The 50 State Quarters Program (Pub.L. 105–124, 111 Stat. 2534, enacted December 1, 1997) was the release of a series of circulating commemorative coins by the United States Mint. From 1999 through 2008, it featured unique designs for each of the 50 U.S. states on the reverse of the quarter.
The 50 State Quarters Program was started to support a new generation of coin collectors, and it became the most successful numismatic program in history, with roughly half of the U.S. population collecting the coins, either in a casual manner or as a serious pursuit. The U.S. federal government so far has made additional profits of $3.0 billion from collectors taking the coins out of circulation.
In 2009, the U.S. Mint began issuing quarters under the 2009 District of Columbia and U.S. Territories Program. The Territories Quarter Program was authorized by the passage of a newer legislative act, H.R. 2764. This program features the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, the United States Virgin Islands, and the Northern Mariana Islands.
|50 State Quarter|
|Value||0.25 U.S. Dollar|
|Mass||6.25(Ag); 5.67 (Cu-Ni) g|
|Diameter||24.26 mm (0.955 in)|
|Thickness||1.75 mm (0.069 in)|
|Composition||91.67% Cu 8.33% Ni (standard)|
90% Ag 10% Cu (proof only)
|Years of minting||1999–2008|
|Designer||John Flanagan (1932 version) from a 1786 bust by Houdon / William Cousins (modification to Flanagan's design)|
|Design||various; five designs per year|
The program's origins lie with the Citizens Commemorative Coin Advisory Committee (CCCAC), which was appointed by Secretary of Treasury Lloyd Bentsen in December 1993 and chaired by Mint Director Philip N. Diehl. From the first days of the CCCAC, one of its members, David Ganz, urged the committee to endorse the 50 States Quarters program, and in 1995, the CCCAC did so. The committee then sought the support of Representative Michael Castle (R-Delaware), chairman of the House Banking subcommittee with jurisdiction over the nation's coinage. Castle's initial caution was resolved when Diehl suggested the coins be issued in the order the states entered the Union or ratified the Constitution. Delaware, Castle's home state, was the first state to ratify the Constitution. Castle subsequently held hearings and filed legislation to authorize the program.
Despite the support of the director of the mint and the treasury secretary-appointed CCCAC, the Treasury Department opposed the 50 States Quarters program, as commemorative coinage had come to be identified with abuses and excesses. The mint's economic models estimated the program would earn the government between $2.6 billion and $5.1 billion in additional seignorage and $110 million in additional numismatic profits. Diehl and Castle used these profit projections to urge the Treasury's support, but Treasury officials found the projections to lack credibility (at the program's conclusion, the Mint estimated the program had earned $3.0 billion in additional seigniorage and $136.2 million in additional numismatic profits).
Diehl worked with Castle behind the scenes to move legislation forward despite the Treasury's opposition to the program. However, the Treasury suggested to Castle that the department should conduct a study to determine the feasibility of the program. With Diehl's advice, Castle accepted the Treasury's offer, and the agreement was codified in the United States Commemorative Coin Act of 1996. The act also authorized the secretary to proceed with the 50 States Quarters program without further congressional action if the results of the feasibility study were favorable.
The Treasury Department engaged the consulting firm Coopers and Lybrand to conduct the study in 1997, which confirmed the Mint's demand, seigniorage and numismatic profit projections for the program. Among other conclusions, the study found that 98 million Americans were likely to save one or more full sets of the quarters (at the program's conclusion, the Mint estimated that 147 million Americans collected the 50 state quarters). Nevertheless, the Treasury Department continued to oppose the program and declined to proceed with it without a congressional mandate to do so.
The 50 state quarters were released by the United States Mint every ten weeks, or five each year. They were released in the same order that the states ratified the Constitution and/or were admitted to the Union. Each quarter's reverse commemorated one of the 50 states with a design emblematic of its unique history, traditions and symbols. Certain design elements, such as state flags, images of living persons, and head-and-shoulder images of deceased persons were prohibited.
