|Roman numeral (unicode)||Ⅴ, ⅴ|
|Greek||ε (or Ε)|
|Arabic & Kurdish||٥|
Five is the third prime number. Because it can be written as 221 + 1, five is classified as a Fermat prime; therefore a regular polygon with 5 sides (a regular pentagon) is constructible with compass and unmarked straightedge. 5 is the third Sophie Germain prime, the first safe prime, the third Catalan number, and the third Mersenne prime exponent. Five is the first Wilson prime and the third factorial prime, also an alternating factorial. Five is the first good prime. It is an Eisenstein prime with no imaginary part and real part of the form 3n − 1. It is also the only number that is part of more than one pair of twin primes. Five is a congruent number.
Five is conjectured to be the only odd untouchable number and if this is the case then five will be the only odd prime number that is not the base of an aliquot tree.
Five is also the only prime that is the sum of two consecutive primes, namely 2 and 3.
The number 5 is the fifth Fibonacci number, being 2 plus 3. It is the only Fibonacci number that is equal to its position. 5 is also a Pell number and a Markov number, appearing in solutions to the Markov Diophantine equation: (1, 2, 5), (1, 5, 13), (2, 5, 29), (5, 13, 194), (5, 29, 433), ... (OEIS: A030452 lists Markov numbers that appear in solutions where one of the other two terms is 5). Whereas 5 is unique in the Fibonacci sequence, in the Perrin sequence 5 is both the fifth and sixth Perrin numbers.
In bases 10 and 20, 5 is a 1-automorphic number.
Five is the second Sierpinski number of the first kind, and can be written as S2 = (22) + 1.
While polynomial equations of degree 4 and below can be solved with radicals, equations of degree 5 and higher cannot generally be so solved. This is the Abel–Ruffini theorem. This is related to the fact that the symmetric group Sn is a solvable group for n ≤ 4 and not solvable for n ≥ 5.
Five is the only prime number to end in the digit 5 because all other numbers written with a 5 in the ones place under the decimal system are multiples of five. As a consequence of this, 5 is in base 10 a 1-automorphic number.
Vulgar fractions with 5 or 2 in the denominator do not yield infinite decimal expansions, unlike expansions with all other prime denominators, because they are prime factors of ten, the base. When written in the decimal system, all multiples of 5 will end in either 5 or 0.
There are five Exceptional Lie groups.
|5 × x||5||10||15||20||25||30||35||40||45||50||55||60||65||70||75||80||85||90||95||100|
|5 ÷ x||5||2.5||1.6||1.25||1||0.83||0.714285||0.625||0.5||0.5||0.45||0.416||0.384615||0.3571428||0.3|
|x ÷ 5||0.2||0.4||0.6||0.8||1||1.2||1.4||1.6||1.8||2||2.2||2.4||2.6||2.8||3|
In the powers of 5, every power ends with the number five and from 53, if the exponent is odd, then the hundreds digit is 1; instead, if it is even, the hundreds digit is 6.
The evolution of the modern Western glyph for the numeral 5 cannot be traced back to the Indian system as for the numbers 1 to 4. The Kushana and Gupta empires in what is now India had among themselves several different glyphs which bear no resemblance to the modern glyph. The Nagari and Punjabi took these glyphs and all came up with glyphs that are similar to a lowercase "h" rotated 180°. The Ghubar Arabs transformed the glyph in several different ways, producing glyphs that were more similar to the numbers 4 or 3 than to the number 5. It was from those characters that Europeans finally came up with the modern 5.
Five can refer to:
The typical limb of tetrapods is the pentadactyl limb (Gr. penta, five) that has five toes. Tetrapods evolved from an ancestor that had limbs with five toes. ... Even though the number of digits in different vertebrates may vary from five, vertebrates develop from an embryonic five-digit stage.
The 2017–18 UEFA Champions League was the 63rd season of Europe's premier club football tournament organised by UEFA, the 26th season since it was renamed from the European Champion Clubs' Cup to the UEFA Champions League.
The final was played between Real Madrid and Liverpool at the NSC Olimpiyskiy Stadium in Kiev, Ukraine. Real Madrid, the defending champions, beat Liverpool 3–1 to win a record-extending 13th title and their third title in a row.
