52nd Air Defense Artillery Regiment

The 52nd Air Defense Artillery Regiment is an air defense artillery regiment of the United States Army first organized in 1917 as a railway gun unit. It continued in that role unit 1943, when the regiment was broken in separate railway gun battalions, and in the following year the units were reorganized and redesignated as field artillery.

On 25 October 1962, in response to the buildup of Russian missiles in Cuba, the 2nd Missile Battalion, 52nd Air Defense Artillery (Nike Hercules) was deployed from the 6th Air Defense Artillery Brigade at Fort Bliss, Texas, to south Florida under the command of the 13th Air Defense Artillery Group.[1] The south Florida units arrived with conventional high explosive warheads. In August 1963, the Army assigned the troops under the control of the 13th Artillery Group to the 53rd Artillery Brigade and the 2nd Region of Army Air Defense Command (ARADCOM). The soldiers could now go off TDY status and bring their families, cars, and personal effects to south Florida. They could also move into more permanent living facilities and get access to amenities available at permanent installations.

52nd Air Defense Artillery Regiment
52ADARegtCOA
Coat of arms
Active1917
Country United States
BranchArmy
RoleAir defense artillery
SizeRegiment
Garrison/HQFort Bliss
Motto(s)"Semper Paratus" (Always Prepared)
ColorsScarlet
Mascot(s)Oozlefinch
EquipmentMIM-104 Patriot
Insignia
Distinctive unit insignia
52ADARegtDUI

Lineage

Organized 22 July 1917 in the Regular Army at Fort Adams, Rhode Island, as the 7th Provisional Regiment, Coast Artillery Corps (CAC), from units of the Coast Defenses of Long Island Sound, Eastern New York, Southern New York, Narragansett Bay, and Port Royal Sound.[2][3]

Moved overseas August 1917. Redesignated 5 February 1918 as the 52nd Artillery (Coast Artillery Corps). While in France the unit was attached to the 30th Brigade, CAC, and armed with a variety of French- and British-made railway guns, including French 320 mm weapons. Returned to the US January 1919, moved to Fort Eustis, Virginia.[3]

In August 1921, the other railway artillery regiments were inactivated, and the 52nd was reorganized into 1st Battalion (12-inch guns), 2nd Battalion (12-inch mortars), and 3rd Battalion (8-inch M1888 guns).[2]

(3d Battalion inactivated 16 May 1921 at Fort Eustis, Virginia; activated 18 August 1921 at Fort Eustis, Virginia; 1st Battalion inactivated 1 August 1922 at Fort Eustis, Virginia)

Redesignated 1 July 1924 as the 52nd Coast Artillery Regiment.

In 1931 Batteries C and E and HHB, 2nd Battalion were posted at Fort Hancock, New Jersey.[2]

Battery D inactivated 1 November 1938 at Fort Monroe, Virginia; Battery F inactivated 1 February 1940 at Fort Monroe, Virginia; Batteries D and F activated 8 January 1941 at Fort Hancock; 1st Battalion activated 1 June 1941 at Fort Hancock.

Battery D was at St. John's, Newfoundland in the Harbor Defenses of Argentia and St. John's with two 8-inch M1888 railway guns 1 May 1941 through 12 February 1942, when redesignated as Battery D, 24th Coast Artillery Regiment and Battery D transferred (less personnel and equipment) back to the US. Battery F served in the United States Army Bermuda Garrison with four 8-inch M1888 railway guns from 1 April 1941 through 20 February 1942, when redesignated as part of the 27th Coast Artillery Battalion and similarly transferred back to the US.)[2]

In December 1941 Batteries A and B and Headquarters and Headquarters Battery (HHB) 1st Battalion transferred to Hawaii to reinforce the 41st Coast Artillery there.[2]

Battery E ordered to Harbor Defenses of Puget Sound 16 December 1941, but two gun sections were detached to man two 8-inch Mk. VI railway guns at Manhattan Beach, California near Fort MacArthur. In May 1943 this detachment became Battery A, 285th CA (Rwy) Battalion. The other gun sections went to Port Angeles, Washington and on 17 April 1942 were redesignated as Battery X. Later transferred to Fort Casey; redesignated as Battery B, 285th CA (Rwy) Battalion on 30 March 1943.[2]