The authorizing legislation and Mint procedures gave states a substantial role and considerable discretion in determining the design that would represent their state. The majority of states followed a process by which the governor solicited the state's citizens to submit design concepts and appointed an advisory group to oversee the process. Governors submitted three to five finalist design concepts to the secretary of treasury for approval. Approved designs were returned to the states for selection of a final design.
States usually employed one of two approaches in making this selection. In 33 states, the governor selected the final recommended design, often based on the recommendations of advisory groups and citizens. In the other 17 states, citizens selected the final design through online, telephone, mail or other public votes. US Mint engravers applied all final design concepts approved by the secretary of treasury. The media and public attention surrounding this process and the release of each state's quarter was intense and produced significant publicity for the program.
The State Quarters Program was the most popular commemorative coin program in United States history; the United States Mint has estimated that 147 million Americans have collected state quarters and 3.5 million participated in the selection of state quarter designs.
By the end of 2008, all of the original 50 states quarters had been minted and released. The official total, according to the US Mint, was 34,797,600,000 coins. The average mintage was 695,952,000 coins per state, but ranged between Virginia's 1,594,616,000 to Oklahoma's 416,600,000. Demand was stronger for quarters issued early in the program. This was due to weakening economic conditions in later years and the waning of the initial surge of demand when the program was launched. Another factor was the reassertion of the Treasury Department's opposition to the program. When the director's term ended in 2000, the Treasury proceeded to reduce and finally terminate the most effective elements of the Mint's promotional program despite the high return on investment they earned.
|1999||1||Delaware||January 1, 1999
(December 7, 1787)
|774,824,000||Caesar Rodney on horseback
Captions: "The First State", "Caesar Rodney"
|2||Pennsylvania||March 8, 1999
(December 12, 1787)
|707,332,000||Commonwealth statue, state outline, keystone
Caption: "Virtue, Liberty, Independence"
|3||New Jersey||May 17, 1999
(December 18, 1787)
|662,228,000||Washington Crossing the Delaware, which includes George Washington (standing) and James Monroe (holding the flag)
Caption: "Crossroads of the Revolution"
|4||Georgia||July 19, 1999
(January 2, 1788)
|939,932,000||Peach, live oak (state tree) sprigs, state outline
Banner with text: "Wisdom, Justice, Moderation" (the state motto)
|T. James Ferrell|
|5||Connecticut||October 12, 1999
(January 9, 1788)
Caption: "The Charter Oak"
|T. James Ferrell|
|2000||6||Massachusetts||January 3, 2000
(February 6, 1788)
|1,163,784,000||The Minuteman statue, state outline
Caption: "The Bay State"
|Thomas D. Rodgers|
|7||Maryland||March 13, 2000
(April 28, 1788)
|1,234,732,000||Dome of the Maryland State House, white oak (state tree) clusters
Caption: "The Old Line State"
|Thomas D. Rodgers|
|8||South Carolina||May 22, 2000
(May 23, 1788)
|1,308,784,000||Carolina wren (state bird), yellow jessamine (state flower), cabbage palmetto (state tree), state outline
Caption: "The Palmetto State"
|Thomas D. Rodgers|
|9||New Hampshire||August 7, 2000
(June 21, 1788)
|1,169,016,000||Old Man of the Mountain, nine stars