As winners, Real Madrid qualified as the UEFA representative for the 2018 FIFA Club World Cup in the United Arab Emirates, and also earned the right to play against the winners of the 2017–18 UEFA Europa League, Atlético Madrid, in the 2018 UEFA Super Cup. Moreover, they would also have been automatically qualified for the 2018–19 UEFA Champions League group stage, but since they had already qualified through their league performance, the berth reserved was given to the champions of the 2017–18 Czech First League, the 11th-ranked association according to next season's access list.2018–19 FA Cup
The 2018–19 FA Cup (also known as the Football Association Challenge Cup) is the 138th edition of the oldest recognised football tournament in the world. It is sponsored by Emirates and known as The Emirates FA Cup for sponsorship purposes. It started with the Extra Preliminary Round on the weekend of 11 August 2018 and will conclude with the final on 18 May 2019. The winner will qualify for the 2019–20 UEFA Europa League group stage.
Premier League side Chelsea were the defending champions, but they were eliminated by Manchester United in the fifth round on 18 February 2019 in a rematch of the previous year's final.2018–19 UEFA Europa League
The 2018–19 UEFA Europa League is the 48th season of Europe's secondary club football tournament organised by UEFA, and the 10th season since it was renamed from the UEFA Cup to the UEFA Europa League.
The final will be played at the Olympic Stadium in Baku, Azerbaijan. The winners of the 2018–19 UEFA Europa League will earn the right to play against the winners of the 2018–19 UEFA Champions League in the 2019 UEFA Super Cup. They will also automatically qualify for the 2019–20 UEFA Champions League group stage, and if they have already qualified through their league performance, the berth reserved will be given to the third-placed team of the 2018–19 Ligue 1, the 5th-ranked association according to next season's access list.For the first time, the video assistant referee (VAR) system will be used in the competition, where it will be implemented in the final.As the title holders of Europa League, Atlético Madrid qualified for the 2018–19 UEFA Champions League, although they had already qualified before the final through their league performance. They are unable to defend their title as they advanced to the Champions League knockout stage.ATP Tour Masters 1000
The ATP Tour Masters 1000 (previously known as the ATP Championship Series, Single-Week, ATP Mercedes-Benz Super 9, Tennis Masters Series, and ATP Masters Series) is the third highest tier of annual men's tennis tournament after the four Grand Slam tournaments and the ATP Finals.
Results in ATP Masters 1000 events earn players more world ranking points than regular tournaments, though not as many as Grand Slam events or the year-end ATP Finals. Up until 2007, most Masters Series finals were contested as best of five-set matches. Currently, all Masters Series matches (including the finals) are decided in best of three-set matches.
In singles, Rafael Nadal holds the record for the most titles with 33 since the Masters series began in 1990. Novak Djokovic is the only player to have won all nine Masters singles titles and became the first player to complete the Career Golden Masters. Djokovic has the second most titles holding 32. Rafael Nadal, Roger Federer, Andre Agassi, and Andy Murray have each won 7 different titles. Djokovic holds the record for the most singles titles in a year, winning 6 in 2015. Additionally, Djokovic and Nadal are the only two players to win four singles titles in a row and Nadal is the only person to complete the feat in the same calendar year when he won Madrid, Rome, Canada, and Cincinnati in 2013. Nadal and Djokovic together held all 9 Masters 1000 crowns starting with the 2013 Monte Carlo title through the 2014 Miami title, which was the first time that 2 players possessed all nine of the titles.
In doubles, the Bryan brothers (Bob and Mike) have won a record 38 doubles titles, all as a team. Daniel Nestor and the Bryan brothers have each won all 9 titles throughout their careers. The Bryans have won 6 titles in a single year once (2014) and 5 titles in a single year twice (2007 and 2013).