From March 1942 until 1 May 1943 Batteries C and D operated Batteries 20 and 21 at Fort Miles, Delaware, with four 8-inch Mk. VI railway guns per battery. [4][5] Battery C was at Fort Hancock, New Jersey from early 1942 until transferred to Fort Miles in March 1942.[2]

1st Battalion and Batteries A and B returned to Fort Hancock (less personnel and equipment) 16 February 1942. Reorganized with 8-inch Mk. VI railway guns and transferred to Fort John Custis, Virginia on 27 August 1942. Redesignated as the 286th CA (Rwy) Battalion 5 April 1943.[2]

Battery F reorganized with 8-inch Mk. VI railway guns at Fort Hancock, New Jersey after 20 February 1942; transferred to Camp Shelby, Mississippi and inactivated there 18 April 1944. Personnel distributed among five field artillery battalions.[2]

Regiment broken up 1 May 1943 and its elements reorganized and redesignated as follows:

Headquarters and Headquarters Battery disbanded at Fort Hancock, New Jersey
1st, 2d, and 3d Battalions as the 286th, 287th, and 288th Coast Artillery Battalions, respectively (Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 288th Coast Artillery Battalion, concurrently inactivated at Fort Hancock, New Jersey). The 288th was inactivated after one day of service.[2] The 286th operated one or two railway gun batteries at Fort John Custis, VA until disestablished in August 1944. The 287th operated the two railway gun batteries at Fort Miles, Delaware until disestablished in August 1944.[5]

After 1 May 1943 the above units underwent changes as follows:

Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 52nd Coast Artillery, reconstituted 28 June 1950 in the Regular Army and redesignated as Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 52nd Field Artillery Group
Activated 18 January 1952 at Fort Sill, Oklahoma
Redesignated 25 June 1958 as Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 52nd Artillery Group
Inactivated 30 June 1971 at Fort Sill, Oklahoma
286th Coast Artillery Battalion converted and redesignated 30 August 1944 at Fort Bragg, NC as the 538th Field Artillery Battalion (240 mm howitzer, tractor-drawn). Arrived in France 3 April 1945; returned via Boston Port of Embarkation 13 December 1945.
Inactivated 14 December 1945 at Camp Myles Standish, Massachusetts
Activated 31 December 1946 in the Philippine Islands
Inactivated 30 May 1947 in the Philippine Islands
Activated 22 March 1951 at Camp Carson, Colorado
Inactivated 1 June 1958 in Germany
287th Coast Artillery Battalion converted and redesignated 30 August 1944 at Fort Bragg, NC as the 539th Field Artillery Battalion (240 mm howitzer, tractor-drawn). Arrived in France 3 April 1945; returned via Boston Port of Embarkation 27 December 1945.
Inactivated 28 December 1945 at Camp Myles Standish, Massachusetts
Activated 31 December 1946 in the Philippine Islands
Inactivated 30 May 1947 in the Philippine Islands
Activated 18 March 1955 in Japan
Inactivated 25 March 1956 in Japan
286th Coast Artillery Battalion inactivated 18 April 1944 at Camp Shelby, Mississippi
Disbanded 14 June 1944
Reconstituted 28 June 1950 in the Regular Army; concurrently consolidated with the 52nd Field Artillery Battalion (active) (see ANNEX) and consolidated unit designated as the 52nd Field Artillery Battalion, an element of the 24th Infantry Division
Inactivated 5 June 1958 and relieved from assignment to the 24th Infantry Division

Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 52nd Artillery Group, and the 538th, 539th, and 52nd Field Artillery Battalions consolidated, reorganized, and redesignated 30 June 1971 as the 52nd Artillery, a parent regiment under the Combat Arms Regimental System

Redesignated 1 September 1971 as the 52nd Air Defense Artillery

Withdrawn 16 April 1988 from the Combat Arms Regimental System and reorganized under the United States Army Regimental System

Annex

Constituted 1 October 1933 in the Regular Army as the 52nd Field Artillery

Redesignated 26 August 1941 as the 52nd Field Artillery Battalion and assigned to the 24th Infantry Division

Activated 1 October 1941 at Schofield Barracks, Hawaii

Distinctive unit insignia

  • Description

A Gold color metal and enamel device 1 18 inches (2.9 cm) in height overall consisting of a shield blazoned: Gules, a bend potenté Or. Attached below the shield a Gold scroll inscribed "SEMPER PARATUS" in Red letters.