Captions: "Old Man of the Mountain", "Live Free or Die"
|10||Virginia||October 16, 2000
(June 25, 1788)
|1,594,616,000||Ships Susan Constant, Godspeed, Discovery
Captions: "Jamestown, 1607–2007", "Quadricentennial"
|Edgar Z. Steever|
|2001||11||New York||January 2, 2001
(July 26, 1788)
|1,275,040,000||Statue of Liberty, 11 stars, state outline with line tracing Hudson River and Erie Canal
Caption: "Gateway to Freedom"
|12||North Carolina||March 12, 2001
(November 21, 1789)
|1,055,476,000||Wright Flyer, John T. Daniels's iconic photo of the Wright brothers
Caption: "First Flight"
|13||Rhode Island||May 21, 2001
(May 29, 1790)
|870,100,000||America's Cup yacht Reliance on Narragansett Bay, Claiborne Pell Newport Bridge
Caption: "The Ocean State"
|Thomas D. Rodgers|
|14||Vermont||August 6, 2001
(March 4, 1791)
|882,804,000||Maple trees with sap buckets, Camel's Hump Mountain
Caption: "Freedom and Unity"
|T. James Ferrell|
|15||Kentucky||October 15, 2001
(June 1, 1792)
|723,564,000||Thoroughbred racehorse behind fence, Bardstown mansion, Federal Hill
Caption: "My Old Kentucky Home"
|T. James Ferrell|
|2002||16||Tennessee||January 1, 2002
(June 1, 1796)
|648,068,000||Fiddle, trumpet, guitar, musical score, three stars
Banner with text: "Musical Heritage"
|17||Ohio||March 11, 2002
(March 1, 1803)
|632,032,000||Wright Flyer (built by the Wright Brothers who were from Dayton); astronaut (Neil Armstrong, a native of Wapakoneta); state outline
Caption: "Birthplace of Aviation Pioneers"
|18||Louisiana||May 20, 2002
(April 30, 1812)
|764,204,000||Brown pelican (state bird); trumpet with musical notes, outline of Louisiana Purchase on map of U.S.
Caption: "Louisiana Purchase"
|19||Indiana||August 2, 2002
(December 11, 1816)
|689,800,000||IndyCar, state outline, 19 stars
Caption: "Crossroads of America"
|20||Mississippi||October 15, 2002
(December 10, 1817)
|579,600,000||Two magnolia blossoms (state flower)
Caption: "The Magnolia State"
|2003||21||Illinois||January 2, 2003
(December 3, 1818)
|463,200,000||Young Abraham Lincoln; farm scene; Chicago skyline; state outline; 21 stars, 11 on left edge and 10 on right
Captions: "Land of Lincoln;" "21st state/century"
|22||Alabama||March 17, 2003
(December 14, 1819)
|457,400,000||Helen Keller, seated, longleaf pine (state tree) branch, magnolia blossoms
Banner with text: "Spirit of Courage"
Caption: "Helen Keller" in standard print and Braille
|Norman E. Nemeth|
|23||Maine||June 2, 2003
(March 15, 1820)
|448,800,000||Pemaquid Point Lighthouse; the schooner Victory Chimes at sea||Donna Weaver|
|24||Missouri||August 4, 2003
(August 10, 1821)
|453,200,000||Gateway Arch, Lewis and Clark and York returning down Missouri River
Caption: "Corps of Discovery 1804–2004"
|25||Arkansas||October 20, 2003
(June 15, 1836)
|457,800,000||Diamond (state gem), rice stalks, mallard flying above a lake||John Mercanti|
|2004||26||Michigan||January 26, 2004
(January 26, 1837)
|459,600,000||State outline, outline of Great Lakes system
Caption: "Great Lakes State"
|27||Florida||March 29, 2004
(March 3, 1845)
|481,800,000||Spanish galleon, Sabal palmetto (state tree), Space Shuttle
Caption: "Gateway to Discovery"
|T. James Ferrell|
|28||Texas||June 1, 2004
(December 29, 1845)
|541,800,000||State outline, star, lariat
Caption: "The Lone Star State"
|Norman E. Nemeth|
|29||Iowa||August 30, 2004
(December 28, 1846)
|465,200,000||Schoolhouse, teacher and students planting a tree; based on the Grant Wood painting Arbor Day
Captions: "Foundation in Education", "Grant Wood"
|30||Wisconsin||October 25, 2004
(May 29, 1848)
|453,200,000||Head of a cow, round of cheese and ear of corn (state grain).
