canada; he attended the public schools; studied law; moved to Afton, Washington County, Minnesota, in 1862 and taught school; completed his law studies; was admitted to the bar and practiced; moved to Stillwater, Washington County in 1865 and continued the practice of law; elected county attorney in 1866 to fill the unexpired term of his deceased brother; city attorney in 1868; elected to the Minnesota Senate in 1868, 1878, and 1882; elected as a Democrat to the 52nd United States Congress (March 4, 1891 – March 3, 1893); chairman of the United States House Committee on Mileage (52nd Congress); unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1892 to the 53rd United States Congress; engaged in the practice of law until his death in Stillwater; interment in Fairview Cemetery.

John Brewer Brown

John Brewer Brown (May 13, 1836 – May 16, 1898) was an American member of the United States House of Representatives, elected by Maryland's 1st congressional district.

Born in Philadelphia, PA, Brown attended Centreville Academy and Dickinson College in Carlisle, PA, where he studied law. He was admitted to the bar in 1857 and practiced in Centreville. He became a member of the Maryland House of Delegates in 1870 and served in the Maryland State Senate from 1888 to 1892.

Elected as a Democrat to the 52nd United States Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Henry Page, Brown served from November 8, 1892, to March 3, 1893. He declined to be a candidate for renomination in 1892 and resumed the practice of law. Brown died in Centreville and was interred in Chesterfield Cemetery.

John Crawford Crosby

John Crawford Crosby (June 15, 1859 – October 14, 1943) was an American politician from the U.S. state of Massachusetts.

Crosby was born in Sheffield, Massachusetts. He attended the public schools of Pittsfield and graduated from Eastman Business College in Poughkeepsie, New York and from Boston University School of Law in Boston.

Crosby was admitted to the bar in 1882 and began practice in Pittsfield. He began his political career as a member of the school committee of Pittsfield from 1884 to 1890. During the later part of his service on the school committee, Crosby also served in the Massachusetts House of Representatives (1886–1887) and the Massachusetts Senate (1888–1889).

Crosby served as the director of a bank and later of fire and life insurance companies. He was elected in the 1890 election as a Democrat to the U.S. House of Representatives, representing Massachusetts's 12th district for the 52nd United States Congress (1891-03-04 to 1893-03-03).

Crosby lost his campaign for reelection in the 1892 election. He was elected Mayor of Pittsfield, serving from 1894 to 1895, and was a delegate to the 1896 Democratic National Convention.

Crosby was city solicitor from 1896 to 1900 and appointed a justice of the superior court on January 25, 1905, serving until December 31, 1913, when he was appointed justice of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court. Crosby served on the court until his retirement on October 1, 1937. He died in Pittsfield on October 14, 1943, and was interred at Pittsfield Cemetery.

John G. Otis

John Grant Otis (February 10, 1838 – February 22, 1916) was a U.S. Representative from Kansas.

Born near Danby, Vermont, he was a descendant of the Otis family counted among the Boston Brahmin families. He pursued an academic course at Burr Seminary in Manchester, Vermont. He attended Williams College, Williamstown, Massachusetts, and the law department of Harvard University. He was admitted to the bar of Rutland County, Vermont in 1859. He moved to Topeka, Kansas, in May 1859 and commenced the practice of law. He assisted in the recruitment of the first black regiment of Kansas in 1862. He was paymaster general of the Governor's military staff from February 1863 to 1865, with rank of colonel. He engaged in agricultural pursuits and in the dairy business near Topeka. He was State agent of the Grange from 1873 to 1875. He was state lecturer for the Grange from 1889 to 1891.

Otis was elected as a Populist to the 52nd United States Congress (March 4, 1891 – March 3, 1893). He was an unsuccessful candidate for renomination in 1892. He then engaged in his former business pursuits until his death in Topeka on February 22, 1916. He was interred in Topeka Cemetery.

John Taylor Hamilton

John Taylor Hamilton (October 16, 1843 – January 25, 1925) was a businessman from Cedar Rapids, Iowa, and a one-term Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives from Iowa's 5th congressional district.

Kittel Halvorson

Kittel Halvorson (December 15, 1846 – July 12, 1936) was a U.S. Representative from Minnesota.

List of United States Senators in the 52nd Congress by seniority

This is a complete list of members of the United States Senate during the 52nd United States Congress listed by seniority, from March 4, 1891, to March 3, 1893.

Order of service is based on the commencement of the senator's first term. Behind this is former service as a senator (only giving the senator seniority within his or her new incoming class), service as vice president, a House member, a cabinet secretary, or a governor of a state. The final factor is the population of the senator's state.Senators who were sworn in during the middle of the Congress (up until the last senator who was not sworn in early after winning the November 1892 election) are listed at the end of the list with no number.

List of United States federal legislation, 1789–1901

This is a chronological, but incomplete, list of United States federal legislation passed by the 1st through 56th United States Congresses, between 1789 and 1901. For the main article on this subject, see List of United States federal legislation. Additional lists can be found at List of United States federal legislation: Congress of the Confederation, List of United States federal legislation, 1901–2001 and List of United States federal legislation, 2001–present.

List of members of the United States House of Representatives in the 52nd Congress by seniority

This is a complete list of members of the United States House of Representatives during the 52nd United States Congress listed by seniority.

As an historical article, the districts and party affiliations listed reflect those during the 52nd Congress (March 4, 1891 – March 3, 1893). Current seats and party affiliations on the List of current members of the United States House of Representatives by seniority will be different for certain members.Seniority depends on the date on which members were sworn into office. Since many members are sworn in on the same day, subsequent ranking is based on previous congressional service of the individual and then by alphabetical order by the last name of the congressman.

Committee chairmanship in the House is often associated with seniority. However, party leadership is typically not associated with seniority.

Note: The "*" indicates that the representative/delegate may have served one or more non-consecutive terms while in the House of Representatives of the United States Congress.

United States Congresses (and year convened)

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