4K, 4-K or 4k may refer to:
4K resolution, also called 4K, refers to a horizontal display resolution of approximately 4,000 pixels. Digital television and digital cinematography commonly use several different 4K resolutions. In television and consumer media, 3840 × 2160 (4K UHD) is the dominant 4K standard, whereas the movie projection industry uses 4096 × 2160 (DCI 4K).
The 4K television market share increased as prices fell dramatically during 2014 and 2015. By 2020, more than half of U.S. households are expected to have 4K-capable TVs, a much faster adoption rate than that of Full HD (1080p).8K resolution
8K resolution refers to any screen or display with around 8000 pixels width. 8K UHD, also known as Full UHD, FUHD, or Full Ultra HD is the current highest ultra high definition television (UHDTV) resolution in digital television, digital cinematography and digital signage. 8K in 8K UHD refers to the horizontal resolution of 7,680 pixels, forming the total image dimensions of (7680×4320), also known as 4320p, which refers to the vertical resolution.8K UHD has twice as many horizontal and twice as many vertical pixels as 4K UHD, as well as four times the linear resolution of 1080p (Full HD), and six times the linear resolution of 720p. 8K displays are able to produce images with such smooth gradients and high levels of sharpness that objects shown can appear even more realistic than in real world. This phenomenon is referred to as hyperrealism.High-resolution displays such as 8K allow for each pixel to be indistinguishable to the human eye when viewed at a typical distance from the screen. 8K resolution can also be used for the purpose of creating enhanced lower resolution videos through a combination of cropping techniques and/or with downsampling techniques used in video and film editing. Resolutions such as 8K allows filmmakers to shoot in a high resolution with a wide lens or at a further distance, in the case of potentially dangerous subjects (such as in wildlife documentaries), by being able to zoom and crop digitally in post-production. The technique involves taking a portion of the original 8K image and cropping it to match a smaller resolution such as the current industry standard for high-definition televisions (4K, 1080p, and 720p).8K display resolution is the successor to 4K resolution. TV manufacturers pushed to make 4K a new standard by 2017. The feasibility of a fast transition to this new standard is questionable in view of the absence of broadcasting resources. It is predicted that 8K-ready devices will still only account for 3% of UHD TVs by 2023 with global sales of 11 million units a year. However, TV manufacturers remain optimistic as the 4K market grew much faster than expected, with actual sales exceeding projections nearly 6-fold in 2016.As of 2018, few cameras had the capability to shoot video in 8K, with NHK being one of the only companies to have created a small broadcasting camera with an 8K image sensor. By 2018 Red Digital Cinema camera company had delivered three 8K cameras in both a Full Frame sensor and Super 35 sensor. Until major content sources are available, 8K is speculated to become a mainstream consumer display resolution around 2023 as mentioned in UHD forum Phase-B recommendations. Despite this,
filmmakers are pushing demand for 8K cameras due to their ability to capture better 4K footage.Alsco 300 (Charlotte)
The Alsco 300 is an annual 300-mile (482.803 km) NASCAR Xfinity Series race held at the Charlotte Motor Speedway in Concord, North Carolina during Memorial Day weekend as a support race for the Coca-Cola 600.
The race's origins trace back to 1978, when a NASCAR race was held the day before the World 600 as a Late Model Sportsman Series race, and in 1982 it became a Busch Series race. The race just celebrated its 40th anniversary in 2018 as one of the most popular races on the NASCAR XFINITY Series schedule.From 2005 to 2009 the race was a Saturday night race. For 2010, the starting time was moved to 2:30 p.m. EST in response to fans wanting an afternoon NNS race and allowing for ABC coverage, allowing it to be part of a television doubleheader weekend for ESPN, paired with the Indianapolis 500 the next day. In 2015, the race's broadcast was transferred to Fox NASCAR after the departure of the NASCAR on ESPN content, allowing both of the races in Charlotte (the Hisense 300 on Saturday, and the Coca-Cola 600 on Sunday) to air on Fox.
In 2018, Alsco, a linen and uniform rental services company, became the entitlement sponsor for the Charlotte Motor Speedway race. Alsco also sponsors the NASCAR Xfinity Series race at Kentucky Speedway, making it one of only two companies to serve as an entitlement sponsor of multiple Xfinity Series events.Altair BASIC
Altair BASIC is a discontinued interpreter for the BASIC programming language that ran on the MITS Altair 8800 and subsequent S-100 bus computers. It was Microsoft's first product (as Micro-Soft), distributed by MITS under a contract. Altair BASIC was the start of the Microsoft BASIC product range.Amazon Fire TV
Amazon Fire TV is a digital media player and its microconsole remote developed by Amazon. The device is a small network appliance that can deliver digital audio/video content streamed via the internet, to a high-definition television. It also allows users to play video games with the included remote, via a mobile app, or with an optional game controller.