Banner with text: "Forward"
|2005||31||California||January 31, 2005
(September 9, 1850)
|520,400,000||John Muir, California condor, Half Dome
Captions: "John Muir," "Yosemite Valley"
|32||Minnesota||April 4, 2005
(May 11, 1858)
|488,000,000||Common loon (state bird), fishing, state map
Caption: "Land of 10,000 Lakes"
|Charles L. Vickers|
|33||Oregon||June 6, 2005
(February 14, 1859)
|720,200,000|| Crater Lake National Park
Caption: "Crater Lake"
|34||Kansas||August 29, 2005
(January 29, 1861)
|563,400,000||American bison (state mammal), sunflowers (state flower)||Norman E. Nemeth|
|35||West Virginia||October 14, 2005
(June 20, 1863)
|721,600,000||New River Gorge Bridge
Caption: "New River Gorge"
|2006||36||Nevada||January 31, 2006
(October 31, 1864)
|589,800,000||Mustangs, mountains, rising sun, sagebrush (state flower)
Banner with text: "The Silver State"
|37||Nebraska||April 3, 2006
(March 1, 1867)
|594,400,000||Chimney Rock National Historic Site, Conestoga wagon
Caption: "Chimney Rock"
|Charles L. Vickers|
|38||Colorado||June 14, 2006
(August 1, 1876)
Banner with text: "Colorful Colorado"
|Norman E. Nemeth|
|39||North Dakota||August 28, 2006
(November 2, 1889)
|664,800,000||American bison, badlands||Donna Weaver|
|40||South Dakota||November 6, 2006
(November 2, 1889)
|510,800,000||Mount Rushmore, ring-necked pheasant (state bird), wheat (state grass)||John Mercanti|
|2007||41||Montana||January 29, 2007
(November 8, 1889)
|513,240,000||American bison skull in the center with mountains and the Missouri River in the background.
Caption: "Big Sky Country"
|42||Washington||April 2, 2007
(November 11, 1889)
|545,200,000||Salmon leaping in front of Mount Rainier
Caption: "The Evergreen State"
|Charles L. Vickers|
|43||Idaho||June 4, 2007
(July 3, 1890)
|581,400,000||Peregrine falcon, state outline with star indicating location of state capital Boise, Idaho
Caption: "Esto Perpetua"
|44||Wyoming||September 3, 2007
(July 10, 1890)
|564,400,000||Bucking Horse and Rider
Caption: "The Equality State"
|Norman E. Nemeth|
|45||Utah||November 5, 2007
(January 4, 1896)
|508,200,000||Golden spike, Locomotives Jupiter, No. 119, and the completion of the Transcontinental Railroad
Caption: "Crossroads of the West"
|Joseph F. Menna|
|2008||46||Oklahoma||January 28, 2008
(November 16, 1907)
|416,600,000||Scissor-tailed flycatcher (state bird), with Indian blankets (state wildflower) in background||Phebe Hemphill|
|47||New Mexico||April 7, 2008
(January 6, 1912)
|488,600,000||State outline with relief, Zia Sun Symbol from flag
Caption: "Land of Enchantment"
|48||Arizona||June 2, 2008
(February 14, 1912)
|509,600,000||Grand Canyon, saguaro closeup.
Banner with text: "Grand Canyon State"
|Joseph F. Menna|
|49||Alaska||August 25, 2008
(January 3, 1959)
|505,800,000||Grizzly bear with salmon (state fish) and North Star
Caption: "The Great Land"
|Charles L. Vickers|
|50||Hawaii||November 3, 2008
(August 21, 1959)
|517,600,000||Statue of Kamehameha I with state outline and motto
Caption: "Ua Mau ke Ea o ka ʻĀina i ka Pono"
|The following map shows the years each state, federal district, or territory was released as a state quarter.|
|Color||Year||1st release||2nd release||3rd release||4th release||5th release||6th release|
|2000||Massachusetts||Maryland||South Carolina||New Hampshire||Virginia|
|2001||New York||North Carolina||Rhode Island||Vermont||Kentucky|
|2006||Nevada||Nebraska||Colorado||North Dakota||South Dakota|
|2009||District of Columbia||Puerto Rico||Guam||American Samoa||U.S. Virgin Islands||Northern Mariana Islands|
In 1997, Congress passed the 50 States Commemorative Coin Program Act, which instructed the creation of the state quarters series to "honor the unique Federal Republic of 50 States that comprise the United States; and to promote the diffusion of knowledge among the youth of the United States about the individual states, their history and geography, and the rich diversity of the national heritage...", and to encourage "young people and their families to collect memorable tokens of all of the States for the face value of the coins."