  • Symbolism

The shield is red for Artillery. The gold potenté bend is an adaptation of the cottised bend on the arms of Champagne.

  • Background

The distinctive unit insignia was originally approved for the 538th Field Artillery Battalion on 29 December 1951. It was redesignated for the 52nd Artillery Regiment on 19 December 1958. It was redesignated for the 52nd Air Defense Artillery Regiment effective 1 September 1971.

Coat of arms

Blazon

  • Shield

Gules, a bend potenté Or.

  • Crest

On a wreath of the colors Or and Gules, a locomotive affronté Gules, charged with the numeral "52" Or. Motto SEMPER PARATUS (Always Prepared).

Symbolism

  • Shield

The shield is red for Artillery. The gold potenté bend is an adaptation of the cottised bend on the arms of Champagne.

  • Crest

The crest alludes to World War I service in France.

Background

The coat of arms was originally approved for the 52nd Artillery, Coast Artillery Corps on 9 April 1921. It was redesignated for the 286th Coast Artillery Battalion and amended to delete the crest on 3 August 1944. It was redesignated for the 538th Field Artillery Battalion on 20 November 1944. The insignia was redesignated for the 52nd Artillery Regiment and amended to add a crest on 19 December 1958. Effective 1 September 1971, the insignia was redesignated for the 52nd Air Defense Artillery Regiment.

Campaign participation credit

World War I: Champagne-Marne; St. Mihiel; Meuse-Argonne; Champagne 1918; Lorraine 1918

World War II: Central Europe; Central Pacific; New Guinea (with arrowhead); Leyte; Luzon; Southern Philippines (with arrowhead)

Korean War: UN Defensive; UN Offensive; CCF Intervention; First UN Counteroffensive; CCF Spring Offensive; UN Summer-Fall Offensive; Second Korean Winter; Korea, Summer 1953

Vietnam: Counteroffensive; Counteroffensive, Phase II; Counteroffensive, Phase III; Tet Counteroffensive; Counteroffensive, Phase IV; Counteroffensive, Phase V; Counteroffensive, Phase VI; Tet 69/Counteroffensive; Summer-Fall 1969; Winter-Spring 1970; Sanctuary Counteroffensive; Counteroffensive, Phase VII

Southwest Asia: Defense of Saudi Arabia; Liberation and Defense of Kuwait

Decorations

Presidential Unit Citation (Army) for DEFENSE OF KOREA

Valorous Unit Award for DAK TOBEN HET

Valorous Unit Award for SAUDI ARABIA AND BAHRAIN

Meritorious Unit Commendation (Army) for FLORIDA 1962–1963

Meritorious Unit Commendation (Army) for VIETNAM 1966–1969

Current configuration

  • 1st Battalion 52nd Air Defense Artillery (United States)
  • 2nd Battalion 52nd Air Defense Artillery (United States)
  • 3rd Battalion 52nd Air Defense Artillery (United States)
  • 4th Battalion 52nd Air Defense Artillery (United States)
  • 5th Battalion 52nd Air Defense Artillery (United States)
  • 6th Battalion 52nd Air Defense Artillery (United States) [1] deployed to Korea[6]

References

  1. ^ Charles D. Carter, The 2nd Missile Battalion of the 52nd Air Defense Artillery 1962 - 1983
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Gaines
  3. ^ a b Rinaldi, Richard A. (2004). The U. S. Army in World War I: Orders of Battle. General Data LLC. p. 161. ISBN 0-9720296-4-8.
  4. ^ Railway batteries at FortMiles.org
  5. ^ a b Stanton, pp. 458, 493
  6. ^ 6th Bn., 52nd ADA changes command

External links

108th Air Defense Artillery Brigade (United States)

The 108th Air Defense Artillery Brigade is an air defense artillery brigade of the United States Army. The mission of the brigade is to train and maintain a strategic crisis response air defense artillery brigade capable of deploying worldwide, on short notice, to provide air defense force protection from air-breathing threats and tactical ballistic missiles, as well as allow freedom of maneuver for XVIII Airborne Corps operations.