The device comes in two form factors: Fire TV, a set top box, and Fire TV Stick a cut-down version presented as an HDMI plug-in stick.
The first-generation Fire TV device featured 2 GB of RAM, MIMO dual-band Wi-Fi, and a Bluetooth remote control with a microphone for voice search. It supported 1080p streaming and Dolby Digital Plus 7.1 surround sound but was dependent on internet bandwidth of the user. Unveiled on April 2, 2014, the Amazon Fire TV (1st Generation) was made available for purchase in the US the same day for US$99 and was launched with a video game called Sev Zero.In 2015, the Amazon Fire TV (2nd Generation) was released with improved processor speed and 4K UHD support.
Amazon Fire TV is also available in the United Kingdom, Germany, Japan and launched in India in 2016.In September 2018, Amazon announced the Fire TV Recast, a digital video recorder which works with a HD antenna to record shows for later viewing on a Fire TV or Echo Show device. It is designed for use with over-the-air TV services and is a part of the cord-cutting movement.In October 2018, Amazon announced the latest Fire TV Stick which offers 4K UHD for $50. It is designed as an affordable device with the 4K UHD playback that higher-end Fire TV devices have.Amazon Video
Amazon Prime Video is an Internet video on demand service that is developed, owned, and operated by Amazon. It offers television shows and films for rent or purchase and Prime Video, a selection of Amazon Studios original content and licensed acquisitions included in the Amazon's Prime subscription. In the UK, US, Germany, and Austria, access to Prime Video is also available through a video-only membership, which does not require a full Prime subscription. In countries like France and Italy, Rent or Buy and Prime Video are not available on the Amazon website and Prime Video content is only accessible through a dedicated website. In some countries Amazon Video additionally offers Amazon Channels, which allows viewers to subscribe to other suppliers' content, including HBO in the United States.Launched on September 7, 2006 as Amazon Unbox in the United States, the service grew with its expanding library, and added the Prime Video membership with the development of Prime. It was then renamed as Amazon Instant Video on Demand. After acquiring the local streaming and DVD-by-mail service LoveFilm in 2011, Prime Video was added to Prime in the United Kingdom, Germany and Austria in 2014, a move that angered some Prime UK members as the bundling was non-negotiable with a 61% increase in subscription fee.In the UK, Germany, and Austria, Prime Video has been available on a monthly subscription of £5.99 or €7.99 per month, continuing the plan of LoveFilm Instant. The service was previously available in Norway, Denmark and Sweden in 2012, but was discontinued in 2013. On April 18, 2016, Amazon split Prime Video from Amazon Prime in the US for $8.99 per month. The service also hosts Amazon Original content alongside titles on Video as well.
On December 14, 2016, Amazon Video launched worldwide (except for Mainland China, Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Syria) expanding its reach beyond US, UK, Germany, Austria, and Japan. Among the new territories, the service was included with Prime in Belgium, Canada, France, India, Italy, Spain, Poland, and Brazil, while for all other countries – for instance Bulgaria, it was made available for a monthly promotional price of $/€2.99 per month for the first six months and $/€5.99 per month thereafter.Apple TV
Apple TV is a digital media player and microconsole developed and sold by Apple Inc. It is a small network appliance and entertainment device that can receive digital data such as music or video from specific sources and stream it to a television or other video display.
Apple TV is an HDMI-compliant source device. To use it for viewing, it has to be connected to an enhanced-definition or high-definition widescreen television via an HDMI cable. The device has no integrated controls and can only be controlled externally, either by an Apple Remote or Siri Remote control device (with which it is sold) using its infrared/Bluetooth capability, by the Apple TV Remote app (downloadable from App Store) on iOS devices, such as the iPhone, iPod Touch, iPad, and Apple Watch, using its Wi-Fi capability, or by some third-party infrared remotes.Its Wi-Fi capability is also used to receive digital content from various iOS apps using AirPlay or directly from the iTunes Store, which is then streamed to the TV. It also plays digital content from the iTunes Store, Netflix, Stan, Foxtel Now, Hulu, Now TV (UK only), SlingTV, PlayStation Vue, Amazon Prime Video, DirecTV, YouTube, Red Bull TV and Vevo along with HBO Now, Showtime Anytime, Starz, and the TV Everywhere portals of several cable and broadcast networks, and the video subscription portals of three of the four major North American sports leagues: MLB.tv, NBA League Pass, and NHL.tv. It plays content from any macOS or Windows computer running iTunes. Apple began to promote the Live Tune-In feature that allows the viewer to ask Siri to tune to live streams of CBS, ESPN, and Disney XD among many others that support Live Tune-In.Blu-ray
Blu-ray or Blu-ray Disc (BD) is a digital optical disc data storage format. It was designed to supersede the DVD format, and is capable of storing several hours of video in high-definition (HDTV 720p and 1080p) and ultra high-definition resolution (2160p). The main application of Blu-ray is as a medium for video material such as feature films and for the physical distribution of video games for the PlayStation 3, PlayStation 4, and Xbox One. The name "Blu-ray" refers to the blue laser (actually a violet laser) used to read the disc, which allows information to be stored at a greater density than is possible with the longer-wavelength red laser used for DVDs.