While mintage totals of the various designs vary widely—Virginia quarters are almost 20 times as abundant as the Northern Marianas quarters—none of the regular circulating issues are rare enough to become a valuable investment.
There was, however, a measure of collector interest and controversy over die errors in the Wisconsin quarter. Some designs from the Denver mint feature corn without a smaller leaf, others feature a small leaf pointing upwards, and still others have the leaf bending down. A set of all three quarters sold on eBay in February 2005 for $300 and initially saw significant increases, such as $1500 for individual coins, but as of August 2012 PCGS lists the value of MS-62 specimens as approximately $150 each.
Another die cast error ran with the first Delaware quarters. Being the first model of state quarter made, the mint gave it a disproportionate weight causing vending machines to not accept it. The quarter die was quickly fixed. Some Delaware quarters appeared without the last E, now saying, "THE FIRST STAT".
A major error occurred in 2000 when the reverse die of a Sacagawea dollar was combined with the obverse die of a state quarter on dollar-coin planchets to form what is known as a "mule". Only sixteen of these specimens, produced on dollar planchets, escaped from the mint.
A 2005 Minnesota double die quarter, as well as a 2005 Minnesota quarter with extra trees (another die error), have both triggered numismatic interest. An unusual die break on some 2005 Kansas quarters created a humpback bison. Relatively more common are Kansas quarters bearing the motto "IN GOD WE RUST."
The United States produces proof coinage in circulating base metal and, since 1992, in separately sold sets with the dimes, quarters, and half-dollars in silver. For the silver issues, the 1999 set is the most valuable, being the first year of the series and with a relatively small mintage, although prices have significantly decreased since the 50 State Quarters Program ended. The set in base metal, of this or any other year, is worth only a fraction as much. The silver proof sets of later years, while having some intrinsic and collector worth, are also priced far lower. The public is cautioned to research prices before buying advertised state quarter year or proof sets.
In general, the program increased interest in quarter and general coin collecting. Large numbers of ads, quarter products and quarter information were available during the years the program ran. Home Shopping Network, Franklin Mint, and Littleton Coin Company were among the most prominent in ad space.
Since the 50 State Quarters Program was expected to increase public demand for quarters which would be collected and taken out of circulation, the Mint used economic models to estimate the additional seigniorage the program would produce. These estimates established a range of $2.6 billion to $5.1 billion. (At the end of the program, the Mint estimated the actual increase in seigniorage to be $3 billion.) The Mint also estimated the program would earn $110 million in additional numismatic profits. (The final, post-program estimate was $136.2 million.) The Mint used these estimates to support the proposed program, and the legislation enacting the 50 States Quarters program cited these estimates.