11th Air Defense Artillery Brigade (United States)

The 11th Air Defense Artillery Brigade is an air defense artillery brigade of the United States Army stationed at Fort Bliss.

35th Air Defense Artillery Brigade (United States)

The 35th Air Defense Artillery Brigade (35th ADAB) is an air defense artillery unit of the United States Army subordinate to the Eighth United States Army, located at Osan Air Base in the Republic of Korea.

The 35th ADA has integrated THAAD into its layered defense on the Korean Peninsula.

5th Battalion 52d Air Defense Artillery (United States)

The 5th Battalion, 52nd Air Defense Artillery Regiment (United States) is an air defense artillery battalion in the United States Army based at Fort Bliss, Texas. Known as "five-five-deuce," the battalion motto is "Always Prepared" The former motto was "We Build Warriors". The battalion is part of 11th Air Defense Artillery Brigade and the 32nd Army Air & Missile Defense Command (32nd AAMDC).

The battalion consists of a headquarters and headquarters battery (HHB), four Patriot missile batteries (A through D) and a maintenance company (Company E, formerly the 507th Maintenance Company). Each battery has six Patriot missile launchers in accordance with the Patriot PAC-3 configuration.

Camp Humphreys

Not to be confused with Camp A. A. Humphreys in Virginia, now known as Fort Belvoir.

Camp Humphreys (Korean: 캠프 험프리스), also known as United States Army Garrison-Humphreys (USAG-H), is a United States Army garrison located near Anjeong-ri and Pyeongtaek metropolitan areas in South Korea. Camp Humphreys is home to Desiderio Army Airfield, the busiest U.S. Army airfield in Asia, with an 8,124-foot runway. In addition to the airfield, there are several U.S. Army direct support, transportation, and tactical units located there, including the Combat Aviation Brigade, 2nd Infantry Division. The garrison has an area of 3,454 acres and cost US$11 billion. Camp Humphreys is the largest U.S. overseas military base, housing some 500 buildings and amenities.In 2004, an agreement was reached between the United States and South Korean governments to move all U.S. forces to garrisons south of the Han River and relocate the United States Forces Korea and United Nations Command Headquarters to Camp Humphreys. Those movements were expected to be completed by 2016 to transform Camp Humphreys into the largest U.S. Army garrison in Asia, but as of 2018 this has not yet happened. Under that plan, the 28,500 U.S. troop presence in South Korea will be consolidated by 2016 and United States Forces Korea will move from Yongsan Garrison in Seoul to Camp Humphreys. Camp Humphreys is 40 miles south of the former base in Seoul and about 60 miles from the Demilitarized Zone that divides North and South Korea. That puts the base about twice as far from North Korea as its predecessor, one of the main reasons for the move.

Fourth Allied Tactical Air Force

Fourth Allied Tactical Air Force (4 ATAF) was a NATO military formation under Allied Air Forces Central Europe tasked with providing air support to NATO's Central Army Group (CENTAG). 4 ATAF commanded all flying units based within its sector and all reinforcements flying into its sector, as well as ground-based radar systems and stations, air defense units and the airfields in its sector.

Suwon Air Base

Suwon Air Base (IATA: SWU, ICAO: RKSW) is a Republic of Korea Air Force (ROKAF) base near Suwon city.

U.S. Army Regimental System

The United States Army Regimental System (USARS) was established in 1981 to replace the Combat Arms Regimental System, to provide each soldier with continuous identification with a single regiment, and to increase a soldier's probability of serving recurring assignments with his or her regiment. The USARS was intended to enhance combat effectiveness by providing the opportunity for a regimental affiliation, thus obtaining some of the benefits of the traditional regimental system.

Artillery formations of the United States
Misc. formations
Air Defense Artillery
Coast Artillery
Field Artillery

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