The plastic disc is 120 millimetres (4.7 in) in diameter and 1.2 millimetres (0.047 in) thick, the same size as DVDs and CDs. Conventional or pre-BD-XL Blu-ray discs contain 25 GB per layer, with dual-layer discs (50 GB) being the industry standard for feature-length video discs. Triple-layer discs (100 GB) and quadruple-layer discs (128 GB) are available for BD-XL re-writer drives.High-definition (HD) video may be stored on Blu-ray discs with up to 2160p resolution (3840×2160 pixels) and at up to 60 frames per second. DVD-Video discs were limited to a maximum resolution of 480p (NTSC, 720×480 pixels) or 576p (PAL, 720×576 pixels). Besides these hardware specifications, Blu-ray is associated with a set of multimedia formats.
The BD format was developed by the Blu-ray Disc Association, a group representing makers of consumer electronics, computer hardware, and motion pictures. Sony unveiled the first Blu-ray disc prototypes in October 2000, and the first prototype player was released in April 2003 in Japan. Afterwards, it continued to be developed until its official release on June 20, 2006, beginning the high-definition optical disc format war, where Blu-ray Disc competed with the HD DVD format. Toshiba, the main company supporting HD DVD, conceded in February 2008, and later released its own Blu-ray Disc player in late 2009. According to Media Research, high-definition software sales in the United States were slower in the first two years than DVD software sales. Blu-ray faces competition from video on demand (VOD) and the continued sale of DVDs. Notably, as of January 2016, 44% of U.S. broadband households had a Blu-ray player.Digital cinema
Digital cinema refers to the use of digital technology to distribute or project motion pictures as opposed to the historical use of reels of motion picture film, such as 35 mm film. Whereas film reels have to be shipped to movie theaters, a digital movie can be distributed to cinemas in a number of ways: over the Internet or dedicated satellite links, or by sending hard drives or optical discs such as Blu-ray discs. Digital movies are projected using a digital video projector instead of a film projector. Digital cinema is distinct from high-definition television and does not necessarily use traditional television or other traditional high-definition video standards, aspect ratios, or frame rates. In digital cinema, resolutions are represented by the horizontal pixel count, usually 2K (2048×1080 or 2.2 megapixels) or 4K (4096×2160 or 8.8 megapixels). As digital-cinema technology improved in the early 2010s, most of the theaters across the world converted to digital video projection.DirecTV-14
DirecTV-14 is a communication satellite launched on December 6, 2014. It is the first satellite offering Ultra-HD 4K television services using Reverse DBS.Douglas A-4 Skyhawk
The Douglas A-4 Skyhawk is a single seat subsonic carrier-capable attack aircraft developed for the United States Navy and United States Marine Corps in the early 1950s. The delta winged, single turbojet engined Skyhawk was designed and produced by Douglas Aircraft Company, and later by McDonnell Douglas. It was originally designated A4D under the U.S. Navy's pre-1962 designation system.
The Skyhawk is a relatively lightweight aircraft with a maximum takeoff weight of 24,500 pounds (11,100 kg) and has a top speed of more than 670 miles per hour (1,080 km/h). The aircraft's five hardpoints support a variety of missiles, bombs and other munitions. It is capable of carrying a bomb load equivalent to that of a World War II–era Boeing B-17 bomber, and can deliver nuclear weapons using a low-altitude bombing system and a "loft" delivery technique. The A-4 was originally powered by the Wright J65 turbojet engine; from the A-4E onwards, the Pratt & Whitney J52 engine was used.