Currently, the following 9 tournaments are part of the series: Canadian Open (alternating yearly between Montreal and Toronto), Cincinnati Masters, Indian Wells Masters, Italian Open (Rome), Madrid Open, Miami Open, Monte-Carlo Masters, Paris Masters, and Shanghai Masters.Amitriptyline
Amitriptyline, sold under the brand name Elavil among others, is a medicine primarily used to treat a number of mental illnesses. These include major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders, and less commonly attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and bipolar disorder. Other uses include prevention of migraines, treatment of neuropathic pain such as fibromyalgia and postherpetic neuralgia, and less commonly insomnia. It is in the tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) class and its exact mechanism of action is unclear. Amitriptyline is taken by mouth.Common side effects include blurred vision, dry mouth, low blood pressure on standing, sleepiness, and constipation. Serious side effects may include seizures, an increased risk of suicide in those less than 25 years of age, urinary retention, glaucoma, and a number of heart issues. It should not be taken with MAO inhibitors or the medication cisapride. Amitriptyline may cause problems if taken during pregnancy. Use during breastfeeding appears to be relatively safe.Amitriptyline was discovered in 1960 and approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1961. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, which lists the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. It is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost in the developing world as of 2014 was between 0.01 and US$0.04 per dose. In the United States, it costs about US$0.20 per dose. In 2016, it was the 88th most prescribed medication in the United States, with more than 8 million prescriptions.Demographics of India
India is the second most populated country in the world with nearly a fifth of the world's population. According to the 2017 revision of the World Population Prospects, the population stood at 1,324,171,354.
During 1975–2010 the population doubled to 1.2 billion. The Indian population reached the billion mark in 1998. India is projected to be the world's most populous country by 2024, surpassing the population of China. It is expected to become the first political entity in history to be home to more than 1.5 billion people by 2030, and its population is set to reach 1.7 billion by 2050. Its population growth rate is 1.13%, ranking 112th in the world in 2017.India has more than 50% of its population below the age of 25 and more than 65% below the age of 35. It is expected that, in 2020, the average age of an Indian will be 29 years, compared to 37 for China and 48 for Japan; and, by 2030, India's dependency ratio should be just over 0.4.India has more than two thousand ethnic groups, and every major religion is represented, as are four major families of languages (Indo-European, Dravidian, Austroasiatic and Sino-Tibetan languages) as well as two language isolates (the Nihali language spoken in parts of Maharashtra and the Burushaski language spoken in parts of Jammu and Kashmir (Kashmir).
Further complexity is lent by the great variation that occurs across this population on social parameters such as income and education. Only the continent of Africa exceeds the linguistic, genetic and cultural diversity of the nation of India.The sex ratio is 944 females for 1000 males (2016) (940 per 1000 in 2011) This ratio has been showing an upwards trend for the last two decades after a continuous decline in the last century.Fibonacci number
In mathematics, the Fibonacci numbers, commonly denoted Fn form a sequence, called the Fibonacci sequence, such that each number is the sum of the two preceding ones, starting from 0 and 1. That is,
for n > 1.
One has F2 = 1. In some books, and particularly in old ones, F0, the "0" is omitted, and the Fibonacci sequence starts with F1 = F2 = 1. The beginning of the sequence is thus:
Fibonacci numbers are strongly related to the golden ratio: Binet's formula expresses the nth Fibonacci number in terms of n and the golden ratio, and implies that the ratio of two consecutive Fibonacci numbers tends to the golden ratio as n increases.
Fibonacci numbers are named after Italian mathematician Leonardo of Pisa, later known as Fibonacci. They appear to have first arisen as early as 200 BC in work by Pingala on enumerating possible patterns of poetry formed from syllables of two lengths. In his 1202 book Liber Abaci, Fibonacci introduced the sequence to Western European mathematics, although the sequence had been described earlier in Indian mathematics.
Fibonacci numbers appear unexpectedly often in mathematics, so much so that there is an entire journal dedicated to their study, the Fibonacci Quarterly. Applications of Fibonacci numbers include computer algorithms such as the Fibonacci search technique and the Fibonacci heap data structure, and graphs called Fibonacci cubes used for interconnecting parallel and distributed systems. They also appear in biological settings, such as branching in trees, the arrangement of leaves on a stem, the fruit sprouts of a pineapple, the flowering of an artichoke, an uncurling fern and the arrangement of a pine cone's bracts.
Fibonacci numbers are also closely related to Lucas numbers in that they form a complementary pair of Lucas sequences and . Lucas numbers are also intimately connected with the golden ratio.Floppy disk
A floppy disk, also known as a floppy, diskette, or simply disk, is a type of disk storage composed of a disk of thin and flexible magnetic storage medium, sealed in a rectangular plastic enclosure lined with fabric that removes dust particles. Floppy disks are read and written by a floppy disk drive (FDD).
Floppy disks, initially as 8-inch (203 mm) media and later in 5 1⁄4-inch (133 mm) and 3 1⁄2 inch (90 mm) sizes, were a ubiquitous form of data storage and exchange from the mid-1970s into the first years of the 21st century. By 2006 computers were rarely manufactured with installed floppy disk drives; 3 1⁄2-inch floppy disks can be used with an external USB floppy disk drive, but USB drives for 5 1⁄4-inch, 8-inch, and non-standard diskettes are rare to non-existent. These formats are usually handled by older equipment.
