51st parallel north

The 51st parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 51 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane. It crosses Europe, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, North America, and the Atlantic Ocean.

At this latitude the sun is visible for 16 hours, 33 minutes during the summer solstice and 7 hours, 55 minutes during the winter solstice.[1]

Capital cities between the 51st and 52nd parallels are London and Astana.

Line across the Earth
51°
51st parallel north

Around the world

Starting at the Prime Meridian (just north of the Sheffield Park Garden in East Sussex, England) and heading eastwards, the parallel 51° north passes through:

Co-ordinates Country, territory or sea Notes
51°0′N 0°0′E / 51.000°N 0.000°E  United Kingdom England: East Sussex, Kent (just south of Dover)
51°0′N 0°58′E / 51.000°N 0.967°E Strait of Dover
51°0′N 2°0′E / 51.000°N 2.000°E  France Nord-Pas-de-Calais — passing just south of Dunkirk and the northernmost point of France
51°0′N 2°34′E / 51.000°N 2.567°E  Belgium Passing just south of Ghent
51°0′N 5°46′E / 51.000°N 5.767°E  Netherlands Limburg — for about 10 km
51°0′N 5°54′E / 51.000°N 5.900°E  Germany North Rhine-Westphalia — passing through northern Cologne
Hesse
Thuringia — passing through Erfurt
Saxony-Anhalt
Thuringia
Saxony — passing just south of Dresden
51°0′N 14°15′E / 51.000°N 14.250°E  Czech Republic
51°0′N 14°34′E / 51.000°N 14.567°E  Germany Saxony
51°0′N 14°55′E / 51.000°N 14.917°E  Poland For about 4 km
51°0′N 14°58′E / 51.000°N 14.967°E  Czech Republic
51°0′N 15°6′E / 51.000°N 15.100°E  Poland For about 3 km
51°0′N 15°8′E / 51.000°N 15.133°E  Czech Republic For about 3 km
51°0′N 15°10′E / 51.000°N 15.167°E  Poland Passing just south of Wrocław
51°0′N 23°57′E / 51.000°N 23.950°E  Ukraine Volyn oblast — passing just north of Lutsk
Rivne Oblast
Zhytomyr Oblast — passing just north of Korosten
Kyiv Oblast — passing through Kiev Reservoir
Chernihiv Oblast — passing just south of Nizhyn
Sumy Oblast — passing just north of Sumy
51°0′N 35°20′E / 51.000°N 35.333°E  Russia
51°0′N 49°19′E / 51.000°N 49.317°E  Kazakhstan
51°0′N 54°11′E / 51.000°N 54.183°E  Russia
51°0′N 56°29′E / 51.000°N 56.483°E  Kazakhstan For about 10 km
51°0′N 56°37′E / 51.000°N 56.617°E  Russia For about 9 km
51°0′N 56°45′E / 51.000°N 56.750°E  Kazakhstan
51°0′N 57°18′E / 51.000°N 57.300°E  Russia
51°0′N 57°45′E / 51.000°N 57.750°E  Kazakhstan
51°0′N 58°36′E / 51.000°N 58.600°E  Russia
51°0′N 61°30′E / 51.000°N 61.500°E  Kazakhstan
51°0′N 79°53′E / 51.000°N 79.883°E  Russia
51°0′N 80°28′E / 51.000°N 80.467°E  Kazakhstan
51°0′N 81°5′E / 51.000°N 81.083°E  Russia
51°0′N 83°7′E / 51.000°N 83.117°E  Kazakhstan For about 5 km
51°0′N 83°11′E / 51.000°N 83.183°E  Russia For about 2 km
51°0′N 83°13′E / 51.000°N 83.217°E  Kazakhstan For about 15 km
51°0′N 83°26′E / 51.000°N 83.433°E  Russia
51°0′N 97°50′E / 51.000°N 97.833°E  Mongolia
51°0′N 102°15′E / 51.000°N 102.250°E  Russia
51°0′N 119°37′E / 51.000°N 119.617°E  People's Republic of China Inner Mongolia
Heilongjiang
51°0′N 127°0′E / 51.000°N 127.000°E  Russia
51°0′N 140°38′E / 51.000°N 140.633°E Strait of Tartary
51°0′N 142°14′E / 51.000°N 142.233°E  Russia Island of Sakhalin
51°0′N 143°36′E / 51.000°N 143.600°E Sea of Okhotsk
51°0′N 156°46′E / 51.000°N 156.767°E  Russia Kamchatka Peninsula
51°0′N 156°51′E / 51.000°N 156.850°E Pacific Ocean Passing just south of Amatignak Island, Alaska,  United States
Passing just north of Vancouver Island, British Columbia,  Canada
51°0′N 127°31′W / 51.000°N 127.517°W  Canada British Columbia — passing through city of Revelstoke
Alberta — passing through city of Calgary
Saskatchewan
Manitoba
Ontario
Quebec
51°0′N 58°48′W / 51.000°N 58.800°W Gulf of Saint Lawrence
51°0′N 57°3′W / 51.000°N 57.050°W  Canada Newfoundland and Labrador — island of Newfoundland
51°0′N 55°50′W / 51.000°N 55.833°W Atlantic Ocean Passing just north of Groais Island, Newfoundland and Labrador,  Canada
51°0′N 4°32′W / 51.000°N 4.533°W  United Kingdom EnglandDevon, Dorset, Wiltshire, Hampshire (passing just north of Southampton), West Sussex, East Sussex