Skyhawks played key roles in the Vietnam War, the Yom Kippur War, and the Falklands War. Sixty years after the aircraft's first flight in 1954, some of the 2,960 produced (through February 1979) remain in service with the Argentine Air Force.Graphics display resolution
The graphics display resolution is the width and height dimension of an electronic visual display device, such as a computer monitor, in pixels. Certain combinations of width and height are standardized and typically given a name and an initialism that is descriptive of its dimensions. A higher display resolution in a display of the same size means that displayed photo or video content appears sharper, and pixel art appears smaller.List of Xbox One X enhanced games
This is a List of Xbox One X Enhanced games. Games here are enhanced by console specific updates/patches when played on an Xbox One X.
Xbox One games without an Xbox One X update/patch, including Xbox 360 and Original Xbox backwards compatible titles can also take advantage of the Xbox One X's hardware. These improvements can include the following:
Improved framerate stability
Games utilizing a dynamic resolution will hit their max resolution more often, or at all times
16x anisotropic filtering
Forced V-sync to decrease or eliminate Screen tearing.
Variable refresh rate compatibility (when used with a compatible display)Panasonic Lumix DC-GH5
The Panasonic Lumix DC-GH5 is a Micro Four Thirds mirrorless interchangeable lens camera body announced by Panasonic on 4 January 2017.It is the first mirrorless camera capable of shooting 4K resolution video with 10-bit color with 4:2:2 chroma subsampling, along with recording in 4K 60p or 50p (but only in 8 bit). It also captures both 4K and Full HD without time limits. On September 28, 2017, Panasonic released firmware update 2.0 which added support for Hybrid Log-Gamma (HLG) recording, along with a higher 400Mbit/s bit rate All-i recording mode.The later-released sister model Panasonic Lumix DC-GH5S is a more specialized filmmakers' camera that adds greater low-light sensitivity, a multi-aspect image sensor, and expanded DCI 4K options. It has 10 Megapixels, and is equipped without a stabilised image sensor.
The Panasonic GH5S is an even more video-centric variant of the GH5: it can shoot either DCI or UHD 4K footage natively (i.e. where one capture pixel = one output pixel) at up to 60p. As well as the ability to shoot DCI 4K at higher frame rates, Panasonic claim the GH5S's larger pixels and 'Dual Native ISO' sensor will shoot significantly better footage in low light.PlayStation 4
The PlayStation 4 (PS4) is an eighth-generation home video game console developed by Sony Interactive Entertainment. Announced as the successor to the PlayStation 3 in February, 2013, it was launched on November 15 in North America, November 29 in Europe, South America and Australia, and on February 22, 2014, in Japan. It competes with Microsoft's Xbox One and Nintendo's Wii U and Switch.
Moving away from the more complex Cell microarchitecture of its predecessor, the console features an AMD Accelerated Processing Unit (APU) built upon the x86-64 architecture, which can theoretically peak at 1.84 teraflops; AMD stated that it was the "most powerful" APU it had developed to date. The PlayStation 4 places an increased emphasis on social interaction and integration with other devices and services, including the ability to play games off-console on PlayStation Vita and other supported devices ("Remote Play"), the ability to stream gameplay online or to friends, with them controlling gameplay remotely ("Share Play"). The console's controller was also redesigned and improved over the PlayStation 3, with improved buttons and analog sticks, and an integrated touchpad among other changes. The console also supports HDR10 High-dynamic-range video and playback of 4K resolution multimedia.
The PlayStation 4 was released to acclaim, with critics praising Sony for acknowledging its consumers' needs, embracing independent game development, and for not imposing the restrictive digital rights management schemes similarly to those announced by Microsoft for Xbox One. Critics and third-party studios also praised the capabilities of the PlayStation 4 in comparison to its competitors; developers described the performance difference between the console and Xbox One as "significant" and "obvious". Heightened demand also helped Sony top global console sales. By the end of December 2018, over 94 million PlayStation 4 consoles had been shipped worldwide, surpassing lifetime sales of its predecessor, the PlayStation 3. As of December 2018, 91.6 million PlayStation 4 consoles had been sold through to customers worldwide.
On September 7, 2016, Sony unveiled the PlayStation 4 Pro, a high-end version of the console with an upgraded GPU and higher CPU clock rate to support enhanced performance and 4K resolution on supported games. The company also released a variant of the original model with a smaller form factor, and the release of a patch to add HDR support to all existing consoles.Red Digital Cinema
Red Digital Cinema is an American company that manufactures digital cinematography cameras and accessories.
The company’s headquarters are in Irvine, California, with studios in Hollywood, California. It has offices in London, Shanghai and Singapore, retail stores in Hollywood, New York and Miami as well as various authorized resellers and service centers around the world.Tata Sky
Tata Sky is an Indian direct broadcast satellite television provider in India, using MPEG-4 digital compression technology, transmitting using INSAT-4A and GSAT-10 satellite. Incorporated in 2004, Tata Sky is a joint venture between the Tata Group, and The Walt Disney Company with Temasek Holdings as a minor partner. It was started as a joint venture between Tata Group and 21st Century Fox.