The prevalence of floppy disks in late-twentieth century culture was such that many electronic and software programs still use the floppy disks as save icons. While floppy disk drives still have some limited uses, especially with legacy industrial computer equipment, they have been superseded by data storage methods with much greater capacity, such as USB flash sticks, flash storage cards, portable external hard disk drives, optical discs, cloud storage and storage available through computer networks.Fluoxetine
Fluoxetine, sold under the brand names Prozac and Sarafem among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class. It is used for the treatment of major depressive disorder, obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), bulimia nervosa, panic disorder, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. It may decrease the risk of suicide in those over the age of 65. It has also been used to treat premature ejaculation. Fluoxetine is taken by mouth.Common side effects include trouble sleeping, sexual dysfunction, loss of appetite, dry mouth, rash, and abnormal dreams. Serious side effects include serotonin syndrome, mania, seizures, an increased risk of suicidal behavior in people under 25 years old, and an increased risk of bleeding. If stopped suddenly, a withdrawal syndrome may occur with anxiety, dizziness, and changes in sensation. It is unclear if it is safe in pregnancy. If already on the medication, it may be reasonable to continue during breastfeeding. Its mechanism of action is not entirely clear but believed to be related to increasing serotonin activity in the brain.Fluoxetine was discovered by Eli Lilly and Company in 1972, and entered medical use in 1986. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. It is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between US$0.01 and US$0.04 per day as of 2014. In the United States, it costs about US$0.85 per day. In 2016 it was the 29th most prescribed medication in the United States with more than 23 million prescriptions.Golden Globe Award
The Golden Globe Awards are accolades bestowed by the 93 members of the Hollywood Foreign Press Association beginning in January 1944, recognizing excellence in film and television, both domestic and foreign.
The annual ceremony at which the awards are presented is a major part of the film industry's awards season, which culminates each year in the Academy Awards. The eligibility period for the Golden Globes corresponds to the calendar year (i.e. January 1 through December 31). The 76th Golden Globe Awards, honoring the best in film and television in 2018, were held on January 6, 2019. The 77th Golden Globe Awards will take place on January 5, 2020.Grand Theft Auto V
Grand Theft Auto V is an action-adventure video game developed by Rockstar North and published by Rockstar Games. It was released in September 2013 for PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360, in November 2014 for PlayStation 4 and Xbox One, and in April 2015 for Microsoft Windows. It is the first main entry in the Grand Theft Auto series since 2008's Grand Theft Auto IV. Set within the fictional state of San Andreas, based on Southern California, the single-player story follows three criminals and their efforts to commit heists while under pressure from a government agency. The open-world design lets players freely roam San Andreas' open countryside and the fictional city of Los Santos, based on Los Angeles.
The game is played from either a third-person or first-person perspective and its world is navigated on foot or by vehicle. Players control the three lead protagonists throughout single-player and switch between them both during and outside missions. The story is centred on the heist sequences, and many missions involve shooting and driving gameplay. A "wanted" system governs the aggression of law enforcement response to players who commit crimes. Grand Theft Auto Online, the game's online multiplayer mode, lets up to 30 players engage in a variety of different cooperative and competitive game modes.
The development of Grand Theft Auto V began soon after Grand Theft Auto IV's release and was shared between many of Rockstar's studios worldwide. The development team drew influence from many of their previous projects such as Red Dead Redemption and Max Payne 3 and designed the game around three lead protagonists to innovate on the core structure of its predecessors. Much of the development work constituted the open world's creation, and several team members conducted field research around California to capture footage for the design team. The game's soundtrack features an original score composed by a team of producers who collaborated over several years.
Extensively marketed and widely anticipated, the game broke industry sales records and became the fastest-selling entertainment product in history, earning $800 million in its first day and $1 billion in its first three days. It received widespread critical acclaim, with praise directed at its multiple protagonist design, open world, presentation and gameplay. However, it caused controversies related to its depiction of women and a mission featuring torture during a hostage interrogation. Considered one of the seventh generation console gaming's most significant titles and among the best video games ever made, it won year-end accolades including Game of the Year awards from several gaming publications. It is the third-best-selling video game of all time with over 100 million copies shipped and one of the most financially successful entertainment products of all time, with about $6 billion in worldwide revenue.List of Formula One World Drivers' Champions
The Formula One World Drivers' Championship (WDC) is awarded by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) to the most successful Formula One racing car driver over a season, as determined by a points system based on individual Grand Prix results.