| 50 State Quarters
District of Columbia and United States Territories Quarters
The George Washington Carver-Booker T. Washington Half Dollar was designed by Isaac Scott Hathaway. The obverse depicts side-portraits of George Washington Carver and Booker T. Washington and the reverse shows a simple outline map of the United States of America superimposed with the letters "U.S.A.", and the words "Freedom and Opportunity for All/Americanism" around the rim. It was minted in silver from 1951 until 1954, by authority of Public Law 82-151. It was the final issue of early commemoratives.Coin World
Coin World is an American weekly numismatic magazine. It is among the world’s most popular non-academic publications for coin collectors and is covering the entire numismatic field, including coins, paper money, medals and tokens.Coins of the United States dollar
Coins of the United States dollar were first minted in 1792. New coins have been produced annually since then and they make up a valuable aspect of the United States currency system. Today, circulating coins exist in denominations of 1¢ (i.e. 1 cent or $0.01), 5¢, 10¢, 25¢, 50¢, and $1.00. Also minted are bullion (including gold, silver and platinum) and commemorative coins. All of these are produced by the United States Mint. The coins are then sold to Federal Reserve Banks which in turn are responsible for putting coins into circulation and withdrawing them as demanded by the country's economy.Commemorative coin
Commemorative coins are coins that were issued to commemorate some particular event or issue. Most world commemorative coins were issued from the 1960s onward, although there are numerous examples of commemorative coins of earlier date. Such coins have a distinct design with reference to the occasion on which they were issued. Many coins of this category serve as collectors items only, although some countries are also issuing commemorative coins for regular circulation. Vast numbers of thematic coins are continuously being issued, highlighting ancient monuments or sites, historical personalities, endangered species etc. While such thematic coins may or may not commemorate any particular event or jubilee, the distinction between commemorative coins and thematic coins is often blurred or ignored.Discovery (1602 ship)
Discovery or Discoverie was a small 20-ton, 38-foot (12 m) long "fly-boat" of the British East India Company, launched before 1602. It was one of the three ships (along with Susan Constant and Godspeed) on the 1606–07 voyage to the New World for the English Virginia Company of London. The journey resulted in the founding of Jamestown in the new Colony of Virginia.District of Columbia and United States Territories Quarters
The District of Columbia and United States Territories Quarter Program was a one-year coin program of the United States Mint that saw quarters being minted in 2009 to honor the District of Columbia and the unincorporated United States insular areas of Puerto Rico, Guam, United States Virgin Islands, American Samoa, and the Northern Mariana Islands. The islands commonly grouped together as the United States Minor Outlying Islands were not featured, as the law defined the word "territory" as being limited to the areas mentioned above. It followed the completion of the 50 State Quarters program. The coins used the same George Washington obverse as with the quarters of the previous ten years. The reverse of the quarters featured a design selected by the Mint depicting of the federal district and each territory. Unlike on the 50 State quarters, the motto "E Pluribus Unum" preceded and was the same size as the mint date on the reverse.Godspeed (ship)
Godspeed, under Captain Bartholomew Gosnold, was one of the three ships (along with Susan Constant and Discovery) on the 1606-1607 voyage to the New World for the English Virginia Company of London. The journey resulted in the founding of Jamestown in the new Colony of Virginia.Grand Divisions of Tennessee
The Grand Divisions are three geographic regions in the U.S. state of Tennessee, each constituting roughly one-third of the state's land area, that are geographically, culturally, legally, and economically distinct. The Grand Divisions are legally recognized in the state constitution and state law and are represented on the flag of Tennessee by the flag's three prominent stars.The Grand Divisions, East, Middle, and West Tennessee, are sometimes referred to as "three states of Tennessee" or "the three Tennessees."John Mercanti
John M. Mercanti (born April 27, 1943) is an American sculptor and engraver. He was the twelfth Chief Engraver of the United States Mint until his retirement in late 2010.List of Colorado state symbols
The following is a list of symbols of the U.S. state of Colorado.Presidential $1 Coin Program
The Presidential $1 Coin Program (Pub.L. 109–145, 119 Stat. 2664, enacted December 22, 2005) was the release by the United States Mint of $1 coins with engravings of relief portraits of U.S. presidents on the obverse and the Statue of Liberty on the reverse.
From 2007 to 2011, presidential $1 coins were minted for circulation in large numbers, resulting in a large stockpile of unused $1 coins. From 2012 to 2016, new coins in the series were minted only for collectors.Quarter (United States coin)
The quarter, short for quarter dollar, is a United States coin worth 25 cents, one-fourth of a dollar. It has a diameter of .955 inch (24.26 mm) and a thickness of .069 inch (1.75 mm). The coin sports the profile of George Washington on its obverse, and its reverse design has changed frequently. It has been produced on and off since 1796 and consistently since 1831.The choice of 1⁄4 as a denomination—as opposed to the 1⁄5 more common elsewhere—originated with the practice of dividing Spanish milled dollars into eight wedge-shaped segments. "Two bits" (that is, two "pieces of eight") is a common nickname for a quarter.Seigniorage
Seigniorage , also spelled seignorage or seigneurage (from the Old French seigneuriage, "right of the lord (seigneur) to mint money"), is the difference between the value of money and the cost to produce and distribute it. The term can be applied in two ways:
Seigniorage derived from specie (metal coins) is a tax added to the total price of a coin (metal content and production costs) that a customer of the mint had to pay, and which was sent to the sovereign of the political region.