Russian America 1799–1824/25

In 1799 Paul I, Tsar of the Russian Empire, issued a ukase creating the Russian-American Company (RAC). It was granted monopolistic control north of the 55th parallel north, which had been the Russian claim since 1790, as well as the right to operate and occupy territory to the south as long as the lands had not been previously occupied, or dependent on any other nation.[2] In 1821 the RAC's charter was renewed and at the same time an ukase proclaimed that Russian sovereignty extended south to the 51st parallel, and that waters north of that line were closed to foreign shipping. The ukase was met with strong objections by the United States and Great Britain. Subsequent negotiations resulted in a clear and permanent boundary for Russian America, the southward terminus of which was established at 54°40′ north.[3]

See also

References

  1. ^ http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/Dur_OneYear.php
  2. ^ United States, Bering Sea Tribunal of Arbitration (1892). Fur-seal Arbitration: The Case of the United States before the Tribunal of Arbitration to convene at Paris under the provisions of the treaty between the United States of America and Great Britain, concluded February 29, 1892. United States Government Printing Office. p. 14. OCLC 68198841.
  3. ^ Haycox, Stephen W. (2002). Alaska: An American Colony. University of Washington Press. pp. 1118–1122. ISBN 978-0-295-98249-6.
50th parallel north

The 50th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 50 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane. It crosses Europe, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, North America, and the Atlantic Ocean.

At this latitude the sun is visible for 16 hours, 22 minutes during the summer solstice and 8 hours, 4 minutes during the winter solstice.

The maximum altitude of the sun on the summer solstice is 63.5 degrees and on the winter solstice it is 16.5 degrees.At this latitude, the average sea surface temperature between 1982 and 2011 was about 8.5°C (47.3°F).

51st parallel

51st parallel may refer to:

51st parallel north, a circle of latitude in the Northern Hemisphere

51st parallel south, a circle of latitude in the Southern Hemisphere

52nd parallel north

The 52nd parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 52 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane. It crosses Europe, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, North America, and the Atlantic Ocean.

In Canada, part of the legally defined border between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador is defined by the parallel, though Quebec maintains a dormant claim to some of the territory north of this line.The catchment area of London, the capital city of England and the United Kingdom, can be broadly defined by the 51st and 52nd parallels.At this latitude the sun is visible for 16 hours, 44 minutes during the summer solstice and 7 hours, 45 minutes during the winter solstice.

List of circles of latitude

Following is a list of circles of latitude on Earth.

Ontario

Ontario ( (listen); French: [ɔ̃taʁjo]) is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, and is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included. It is home to the nation's capital city, Ottawa, and the nation's most populous city, Toronto, which is also Ontario's provincial capital.

Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, and Quebec to the east and northeast, and to the south by the U.S. states of (from west to east) Minnesota, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. Almost all of Ontario's 2,700 km (1,678 mi) border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system. These are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario. There is only about 1 km (0.6 mi) of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border.Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into two regions, Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario. The great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation.

Presidency of James Monroe

The presidency of James Monroe began on March 4, 1817, when James Monroe was inaugurated as President of the United States, and ended on March 4, 1825. Monroe, the fifth United States president, took office after winning the 1816 presidential election by an overwhelming margin over Federalist Rufus King. This election was the last in which the Federalists fielded a presidential candidate, and Monroe was unopposed in the 1820 presidential election. A member of the Democratic-Republican Party, Monroe was succeeded by Secretary of State John Quincy Adams.

Monroe sought to eliminate political parties, and the Federalist Party faded as a national institution during his presidency. The Democratic-Republicans also stopped functioning as a unified political party, and the period during which Monroe served as president is often referred to as the "Era of Good Feelings" due to the lack of partisan conflict. Domestically, Monroe faced the Panic of 1819, the first major recession in the United States since the ratification of the Constitution. He supported many federally-funded infrastructure projects, but vetoed other projects due to constitutional concerns. Monroe supported the Missouri Compromise, which admitted Missouri as a slave state but excluded slavery in the remaining territories north of the parallel 36°30′ north.