The Drivers' Championship was first awarded in 1950, to Giuseppe Farina. The first driver to win multiple Championships was Alberto Ascari, in 1952 and 1953. The current Drivers' Champion is Lewis Hamilton who won his fifth title in 2018.
A driver secures the World Championship each season when it is no longer mathematically possible for another driver to beat them no matter the outcome of the remaining races, although it is not officially awarded until the end of the season. The Drivers' Championship has been won in the final race of the season 29 times in the 69 seasons it has been awarded. The earliest in a season that the Drivers' Championship has been clinched was in 2002, when Michael Schumacher secured the title with six races remaining.
Overall, thirty-three different drivers have won the Championship, with German Michael Schumacher holding the record for most titles, at seven. He also holds the record for most consecutive Drivers' Championships, winning five from 2000 to 2004. The United Kingdom has produced the most Champions with ten; Brazil, Germany and Finland are next with three each. Of the 33 drivers to win the World Championship, twenty are still alive. The most recently deceased is John Surtees (1934–2017). Among teams, Scuderia Ferrari has produced the most winning drivers with 15.Maroon 5
Maroon 5 is an American pop rock band from Los Angeles, California. It currently consists of lead vocalist Adam Levine, keyboardist and rhythm guitarist Jesse Carmichael, bassist Mickey Madden, lead guitarist James Valentine, drummer Matt Flynn, keyboardist PJ Morton, and multi-instrumentalist Sam Farrar. Original members Levine, Carmichael, Madden, and drummer Ryan Dusick first came together as Kara's Flowers in 1994, while they were still in high school. After self-releasing their independent album We Like Digging?, the band signed to Reprise Records and released the album The Fourth World in 1997. The album garnered a tepid response, after which the record label dropped the band and the members focused on college.
In 2001, the band remerged as Maroon 5, pursuing a different direction and adding guitarist Valentine. The band signed with Octone Records, a subsidiary of J Records, and released their debut album Songs About Jane in June 2002. Aided by its lead single "Harder to Breathe", which received heavy airplay, the album peaked at number six on the Billboard 200 chart, and went platinum in 2004. The band won the Grammy Award for Best New Artist in 2005. In 2006, Dusick left the band after suffering from serious wrist and shoulder injuries and was replaced by Matt Flynn.
The band's second album, It Won't Be Soon Before Long was released in May 2007. It reached number one on the US Billboard 200 chart and the lead single, "Makes Me Wonder", became the band's first number one single on the Billboard Hot 100. In 2010, the band released the third album Hands All Over, to mixed reviews, re-releasing a year later to include the single "Moves like Jagger", which topped the Billboard Hot 100. In 2012, Carmichael left the group and was replaced by musician PJ Morton, as the band released the fourth album, Overexposed, with the song "One More Night", topping the Billboard Hot 100 chart for nine consecutive weeks.
In 2014, Carmichael rejoined the band along with Morton to record the fifth album V (pronounced: "five"), with the band signed a new label, Interscope Records and Levine's own label 222 Records. Following the release of V, it reached number one on the Billboard 200 chart. In 2016, Maroon 5 recruited their long-time collaborator and former Phantom Planet member Sam Farrar, as the band continued for the sixth album Red Pill Blues, which was released in November 2017, with the reveal of the band's lineup as seven official members. The album's single "Girls Like You", peaking at number one on the Billboard Hot 100, becoming the band's fourth number one single. Maroon 5 has sold more than 109 million singles and 27 million albums, making them one of the world's best-selling music artists.Mirtazapine
Mirtazapine, sold under the brand name Remeron among others, is an antidepressant primarily used to treat depression. Its full effect may take more than four weeks to occur, with some benefit possibly as early as one to two weeks. Often it is used in depression complicated by anxiety or trouble sleeping. It is taken by mouth.Common side effects include increased weight, sleepiness, and dizziness. Serious side effects may include mania, low white blood count, and increased suicide among children. Withdrawal symptoms may occur with stopping. It is not recommended together with an MAO inhibitor. It is unclear if use during pregnancy is safe. How it works is not clear but may involve blocking certain adrenergic and serotonin receptors. Chemically, it is a tetracyclic antidepressant (TeCA). It also has strong antihistamine effects.Mirtazapine came into medical use in the United States in 1996. The patent expired in 2004, and generic versions are available. In the United States the wholesale cost as of 2018 is about US$3 per month. In the United Kingdom a month supply costs less than 20 pounds per month. In the United States about 5.5 million prescriptions were written for mirtazapine in 2016.N,N-Dimethyltryptamine
N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT or N,N-DMT) is a chemical substance that occurs in many plants and animals and which is both a derivative and a structural analog of tryptamine. It can be consumed as a psychedelic drug and has historically been prepared by various cultures for ritual purposes as an entheogen. Rick Strassman labeled it "the spirit molecule". DMT is illegal in most countries.