Seigniorage derived from notes is more indirect; it is the difference between interest earned on securities acquired in exchange for banknotes and the cost of producing and distributing the notes.It also applies to monetary seigniorage, where sovereign-issued securities are exchanged for newly-printed banknotes by a central bank, allowing the sovereign to "borrow" without needing to repay. Monetary seigniorage is sovereign revenue obtained through routine debt monetization, including expansion of the money supply during GDP growth and meeting yearly inflation targets.Seigniorage can be a convenient source of revenue for a government. By providing the government with increased purchasing power at the expense of public purchasing power, it imposes what is metaphorically known as an inflation tax on the public.Susan Constant
Susan Constant, captained by Christopher Newport, was the largest of three ships of the English Virginia Company (the others being Discovery and Godspeed) on the 1606–1607 voyage that resulted in the founding of Jamestown in the new Colony of Virginia.Texas Centennial half dollar
The Texas Centennial half dollar commemorative coin was minted to honor the Centennial of Texas's independence from Mexico. Early in the administration of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, on June 15, 1933, Congress passed an act to authorize the coinage of silver half dollars "in commemoration of the one hundredth anniversary in 1936 of the independence of Texas, and of the noble and heroic sacrifices of her pioneers, whose revered memory has been an inspiration to her sons and daughters during the past century." This was the first of over two dozen commemorative bills that would become reality during Roosevelt's tenure. The legislation provided that "no more than one and a half million pieces" be created on behalf of the American Legion Texas Centennial Committee, located in Austin in that state.
The coin was designed by Pompeo Coppini, a Texan. The obverse depicts an Eagle sitting on a branch in front of the Lone Star, the symbol of Texas. At the top right of the star it reads IN GOD WE TRUST, and to the left of the star it reads E PLURIBUS UNUM. Over the star it reads UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, and at the bottom it reads HALF DOLLAR. The reverse depicts the goddess Victory spreading her wings over the Alamo. It also depicts Sam Houston on her left and Stephen F. Austin on her right. The Six Flags of Texas fly above her head. Under her it reads REMEMBER THE ALAMO. Over Sam Houston, Victory, and Stephen F. Austin it reads THE TEXAS INDEPENDENCE CENTENNIAL. This coin was minted from 1934 to 1938.Title 31 of the United States Code
Title 31 of the United States Code outlines the role of the money and finance in the United States Code.United States Mint coin sets
The United States Mint has released annual collections of coins most years since 1936.United States commemorative coin
The United States has minted numerous commemorative coins in remembrance of particular persons, places, events, and institutions. These coins are legal tender but are not intended for general circulation.United States dollar
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its territories per the United States Constitution since 1792. In practice, the dollar is divided into 100 smaller cent (¢) units, but is occasionally divided into 1000 mills (₥) for accounting. The circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars (12 U.S.C. § 418).
Since the suspension in 1971 of convertibility of paper U.S. currency into any precious metal, the U.S. dollar is, de facto, fiat money. As it is the most used in international transactions, the U.S. dollar is the world's primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their official currency, and in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is also used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean: the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while still minting their own coins, or also accept U.S. dollar coins (such as the Sacagawea or presidential dollar). As of June 27, 2018, there are approximately $1.67 trillion in circulation, of which $1.62 trillion is in Federal Reserve notes (the remaining $50 billion is in the form of coins).
|Quarter dollar (25¢)|
|Half dollar (50¢)|