In foreign policy, Monroe and Secretary of State Adams acquired East Florida from Spain with the Adams–Onís Treaty, realizing a long-term goal of Monroe and his predecessors. Reached after the First Seminole War, the Adams–Onís Treaty also solidified U.S. control over West Florida, established the western border of the United States, and included the cession of Spain's claims on Oregon Country. The Monroe administration also reached two treaties with Britain, marking a rapprochement between the two countries in the aftermath of the War of 1812. The Rush–Bagot Treaty demilitarized the U.S. border with British North America, while the Treaty of 1818 settled some boundary disputes and provided for the joint settlement of Oregon Country. Monroe was deeply sympathetic to the revolutionary movements in Latin America and opposed European influence in the region. In 1823, Monroe promulgated the Monroe Doctrine, which declared that the U.S. would remain neutral in European affairs, but would not accept new colonization of Latin America by European powers.

In the 1824 presidential election, four members of the Democratic-Republican Party sought to succeed Monroe, who remained neutral among the candidates. Adams emerged as the victor over General Andrew Jackson and Secretary of the Treasury William H. Crawford in a contingent election. Polls of historians and political scientists have generally ranked Monroe as an above-average president.

Sussex wine

Sussex wine is wine produced in the historic county of Sussex in England, a region divided for administrative purposes into East Sussex and West Sussex. In 2016 wine made in East and West Sussex accounted for about a quarter of the total wine produced in England and with over 50 vineyards Sussex produces more wine than other county in the UK. In 2016 Sussex wine was granted protected regional status by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA). DEFRA has also applied to the European Union for Protected Designation of Origin status in the European Union’s Geographic Indication scheme.Sussex's sparkling wine in particular has drawn comparisons with Champagne and is sometimes rated as some of the best in the world.

Territorial evolution of Canada

The history of post-colonial Canada began on July 1, 1867, when the British colonies of Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia were united to form a single Dominion within the British Empire. Upon Confederation, the United Province of Canada was immediately split into the provinces of Ontario and Quebec. The colonies of Prince Edward Island and British Columbia joined shortly after, and Canada acquired the vast expanse of the continent controlled by the Hudson's Bay Company, which was eventually divided into new territories and provinces. Canada evolved into a fully sovereign state by 1982.Before being part of British North America, the constituents of Canada consisted of the former colonies of Canada and Acadia from within New France which had been ceded to Great Britain in 1763 as part of the Treaty of Paris. French Canadian nationality was maintained as one of the "two founding nations" and legally through the Quebec Act which ensured the maintenance of the Canadian French language, Catholic religion, and French civil law within Canada, a fact which remains true today.Canada today has ten provinces and three territories; it only lost significant territory in the border dispute over Labrador with the Dominion of Newfoundland, which later joined Canada as the 10th province.

Territorial evolution of North America since 1763

The 1763 Treaty of Paris ended the major war known by Americans as the French and Indian War and by Canadians as the Seven Years' War / Guerre de Sept Ans, or by French-Canadians, La Guerre de la Conquête. It was signed by Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement. Preferring to keep Guadeloupe, France gave up Canada and all of its claims to territory east of the Mississippi River to Britain. With France out of North America this dramatically changed the European political scene on the continent.

At first only the imperial powers of Europe had the resources to support and expand settlements in North America. As time went on the colonies became more powerful and sought independence from the Old World. These demands for more autonomy sparked several wars, including the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) and the Mexican War of Independence (1810–1821). The last major colonial power on the continent, the United Kingdom, granted dominion status to Canada in 1867 and slowly turned over its remaining land to that country over the next 100 years, with the last land transfer being the Dominion of Newfoundland in 1949. Throughout this period, France maintained the small North American territory of Saint Pierre and Miquelon off the coast of the island of Newfoundland.From independence, the United States expanded rapidly to the west, acquiring the massive Louisiana territory in 1803 and fighting a war with Mexico to push west to the Pacific. At the same time, British settlement in Canada increased. US expansion was complicated by the division between "free" and "slave" states, which led to the Missouri Compromise of 1820. Likewise, Canada faced tensions between settlers, including French and English communities, and the colonial administration that led to the outbreak of civil strife in 1837. Mexico faced constant political tensions between liberals and conservatives, as well as the rebellion of the English-speaking region of Texas, which declared itself the Republic of Texas in 1836. In 1845, Texas joined the United States and in 1867 the United States acquired Alaska from Russia. The last major territorial change occurred when Newfoundland joined Canada in 1949, but there have been a number of small adjustments like the Boundary Treaty of 1970 where the city of Rio Rico, Texas, was ceded to Mexico.

Vostochny Cosmodrome

The Vostochny Cosmodrome (Russian: Космодром Восточный Kosmodrom Vostochny "Eastern Spaceport") is a Russian spaceport under construction on the 51st parallel north in the Amur Oblast, in the Russian Far East. It is intended to reduce Russia's dependency on the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. The first launch took place on 28 April 2016 at 02:01 UTC. As of December 2018, four launch attempts have been made with three successes.

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