DMT has a rapid onset, intense effects and a relatively short duration of action. For those reasons, DMT was known as the "businessman's trip" during the 1960s in the United States, as a user could access the full depth of a psychedelic experience in considerably less time than with other substances such as LSD or magic mushrooms. DMT can be inhaled, injected, vaporized or ingested, and its effects depend on the dose. When inhaled or injected, the effects last a short period of time: about 5 to 15 minutes. Effects can last 3 hours or more when orally ingested along with an MAOI, such as the ayahuasca brew of many native Amazonian tribes. DMT can produce vivid "projections" of mystical experiences involving euphoria and dynamic hallucinations of geometric forms.DMT is a functional analog and structural analog of other psychedelic tryptamines such as 4-AcO-DMT, 5-MeO-DMT, 5-HO-DMT, psilocybin (4-PO-DMT), and psilocin (4-HO-DMT). The structure of DMT occurs within some important biomolecules like serotonin and melatonin, making them structural analogs of DMT.PHP
PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor (or simply PHP) is a general-purpose programming language originally designed for web development. It was originally created by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1994; the PHP reference implementation is now produced by The PHP Group. PHP originally stood for Personal Home Page, but it now stands for the recursive initialism PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor.PHP code may be executed with a command line interface (CLI), embedded into HTML code, or it can be used in combination with various web template systems, web content management systems, and web frameworks. PHP code is usually processed by a PHP interpreter implemented as a module in a web server or as a Common Gateway Interface (CGI) executable. The web server combines the results of the interpreted and executed PHP code, which may be any type of data, including images, with the generated web page. PHP can be used for many programming tasks outside of the web context, such as standalone graphical applications and robotic drone control.
The standard PHP interpreter, powered by the Zend Engine, is free software released under the PHP License. PHP has been widely ported and can be deployed on most web servers on almost every operating system and platform, free of charge.The PHP language evolved without a written formal specification or standard until 2014, with the original implementation acting as the de facto standard which other implementations aimed to follow. Since 2014 work has gone on to create a formal PHP specification.Promethazine
Promethazine is a first-generation antihistamine. It is used to treat allergies, trouble sleeping, and nausea. It may help with some symptoms associated with the common cold. It may also be used for sedating people who are agitated or anxious. It is available by mouth as a syrup, as a rectal suppository, or by injection into a muscle.Common side effects include confusion and sleepiness and sedation. Alcohol or other sedatives can make this worse. It is unclear if use during pregnancy or breastfeeding is safe for the baby. Use is not recommended in those less than two years old due to potentially negative effects on breathing. Use by injection into a vein is not recommended due to potential skin damage. It is in the phenothiazine family of medications.Promethazine was made in the 1940s by a team of scientists from Rhône-Poulenc laboratories. It was approved for medical use in the United States in 1951. It is a generic medication and is available under many brand names globally. The wholesale cost of the by mouth formulation is less than US$0.20 per dose as of 2018. In the United Kingdom this dose costs less than 0.25 pounds. In 2016 it was the 160th most prescribed medication in the United States with more than 3 million prescriptions.Serotonin
Serotonin () or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter. It has a popular image as a contributor to feelings of well-being and happiness, though its actual biological function is complex and multifaceted, modulating cognition, reward, learning, memory, and numerous physiological processes.Biochemically, the indoleamine molecule derives from the amino acid tryptophan, via the (rate-limiting) hydroxylation of the 5 position on the ring (forming the intermediate 5-hydroxytryptophan), and then decarboxylation to produce serotonin. Serotonin is primarily found in the enteric nervous system located in the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). However, it is also produced in the central nervous system (CNS), specifically in the Raphe nuclei located in the brainstem. Additionally, serotonin is stored in blood platelets and is released during agitation and vasoconstriction, where it then acts as an agonist to other platelets.Approximately 90% of the human body's total serotonin is located in the enterochromaffin cells in the GI tract, where it regulates intestinal movements. The serotonin is secreted luminally and basolaterally, which leads to increased serotonin uptake by circulating platelets and activation after stimulation, which gives increased stimulation of myenteric neurons and gastrointestinal motility. The remainder is synthesized in serotonergic neurons of the CNS, where it has various functions. These include the regulation of mood, appetite, and sleep. Serotonin also has some cognitive functions, including memory and learning. Modulation of serotonin at synapses is thought to be a major action of several classes of pharmacological antidepressants.