It currently offers total 601 channels, 495 SD channels and 99 HD channels and services, along with other many active services.
Tata Sky entered into an agreement with French firm Technicolor to supply 4K set top boxes from early 2015.Ultra-high-definition television
Ultra-high-definition television (also known as Ultra HD television, Ultra HD, UHDTV, UHD and Super Hi-Vision) today includes 4K UHD and 8K UHD, which are two digital video formats with an aspect ratio of 16:9. These were first proposed by NHK Science & Technology Research Laboratories and later defined and approved by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU).The Consumer Electronics Association announced on October 17, 2012, that "Ultra High Definition", or "Ultra HD", would be used for displays that have an aspect ratio of 16:9 or wider and at least one digital input capable of carrying and presenting native video at a minimum resolution of 3840×2160 pixels. In 2015, the Ultra HD Forum was created to bring together the end-to-end video production ecosystem to ensure interoperability and produce industry guidelines so that adoption of ultra-high-definition television could accelerate. From just 30 in Q3 2015, the forum published a list up to 55 commercial services available around the world offering 4K resolution.The "UHD Alliance", an industry consortium of content creators, distributors, and hardware manufacturers, announced during a Consumer Electronics Show (CES) 2016 press conference its "Ultra HD Premium" specification, which defines resolution, bit depth, color gamut, high-dynamic-range imaging (HDRI) and rendering (HDRR) required for Ultra HD (UHDTV) content and displays to carry their Ultra HD Premium logo.Ultra HD Blu-ray
Ultra HD Blu-ray is a digital optical disc data storage format that supersedes Blu-ray. Ultra HD Blu-ray discs are incompatible with existing Blu-ray players. Ultra HD Blu-ray supports 4K UHD (3840 × 2160 resolution) video at frame rates up to 60 frames per second, encoded using High Efficiency Video Coding. The discs support both high dynamic range by increasing the color depth to 10-bit per color and a greater color gamut than supported by conventional Blu-ray video by using the Rec. 2020 color space.Xbox One
Xbox One is a line of eighth generation home video game consoles developed by Microsoft. Announced in May 2013, it is the successor to Xbox 360 and the third console in the Xbox family. It was first released in North America, parts of Europe, Australia, and South America in November 2013, and in Japan, China, and other European countries in September 2014. It is the first Xbox game console to be released in China, specifically in the Shanghai Free-Trade Zone. Microsoft marketed the device as an "all-in-one entertainment system", hence the name 'Xbox One'. The Xbox One line mainly competes against consoles such as Sony's PlayStation 4 and Nintendo's Wii U and Switch.
Moving away from its predecessor's PowerPC-based architecture, Xbox One marks a shift back to the x86 architecture used in the original Xbox; it features an AMD Accelerated Processing Unit (APU) built around the x86-64 instruction set. Xbox One's controller was redesigned over the Xbox 360's, with a redesigned body, D-pad, and triggers capable of delivering directional haptic feedback. The console places an increased emphasis on cloud computing, as well as social networking features, and the ability to record and share video clips or screenshots from gameplay, or live-stream directly to streaming services such as Mixer and Twitch. Games can also be played off-console via a local area network on supported Windows 10 devices. The console can play Blu-ray Disc, and overlay live television programming from an existing set-top box or a digital tuner for digital terrestrial television with an enhanced program guide. The console optionally included a redesigned Kinect sensor, marketed as the "Kinect 2.0", providing improved motion tracking and voice recognition.
Xbox One received mostly positive reviews for its refined controller design, multimedia features, and voice navigation. Its quieter and cooler design was praised for making the console more reliable than its predecessor on-launch, but the console was generally criticized for running games at a technically lower graphical level than the PlayStation 4. Its original user interface was panned for being nonintuitive, although changes made to it and other aspects of the console's software post-launch received positive reception. Its Kinect received praise for its improved motion-tracking accuracy, its face recognition logins, and its voice commands.
The original Xbox One model was succeeded by Xbox One S in 2016, which has a smaller form factor and support for HDR10 high-dynamic-range video, as well as support for 4K video playback and upscaling of games from 1080p to 4K. It was praised for its smaller size, its on-screen visual improvements, and its lack of an external power supply, but its regressions such as the lack of a native Kinect port were noted. A high-end model, Xbox One X, was unveiled in June 2017 and released in November; it features upgraded hardware specifications, and support for rendering games at 4K resolution.