Serotonin secreted from the enterochromaffin cells eventually finds its way out of tissues into the blood. There, it is actively taken up by blood platelets, which store it. When the platelets bind to a clot, they release serotonin, where it can serve as a vasoconstrictor or a vasodilator while regulating hemostasis and blood clotting. In high concentrations, serotonin acts as a vasoconstrictor by contracting endothelial smooth muscle directly or by potentiating the effects of other vasoconstrictors (e.g. angiotensin II, norepinephrine). The vasoconstrictive property is mostly seen in pathologic states affecting the endothelium - such as atherosclerosis or chronic hypertension. In physiologic states, vasodilation occurs through the serotonin mediated release of nitric oxide from endothelial cells. Additionally, it inhibits the release of norepinephrine from adrenergic nerves. Serotonin is also a growth factor for some types of cells, which may give it a role in wound healing. There are various serotonin receptors.
Serotonin is metabolized mainly to 5-HIAA, chiefly by the liver. Metabolism involves first oxidation by monoamine oxidase to the corresponding aldehyde. There follows oxidation by aldehyde dehydrogenase to 5-HIAA, the indole acetic-acid derivative. The latter is then excreted by the kidneys.
Besides mammals, serotonin is found in all bilateral animals including worms and insects, as well as in fungi and in plants. Serotonin's presence in insect venoms and plant spines serves to cause pain, which is a side-effect of serotonin injection. Serotonin is produced by pathogenic amoebae, and its effect in the human gut is diarrhea. Its widespread presence in many seeds and fruits may serve to stimulate the digestive tract into expelling the seeds.The Jackson 5
The Jackson 5 (stylized as the Jackson 5ive), later known as the Jacksons, were an American pop band composed of members of the Jackson family. The group was founded in 1964 in Gary, Indiana by brothers Jackie, Tito, and Jermaine, with younger brothers Marlon and Michael Jackson joining soon after. They were among the first black American performers to attain a crossover following, preceded by the Supremes, the Four Tops, and the Temptations.
The Jackson 5 performed in talent shows and clubs on the Chitlin' Circuit, then signed with Steeltown Records in 1967 and released two singles. In 1968, they left Steeltown Records and signed with Motown, where they achieved 16 top-40 singles on the Hot 100. The group left Motown for Epic Records in 1975, with the exception of Jermaine, who was replaced by Randy. At Epic, they released five albums between 1976 and 1981, including the successful albums Destiny (1978) and Triumph (1980) and the singles "Enjoy Yourself", "Shake Your Body (Down to the Ground)", and "Can You Feel It". The brothers also released solo albums, most successfully Michael, whose 1982 album Thriller became the best-selling album in history. In 1983, Jermaine reunited with the band to perform on the Motown 25: Yesterday, Today, Forever TV special. They released the Victory album the following year, followed by an extensive tour which also featured songs from Michael's solo albums. After the Victory tour, Michael and Marlon Jackson left the group. The remaining four released the poorly received 2300 Jackson Street album in 1989 before being dropped from their label. In 2001, the Jacksons reunited on Michael's 30th anniversary television special. The four eldest of the brothers embarked on their Unity Tour in 2012 following Michael's death, and they planned several major performances for 2017.The Jackson 5 have sold more than 100 million records worldwide, making them one of the best-selling bands of all time. They were inducted to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1997 and the Vocal Group Hall of Fame in 1999. They were also the first group to debut with four consecutive number one hits on the Hot 100 with the songs "I Want You Back", "ABC", "The Love You Save", and "I'll Be There".